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The ancient language of Iran and the Russian steppes that has evolved to encamps nearly all non-far east or Africa speakers. This ancient language unites western Asian with Europe, and Europe to itself

Finnish, Hungarian, and Basque

These three languages are the only modern languages to not be derived from the ancient Indo-European language. The latter actually survived every single invasion of Europe, the only one to have done so (the other two came in later invasions after written history had begun)


People living in Athens who were not Athenian citizens, who could work and who paid taxes but were not allowed to own land or take part in government.


a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them. Founded in Athens Greece


a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility. It was employed in some Greek city-states


A political system governed by a few people. It was employed in some Greek city-states

Despotism (similar to Tyranny)

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.). It was employed in some Greek city-states

Classical Virtues

This is the fundamental idea behind all Greek ideals, and would shape much of the western world, especially Christianity. They believed in the golden mean: all things can be good in moderation. Order was critical, exemplified in their architecture


The ancient Greek known as the father of history. His accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing (425-485 BC)


ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC)


Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.

Philip of Macedon

ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 BCE; founder of centralized kingdom; later conquered rest of Greece which was subjected to Macedonian authority; father of Alexander the Great. He conquered Greece mainly to absorb their tremendous culture and wealth for his people

Alexander the Great

son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world. He conquered all the way to the Indus River including parts of modern day Tajikistan. This man united the west through India via Hellenistic culture that he brought with his armies


Published 17 volumes of geography which was by far the most voluminous to date. He is the father of geography


Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)


Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus. He lived 2nd century AD

Han Empire

A powerful Classical Empire in China from 200BC to 200AD. Responsible for many contributions: Civil Service System, Silk Road, Silk-Making. They were the eastern equivalent to the Roman Empire

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. beginning with Augustus to A.D. 180.

Natural Law

A rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society. This was the system by which law was conducted in the Roman empire due to the differing in customs between many people, especially merchants. The Romans mainly drew this from Greek philosophy, but their rulings always favoured the state or the majority. This connected the cultures of the Roman Empire on a fundamental judicial level


This religion grew out of the customs of Judaism, but incorporated the Greek philosophies that were prevalent in the middle east at that time. With these two characteristics, the few Jews that clung to the new religion began to attract many of the poor, women, and downtrodden in the Roman Empire. By 300, it had swept all social classes and all empires

Emperor Nero

Ordered the execution of Saint Paul in 67 AD by beheading outside the walls of Rome for his involvement in Christian ministry

Emperor Constantine

founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edict of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire

Edict of Milan

issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

City of God

Title of a book written by St. Augustine of Hippo, in 5th century A.D., prompted the barbarian sack of Rome. It stated that fortune of Rome does not depend on individual souls, but rather on the grace of God. It was crucial in preventing any more Caesars to rise again in Europe, completely separating the world of religion to heaven, stating that the world that composed of earth was to be secular. No God kings.


The largest city and former capital of Turkey. Rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; Constantine made this city the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The establishment of an eastern capital signaled that the hierarchy of Rome, especially the emperor, had given up on the west and wanted to focus all resources on the richer east as the west fell to the increasing amount of frontier barbarians


Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome. Attila was their famous leader of legend


the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632). His followers would conquer all of the Middle East, Africa, and Spain in less then a century after his death, creating a very united Arab culture never before seen. Muhammad saw himself as the last Jewish prophet, and only believed that Christians had gone astray with their concept of the trinity, but that they were not entirely wrong. According to Muhammad, there was only one God


the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina


a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs. Only a little more then 10% of muslims belong to this branch and they held absolutely no power on the world state before the modern rise of Iran


a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad. These muslims comprise 90% of modern muslims and were the Muslim conquers known to medieval history


This culture had a very strong sense of community and kinship. Almost all men that were of age to bear arms were self-represented in the very small tribes that worked as sovereign beings during the dark ages. The only laws were the inflexible customs of the individual tribe. There was not a "state". Everyone was self sufficient or died

St. Benedict

he founded a monastery in Northern Italy in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and conbents across europe well into the next millennium. During the time when his instructions were used, monasteries were rarely raided. They were so foreign to barbarians that they thought nothing of them, rather they focused on small villages


