Primary health centers (PHCs) were formally developed after the establishment of the National Institute of Health and Family Planning and the Rural Health Scheme. PHCs provided diarrheal disease control through chlorination of wells; safe delivery and maternal health services; traditional birth attendants in hygienic delivery, health education, and under-five children's health services. The Alma-Ata declaration explicitly identified the need for urgent action by all governments, all health and development workers, and the world community to protect and promote the health of all people. It spurred enhanced development of PHCs, catalyzing their expansion into rural and remote/tribal hilly areas. Since these centers are the primary providers of healthcare to rural populations, PHCs are equipped with medical officers, basic laboratory facilities, an obstetric facility, and medical and field supervisory staff. Health workers' duties are differentiated by gender. Male health workers are responsible for door-to-door surveillance, presumptive treatment, possibly compliance monitoring of malaria, filariasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy, regular chlorination of wells, and demonstration of sanitary pit latrines and environmental sanitation. Female health workers are responsible for regular visits of all households in the area to provide prenatal and postnatal care, motivate couples for temporary and permanent family planning methods, organize child vaccination clinics, conduct surveillance for diarrheal disease and respiratory infection among children, and conduct home treatment of common ailments, including intestinal parasites. closed-panel providers, and care for older persons.,Traditional medicine practice: self-driven health behaviors and low-cost indigenous sciences (yoga, meditation, Ayurveda, etc.) are embedded in culture. Closed-panel providers: Quality, publicly accessible health infrastructure; covers central government employees, armed forces, Indian Railways employees, small industries with more than 25 workers, hazardous small industries laborers (such as privately owned mines and large industries, both public and private) and eligible dependents (all individuals residing in an extended family household). Indian Railways, small industries, and hazardous small industries have in-house networks. Elderly: Few institutional facilities specifically established for the care of the elderly due to cultural norms (children will take care of their parents until their death); The "National Program for the Health Care of Elderly" is meant to address the health problems of the elderly, providing a spectrum of services that includes home visits by female auxiliary nurses or male health workers to bedridden elderly people and geriatric clinics at primary health centers, community health centers, and geriatric clinic and geriatric wards at district and state level hospitals. Direct problems of poverty: unemployment, low income, limited education, inadequate diet, malnutrition, lack of breast feeding, etc. Environmental problems: leading to infectious diseases, accidents, etc. Psychosocial problems: stress alienation, instability and insecurity leading to depression, smoking, drug addiction, alcoholism, abandoned children, etc.