Neuro Exam 4: Language and Lateralization 7

left and right hemispheres of the brain are nearly _____ _____ of one another

-do not function independently
-hemispheres are NOT identical
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Terms in this set (108)
which hemisphere has the following for dominance: -words/letters -language sounds -complex movements/ipsilateral movement -verbal memory; finding meaning in memories -speech, writing, reading, arithmeticleft hemispherewhich hemisphere has the following for dominance: -faces, geometric patterns, emotional expression -non-language sounds, music -tactile patterns such as braille -movement in spatial patterns -nonverbal memory, perceptual aspects of memories -emotional context -mental rotation of shapes, geometry, direction, distanceright hemispherewhich hemisphere: -*verbal* abilities -analysis of *sequences*left hemispherewhich hemisphere: -*spatial* cognition, puzzles, drawing -faces, geometric shapes and relations, direction and navigation, #d rotation of imaginary objects -organized narrative -understanding prosodyright hemispherewhat is *emotional tone of voice*?prosodyin the *left brain/ right brain* _____ there is *NO* evidence links 1 brain hemisphere to *personality traits*/ strengths -(such as being creative or analyticalfallacythe following steps are *techniques* for what? -injections of anesthetic sodium amytal into the carotid artery, via a catheter -temporarily shuts down the cerebral hemisphere on the same side, there by revealing the functions performed by that hemispheretechniques for determining lateralization in the braintechniques for determining lateralization in the brain -injections of _____ _____ _____ into the *carotid artery*, via a catheter -temporarily shuts down the _____ _____ on the *same side*, there by revealing the *functions* performed by that hemisphere-anesthetic sodium amytal -cerebral hemispherethe *Wada test*shows hemispheric dominance and was first used on people who had _____ as a type of surgeryepilepsythe *Wada Test* uses an injection of fast acting sedative sodium amytal into the _____ _____ unilaterallycarotid arterythe *Wada Test* uses _____ anesthesia (stimulates a stroke)ipsilateralthe *Wada Test* uses *ipsilateral* anesthesia to stimulate a stroke in order to *assess* the _____ hemisphere -helps determine "language dominant" hemispherecontralateralin the *Wada Test*, injections into dominant speech hemisphere makes the patent go temporarily _____ -this usually occurs in the _____ hemisphere-mute -left*rarely, language* is *lateralized* to the _____ hemisphere; these individuals are usually _____ _____-right -left handedinjections into non-dominant speech hemisphere shows _____ changes in speechnegligiblethe _____ hemisphere is specialized for *spoken language*left_____ _____ is a test that presents *sounds* to each ear *simultaneously* ask participant to identify BOTH soundsdichotic présentationright ear advantage is when right handed people identify verbal stimuli delivered to the _____ ear *better* than to the _____ ear-right -left______% of *left handed* participants in a *dichotic presentation* test show *reversed* pattern or no difference between ears50%the left hemisphere is _____ for spoken languagespecializedverbal information presented to the _____ ear is processed by the *left auditory cortex* and then passed directly to *speech systems* within the _____ hemisphere-right ear -left hemisphereverbal information presented to the _____ ear is first processed by the *right auditory cortex*, but then is transmitted to speech systems in the _____ hemisphere-left ear -left hemispherethe _____ _____ is when briefly (less than 150ms) presents *visual stimuliI* to the left or right half of the *visual field* -"Ta-KISS-toe-scope"Tachistoscope test_____ _____ (words/letters) presented to *RIGHT* visual field (*left hemisphere*) *recognized more accurately* than when presented to the LEFT visual field (right hemisphere)verbal stimuli_____ _____ _____ (faces/shapes) presented to the *LEFT* visual field (right hemisphere) *recognized more accurately* than presented to the RIGHT visual field (left hemisphere)non-verbal stimuli_____ _____ is the *superior surface* of the *temporal lobe* and is larger in the *left* hemisphere in most brains %90planum temporalethe *planum temporale* is the superior surface of the temporal lobe and is larger in the _____ hemisphere in most brains %90leftthe *planum temporale* includes parts of _____ _____ which is crucial for *speech* -asymmetry evident even before substantial experience with speechWernicke's area_____ activates the *right hemisphere* more than the leftmusic*music perception* is impaired by damage to the _____ hemisphererightonly damage to ____ hemispheres can abolish *music perception*both_____ ______ is associated with the *left hemisphere*perfect pitchmeasurements of the *left planum temporale* are *largest* in *musicians* with _____ _____ and smallest in nonmusiciansperfect pitch*perfect pitch* is in which hemisphere?lefteven with the left hemisphere "asleep" participants _____ themselves in the compositerecognizebut when the _____ hemisphere is *anesthetized*, participants usually see the celebrity face in the composite -participants do NOT recognize themselvesright*right hemisphere* is essential for _____ _____face discriminationin _____ or *face blindness*, people fail to recognize familiar