System in which the temporal ruler extends his own power to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks. The kings of the west were too numerous and the single pope too different from their culture for this to appear in the west as it had in the east, and in the Arab world it was law

Petrine Supremacy

a doctrine based on the belief that the bishops of Rome occupied a preeminent position in the Church, was grounnded in Scripture

Donation of Constantine

This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Emperor Constantine. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated by Lorenzo Valla because the Latin language, which had changed from Rome to the Renaissance, used in the edict did not match the Latin of Constantine's time


This man was the King of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy. Once he converted, there was a great pressure upon all barbarians to convert

Battle of Tours

(October 25, 732) Charles Martel, the Frankish Leader went against an Islamic army led by Emir Abd er Rahmanon the river Loire; the Islamic army was defeated and Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The battle stopped the northward advancement of the Muslims from Spain


King of the Franks (r. 768-814); Emperor of the "west" (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate, he started an intellectual revival. (250). He was crowned by the Pope on Christmas Day of 800 Emperor of The Roman Empire: a figurative but momentous statement of a new union


A city in western Germany near the current Dutch and Belgian borders near the Rhine. Formerly it was Charlemagne's northern capital


Barbarian people who migrated into southern Europe, and in the early 10th century ad occupied Hungary, from where their horsemen raided into France, Italy, Germany, and even Spain. They were the last wave of successful barbarian invasion into Europe (Mongols only conquered Russia and The Ottomans were not barbarians): they were the last of that era that also included the Norse invaders

St. Stephen

This man was crowned King of Hungary in 1001, instigating a wave of conversions. Exactly like the barbarians that sacked Rome, the invaders of the 10th century would become a start of what would be a unique Europe by converting to Christendom

Great Schism of East and West

In 1054, this finally occurred after over 300 years of truly ideological differences in the Catholic Church. By means of this, the Russians and the Slavs would evolve much more like the Greeks and Turks then the rest of Europe

Three Field System

A system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted. This, along with the Horse Collar and the heavy plow, revolutionized agriculture during the 11th century in Europe and effectively killed any slavery that had remained from capturing invading barbarians


A political system in which nobles (Lords) are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land. The serfs then work the Lords' lands in an agreement that was very similar to the one between the Lords and the King. It developed in the late 8th century, died out in Western Europe during the 14th and 15th centuries, but remained in a few East European regions well into the 18th century

Hugh Capet

King of France elected in 987, founding the Capetian dynasty. He was elected to be king by the great Lords of France. Eventually this position, which held no power of the Lords, began to gain in influence. In France this took over 200 years. The Germans did the same in 911, but their king in 961 was crowned Emperor, founding the HRE

William the Conquerer

Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy in a very French manner. Of the major powers of Europe, England was the only one not to have elected their king, but rather they were conquered by this frenchman. Because of this, this man and his descendants enjoyed great power compared to their continental rivals which is seen today: England still has a monarchy


a medieval country in northern Europe that included regions now parts of northern France and Belgium and southwestern Netherlands. It emerged as northern Europe's Venice with its wealthy woolen manufacturers during the high middle ages

Law of Merchant

This was a concept developed by merchants in the late middle ages in order to free themselves from the law of Kings, who usually viewed them as money pits. With an independent idea of law, merchants would soon define their own regions and city-states.


Economic alliance of trading cities and their guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe in the later Middle Ages. It stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (13th-17th centuries). Copies of this system were not done in other parts of Europe because only in the Baltic and Germanic regions were states small enough to encourage such unions. France, England, Holland, and the like thought that they would replace the emerging nations, and Italy fought with itself and France too much to unite as such

Corporate Liberties

liberties won by towns; rights owned by whole towns, not by individuals. Such rights included that no townsfolk would be serfs. Serfs that had been fugitives for a year were usually freed. However, liberties of free trade, especially for essential locally produced items like food, were almost never granted. No liberties were given that could harm commerce


In medieval Europe, an association of men (rarely women), such as merchants, artisans, or professors, who worked in a particular trade and banded together to promote their economic and political interests, like setting prices. It usually promoted masters to take in apprentices that would become journeymen. By the end of their lives, journeymen would finally become masters. This system eventually was corrupted because masters refused to increase the number of masters with the population growth, so the industry slowly evolved outside of this originally universal society

Magna Carta

This document (truly not that uncommon for its day), signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained concept by which the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial were forced which are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights.


a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain) Comes from the Latin "Talking" becomes it was formed when the vassals of the King literally came to talk with him. In that era of the King's power, parliament had the final ruling. It rose in the late 12th century.

