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32 terms

Social Stratification

Caste System (ascribed stratification)
A relatively rigid stratification system in which people's positions are ascribed and fixed
Class System (achieved stratification)
A relatively open stratification system in which people's positions are achieved and changeable
Horizontal Mobility
Movement from one job to another within the same status category
Vertical Mobility
Moving up or down the status ladder
Intergenerational Mobility
A change in the social standing from one generation to the next
Intragenerational Mobility
A change in an individuals social standing
Kuznet's Curve
The changing relationship between economic development and social inequality, named after its discoverer, Simon Kuznets
The ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will
Power elite (+who?)
C Wright Mills. A small group of individuals who hold top positions in the federal government, military, and corporations and have similar backgrounds, values, and interests
Social class
A category of people with the same amount of wealth, power, and prestige
Social stratification
The division of society in such a way that some people get more rewards than others
Status inconsistency
The condition in which the same individual is given two conflicting status rankings
Structural mobility
Social mobility related to changes in society
Uncontrolled spiral downward
Life chances
The likelihood of living a good, long, successful life
Types of societies
Egalitarian, master-slave, feudal, caste, class system, mixed
The amount of money used to influence others
A subjective opinion formed by others
Poverty: absolute vs. relative
Lack of minimum food and shelter necessary for maintaining life vs. a state of deprivation resulting from having less than what the majority of people have
Feminization of poverty
A huge number of women bearing the burden of poverty, mostly as single mothers or heads of families
World System
A network of commercial and other relationships among all the members of the world's community
Core countries
The world's upper class, the most industrialized and richest societies popularly known as industrialized or developed countries
Peripheral countries
The world's lower class, relatively poor societies popularly known as developing countries
Semiperipheral countries
The world's middle class, relatively affluent societies in the middle of global stratification also known as newly industrialized countries
Cultural theory
The theory that cultural values of discipline, thrift, education, the family, and group orientation contribute to economic success
Dependency theory
The theory that rich nations exploit poor ones for power and commercial gain, thereby perpetrating poverty, underdevelopment, or dependency on rich nations
Modernization theory
The theory that contact with rich nations can enrich poor ones but lack of contact keeps them poor
The loss of numerous factory jobs as a result of relocating a massive number of manufacturing plants to peripheral countries
The proliferation of unstable, low-skilled, or low-paying jobs
The economic control exercised by rich nations over their former colonies
Downward mobility reasons
Rapid population growth, a huge drop in global commodity prices, and inadequate flow of capital from rich countries
Upward mobility reasons
Open economy for unrestricted trade, foreign investments, and industrial growth. Along with U.S. aid