Estates General, Cortes, and Diet

The "parliaments" of France, Spain, and Germany (in order) that were founded during the 13th century. Only in France (and Scandinavia) did the peasants have representation. Originally in England, only the great Lords were represented (by themselves)

Three Estates

The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land. These three made up the Estates General of France

House of Lords

Members of this house of the British Parliament have inherited titles or been given them by the Queen. It includes all people of nobility, great and small

House of Commons

Members of this house of the British Parliament are made up of "knights and burgesses" (the gentry) and had no equivalent on the continent. Since it was made up of nearly all of the townsfolk, it had more power then just the middle class alone, giving Britain its characteristic mixing of classes not found anywhere on the continent. This, as well as the power of the representatives to commit their districts to the laws of parliament, avoided many revolutions in England that surged the continent later in modern history

Holy Roman Empire

In 962 this Empire was proclaimed in Germany, eventually taking hold of parts of Italy. The Emperor was an elected position intended to spread Latin Christendom, but the empire was never recognized by the other major countries of Europe as religiously mightier, and the Emperor tried to control the Pope as the ever more corrupted Church as he grew in power


City in east-central France which gave birth to monastic reform in 910. The first abbey began with twelve monks committed to renewing the rule of St. Benedict.

Pope Nicholas II

In 1059 this Pope declared popes would only be chosen by cardinals. This practice is still in use, although Cardinals have been swayed by outside influence many times since then

Pope Gregory VII

This Pope fought lay investiture by issuing a decree forbidding high-ranking clerics from receiving their investiture from laymen. His philosophical goal was to separate the church and the rest of the world. Therefore, all marriages, or any sexual affairs, by clergy must end


The location of the castle in the high mountains of northern Italy where Emperor Henry IV of the HRE stood barefoot and dressed as a pilgrim for three days in the bitter cold waiting for Pope Gregory VII to revoke his excommunication

Pope Innocent III

This man was the Pope from 1198 to 1216 and led the papacy to its height of its power. He was a skilled diplomat and a great political leader. He believed that emperors and kings were servant of the church. He dominated almost all of Europe

Cur Deus Homo?

Written by Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, this Latin work gave a reasoned explanation to show why God had taken human from to save sinful human beings; Jesus

Sic et Non

Assembled by Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, this Latin work was a collections of statements made by the founders of the Roman Catholic Church, especially St. Augustine, that showed where the truth of Christian doctrine lay so that people could have reason behind the practices of the Church


This man became The Philosopher: the one to whom all was to be referred to outside of religion once his writings were rediscovered by European from the Arabs


Arabian philosopher born in Spain. wrote detailed commentaries on Aristotle that were admired by European schoolmen (1126-1198)

Summa Theologica

Written by Thomas Aquinas, it is one of the most notable scholastic works of the medieval period. In this work Aquinas' work founded Christian belief on Aristotelian principles.


A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.

Pope Urban II

Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades


The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492. It included conquering Portugal, Leon, Castile, Aragon, and Valencia by 1250, leaving much more powerful and better fortified Granada for 1492

The Teutonic Order

In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianise the Baltic Old Prussians. The Order then created the independent Monastic State in the conquered territory, and subsequently conquered Livonia. The Kings of Poland accused the Order of holding lands rightfully theirs.
The Order lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianisation of Lithuania. The Order became involved in campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order). The Order had a strong economic base, hired mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, and became a naval power in the Baltic Sea. In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg). The Crusade by this Order, once completed, would control all of the Baltic, including what would become the very powerful state of Prussia

Albigensian Crusade

a crusade begun by Innocent III against the Cathar heresy in southern France that began around 1250

The Black Death

by 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages and inflation were produced. Since the plague was erratic, nothing could be planned or expected with a great deal of accuracy. Trade and agriculture suffered tremendously


Massive insurrections of peasants. France, the first and largest occurring in 1358 but many occurred through the 14th century. Rebellion of workers against price and wage controls imposed by govt. in wake of Black Death and labor shortages. "Jacque" was the somewhat derogatory term used to describe the French peasant.

Wat Tyler's Rebellion

England faced this large scale uprising in 1381. Spokesman for theses movements asked "Why some should be rich and others poor." Government and the upper classes replied to this menace with ferocious repression. The peasants returned to their usual labors.

Hundred Years' War

the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king. She was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake (1412-1431)

Richard II

King of England from 1377 to 1399. He suppressed the Peasant's Revolt in 1381 but his reign was marked by popular discontent and baronial opposition in Parliament and he was forced to abdicate in 1399 (1367-1400) indicating the power of Parliament at the end of the 14th century, but also the divisions in England

Wars of the Roses

Struggle for the English throne (1450-1485) between the house of York (white rose) and the house of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII

Pope Boniface VIII

this Pope prohibited the taxation of clergy by the civil leaders, especially Philip of France and Edward I of England. In 1302, he issued the famous bull, Unam Sanctam. The French king Philip the Fair of France retorted by sending soldiers to arrest him, and he soon died. Since he was in hostile hands when he died, the Cardinals were convinced enough to elect a French puppet as a Pope, who quickly moved the Papacy to Avignon

Babylonian Captivity

The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism and two Popes both claiming to hold the keys of Peter. In this divide, the Papacy lost its overwhelming power-never to really regain it


The Church's policy where all the income a bishop received in his first year went directly to Rome.

Order of Flagellants

~ its members went through the streets, two by two, beating each other up with chains and whips. It was at this time that the great witch craft delusion, which was to reach its height in which the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, first became important. Its rise led to the rise in anti-semitism across northern Europe during the 15th century. This order and bothers like it cleared exhibited the faith lost in the Catholic church to provide passage to Heaven

Piers Plowman

This book was written in the 1360's by William Langland who searched for the right way to salvation. It was controversial as it explored rebellion, revolution, as well as social and religious issues


Followers of John Wycliffe, they were suppressed in England under Henry V. They followed an idea that the extravagances of the church were not necessary for salvation. In fact, Wycliffe thought that salvation may just be found through the Bible, which he translated into English. Wycliffe was deemed an heretic


These were the followers of John Hus, critized the pope and the Catholic Church. He was invited to the Council of Constance where he was burned at the stake, which Martin Luther later condemned as proof of the corrupt of the Church. This group was very much a religious cause against the church much like the followers of John Wycliffe, but Hus focused more on social issues like the suppression of the Serbs and Czechs by the Germans in the HRE and Austria

Council of Pisa

In 1408, a council with bishops representing both popes met and elected a new Pope hoping to end the Schism, deposing both of the popes they represented. Neither former pope, however, would accept this new rival. Thus, the problem was not solved and now three Popes claimed legitimacy

Council of Constance

the council in 1414-1418 that succeeded in ending the Great Schism in the Roman Catholic Church. The Church moved back to Roman and an Italian, Martin V, was declared the only true pope. The other three finally resigned. The power of this Council gave many the hope that the Papacy's power would not lie solely with the Pope. Even so, the Pope was able to retain all of his power in the coming years


The selling of Church offices


Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money, especially for the new Basilica of St. Peter's in Rome. The practice was widely opposed by those who found corruption in the Church and helped lead to the Reformation.


aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century. They gained power after Goivanni gained power as a Merchant and banker in Florence. His son Cosimo de' eventually took the unofficial rule of the city.


an Italian poet from Florence famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)


"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura". He was an exile from Florence (July 20, 1304 - July 19, 1374)


(1313-1375) Poet who wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.

Leonardo Bruni

1. First to use the term "humanism"
2. Among the most important of the civic humanists
3. Served as a chancellor in Florence
4. Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern history, and wrote a narrative using primary source
5. He pioneered the concept that authentic sources were necessary in research
He also documents and the division of historical periods. He wrote "New Cicero" which has the idea that humanists believe that their studies of humanism should be put to the service of the state. (c. 1370 - March 9, 1444)


The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance. Root of the word comes from a latin word meaning man

Benvenuto Cellini

A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise (3 November 1500 - 13 February 1571)

Vanishing Point

the appearance of a point on the horizon at which parallel lines converge

Christine de Pisan

An educated, privelaged, humanistic woman who wrote poetry and "The Treasure of the City of Ladies."

Coluccio Salutati

Leader of a group of humanists who began to collect ancient manuscripts and form libraries, so as to make accessible virtually all the surviving writings of Classical Latin Authors. Invited many Byzantine Scholars to Florence, and these scholars brought hundreds of manuscripts. He began being the Chancellor of Florence in 1375

Lorenzo Valla

(1406-1457) This man was the author of On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism through the study of language (mainly Latin) and ancient texts

Pico della Mirandola

Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish. In 1486, at the age of 23, he claimed that he could sum all of human knowledge in 900 thesis

Book of the Courtier

This was a book written by Castiglione in 1528. In it, he epitomized the main ideas of Italian humanism. It said a successful man was one who could integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history w/ athletic, musical, and military skillz, all while being polite and exhibiting a high moral character. It created an idea that only "civilized" people have any merit or value in the world. Manners were vital. This book also laid out firmly the idea that men were meant to be strong and firm while women were supposed to be weak and delicate. While something to this degree was already observed in Renaissance Europe, this book made it much more concrete.

The Prince

Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved". This was the first triste on politics not based in part on theology. It was very much more secular than the works of Thomas Aquinas or Marsigilio


In this year the French began crossing the Alps to increase their control on Italy, taking Milan and the Northern portions of Italy quite easily. With this action, Italy became a battleground for French and Spanish/Austrian (Habsburg) dominance in Europe


In this year Spanish and Germans mercenaries sacked Rome, ending the Italian Renaissance and all political independence for the regions of Italy. All of Italy was under some kind of foreign control. The lack of a strong single government doomed the Italy's rise that had been so promising during the 15th century

Leo X

the pope who excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith (1475-1521)


German painter of religious works (1465-1524). He was commissioned by Henry VIII to provide portraits of the English king's prospective brides (1497-1543)

Julius II

r(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter's Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel. "Warrior Pope"


Italian religious and political reformer. a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope (1452-1498)

Cesare Borgia

Italian cardinal and military leader. He was the Florentine model of Machiavelli's "Prince"

Alexander VI

Corrupted Pope and father of Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia (1431-1503)


(Roman Catholic Church) the policy that the absolute authority of the church should be vested in the pope


the doctrine of the High Anglican Church that after the consecration of the Eucharist the substance of the body and blood of Christ coexists with the substance of the consecrated bread and wine


the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist


a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island

Concordat of Bologna

1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council, but the King of France obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This is the main reason that France had no united interest for the reformation- they already ruled the church

The Praise of Folly

an essay written in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus; considered one of the most influential works of literature in Western civilization and one of the catalysts of the Protestant Reformation. Erasmus' most famous book; ridiculed ignorance, superstition, and vice among christians. It also exposed much of the corruption in the Roman Catholic Church


German house, a family banking institution, that paid correspondents in distant locations to report news back along commercial routes and even across the battle when necessary. They essentially owned many of the smaller nations-states in Germany


Military brokers that provided mercenary armies to Italian despots. The Solders that came from these brokers were referred to by this name as well


literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior


the act of lending money at illegal rates of interest; forbidden in christianity, until the church began to practice it, so people went to jews and the jews became the major bankers in Europe

Moveable Type

This was used for printing, and meant that individual letters and words could be moved around to create a page of type. It helped the spread of humanism over the Alps as it meant that printing was much easier, cheaper, and more efficient. It also led to the famous printing of vernacular Bibles in 1450 by Gutenberg.


Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)


an alchemist of German legend who sold his soul to Mephistopheles (aka Satin) in exchange for knowledge

Imitation of Christ

Book written by Thomas a Kempis; encouraged Christians to remember Christ's suffering and practice private devotion

Sisters and Brothers of the Common Life

Founded by Gerard Groote; lived communally, but not as monks and nuns. Active in relieving poor and teaching. Established schools; taught basics and Christian ideals of character. They took no vows


(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, and On Civility in Children. although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther (1466-1536)

Roman Law

To increase their influence, the Kings on the continent began implementing this kind of philosophy in law which would weak and eventually destroy the concept of "common law". The king would be the only determiner of the laws of the country for the good of King

Star Chamber

Reign of Henry VII 1485-1509 used this royal council as a new court to deal with property disputes and infractions of the public peace. Operated without a jury. Popular at first - restored law and order - later denounced as an instrument of despotism.

The Valois

Ruled France for 250 years and played a crucial role in establishment as Major Europeon Power

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

Charles VII asserted French control over papacy and appointment of French bishops, depriving Pope of French money. Affirmed special rights of French church, consolidated French authority.

Aragon and Castile

Spanish Kingdoms combined. Ferdinand (A) and Isabella (C) in 1469 joined the two kingdoms together and then easily were able together to eliminate the remaining muslims at Granada. Even though the kingdoms joined, the administrations weren't. Ferdinand clearly owned northern Spain, The Kingdom of Naples, and the western Mediterranean islands (except Corsica), while Isabella ruled southern and most of costal spain including the spanish colonies that would form in the early 16th century. The unity of the Kingdom was through the Catholic Church


Muslims in Spain who had converted to Christianity - 1501. Their conversion was often questioned. They were persecuted and often came before the Inquisition. Finally, Moriscos were expelled from Spain in 1609, wounding the economy of Spain.


Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity rather than be expelled(1492). Their conversion was often questioned and they were tested-forced to eat pork, etc. They were often persecuted by Inquisition after the Jews who would not convert were expelled with the Muslims in 1492


A rambunctious Dominican, hawked indulgences in Germany for the building of St. Peter's with the slogan "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." Luther was appalled, and at this site he began his crusade against anything int he Catholic church that could not be found in the bible

Ninety-Five Thesis

Written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism. His main concept behind this work was the idea that priests provide no necessary function in the relationship between man and God. Because of this idea, Luther reduced the seven sacraments to two: baptism and mass

Frederick the Wise (III) of Saxony

This man supported Martin Luther; in his "search for salvation" he had amassed over 19000 relics which would have gotten him out of 2 million years of purgatory including vials of the milk of the Virgin Mary, straw from the manger [of Jesus], and the body of one of the innocents massacred by King Herod. He staged the fake kidnapping of Luther so that he would be safe in one of the castles owned by this man, in which he wrote the first bible in German

Peasant Revolt of 1524

Bands of angry peasants that went about the country side raiding monasteries, pillaging, and burning feeling that they could defy all injustices and still go to heaven with Luther's teachings. Princes' armies with Luther's support crushed these revolts in Germany and over 100,000 were killed. Because of this, Luther seriously began to questions his efforts if they produced so much death. This was the greatest German peasant rebellion ever

Diet of Worms

Assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.

John of Leyden

led a radical group of Anabaptists to take control of the northwestern German city of Munster to create the reign of "saints". After ruling as a tyrant for a year, Muster fell to its former rulers and this man was killed during torture. He had 16 wives.


A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion so baptism did not happen when one was a infant; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.

Albert of Brandenburg

Head of Teutonic order in 1523, declared for Luther and made East Prussia secular duchy in which his heirs would rule for many year to come

League of Schmalkald

A group of Lutheran princes and free cities joined the league against the HRE, The king of France allied with the league because he did not want Germany to be unified. This was half of France's alliances against the Hapsburg, the other being an alliance with the Ottomans

Peace of Augsburg

1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler and all in that state must align with the decision of the ruling Prince. It ended the war between the German Hapsburg states and France which had allied with the League of Schmalkald


This Protestant religion failed to take root anywhere outside of the Baltic because no other region had any desire to defect from the Catholic Church and then join a religion that held its power in the Baltic between the Kingdom of Sweden, Denmark, and much of the northern reaches of the HRE


This religion was founded by John Calvin 1509-65: French, but settled in Geneva, which became the center of his religion. He established a seminary and wrote his "Institutes", a catechism, and was easily circulated because of the Kepler's printing press. Emphasized double predestination. Justifies rebelling against rulers who aren't Calvinists because they don't hold true authority because God never gave in to them or they'd be in the true religion and predestined for heaven. Since it did not have a national flavour like the Baltic Lutherans, it proved to be the only Protestant religion to be international. It attracted many commoners from all over Europe as well as the nobles of Poland and Hungary who grew tired of the catholic royalty in their territories. This is the father of modern Presbyterianism in America

John Knox

Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland based off of the works of Calvin and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)

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