faces, including their ownprosopagnosia*bilateral damage8 to the _____ _____ (posterior temporal lobe) causes *complete prosopagnosia*fusiform gyrusshutting down the _____ hemisphere in the Wada Test can cause *difficulty* in *recognizing faces*, especially recognizing ones own faceright*split brain* is when the _____ _____ is severed to separate left and right brain hemispherescorpus callosumsplit brain is a treatment for _____ or seizuresepilepsythe split brain procedure causes no major _____ or cognitive deficitsbehavioralsplit brain patients can perform *two different tasks* _____simultaneouslyindividuals testing left or right side of visual or auditory fields show large differences in _____perceptionsplit brain patients can *verbally describe* a stimulus presented to the _____ visual field (which projects to the *left hemisphere* of the brainrightsplit brain patients *cannot describe* a stimulus presented to the _____ visual field -projects to the non verbal hemisphere so therefore there is no way to verbally communicatelefta patient can _____ what was on the *right side of the screen*, but can _____ the word on the *left side of the screen* only by touch with the left hand-say -identify_____ is the sound output meant to *convey meaning* -produces sound wavesspeech_____ is the ability to *translate* our ideas into signals for another personlanguage_____ is the ability to convert meaning (*transmission of information*) to otherscommunication_____ are basic speech soundsphonemes_____ are simple units of meaningmorphemes_____ are meanings of words or sentencessemantics_____ are grammatical rules for constructing phrases and sentencessyntax_____ are context in which a speech sound is utteredpragmatics_____ are entirely novel words (non-words)neologism_____ is impaired ability to understand or produce language -typically caused by brain injury (stroke)aphasia25-50% of *stroke* patients experience _____aphasia90% of aphasia cases are due to damage to the _____ *cerebral hemisphere*left_____ is the *substitution* of word/s by a sound, incorrect word, unintended word, or neologismparaphasialanguage requires complex networks of brain regions to: -_____ spoken and written language -_____ spoken and written language-understand -produce*written* language uses the primary _____ cortexvisual_____ _____ *transforms visual* information into *auditory*angular gyrus_____ _____ has axon fibers that *connect Werrnicke's and Broca's* areasarcuate fasciculus*spoken* language uses the primary _____ cortexmotorinformation about the *sound* is analyzed by the primary _____ cortex and *transmitted* to *Wernicke's area*auditory_____ _____ analyzes the sound information to *determine* the *word* that was saidWernicke's areaunder the connectionist model spoken word information is transmitted via the _____ _____arcuate faciculus_____ _____ forms a *motor plan* to repeat the word and sends that information to the *motor cortex*Broca's areathe _____ _____ implements the plan, manipulating the *larynx* and related structures to say the wordmotor cortexthe *visual* cortex analyzes the *image* and transmits the information about the image to the _____ _____angular gyrusthe *angular gyrus* decodes the image information to recognize the word and associate this visual form with the spoken form in _____ _____Wernicke's areainformation about the visual image word information is transmitted via the _____ _____ to the *Broca's area*arcuate fasciculus_____ _____ formulates a *motor plan* to say the appropriate word and transmits that plan to the motor cortex for implementationBroca's areathe motor cortex implements the plan, manipulating the _____ and relates structures to say the wordlarynxlesions of the _____ _____ *disrupt the transfer from Wernicke's area to Broca's area*, so the patient has difficulty repeating spoken words (conduction aphasia)arcuate fasciculusa patient with _____ _____ has difficulty *repeating spoken words*conduction aphasiaa lesion of the _____ _____ disrupts the flow of information from visual cortex, so the person has *difficulty saying words he has seen* but not the words he has heardangular gyrusthe _____ _____ consists of *Wernicke's area and Broca's area*dorsal streamthe ______ _____ consists of the *auditory* cortexventral streamWernicke's --> premotor cortex -_____ _____, word repetitionspeech productionWernicke's--> Broca's -_____grammarauditory cortex--> Broca's -_____ sounds and extracting meaning -where did that sound come from -what was the soundprocessing_____ _____ is located in *ventral/posterior frontal lobe* of the *dominant hemisphere* -typically LEFT hemisphere -deals with speech production -speech motor plan generation -contains memories of the sequences of *muscular movements needed to articulate words*Broca's area_____ _____ is caused by lesions to the Broca's area -causes *expressive aphasia* because patients have difficulty expressing language -*written is equally impaired* -language comprehension is generally intact -normally have reflexive words like yes/no, numbers, cursingBroca's aphasiaBroca's aphasia is also called _____ aphasia -patients have a hard time with languageexpressivein Broca's aphasia _____ language is equally impairedwrittenin Broca's aphasia language _____ is generally intactcomprehensionthe _____ mediates *motor* aspects of speech production, specifically *articulatory control* -shares reciprocal functional and structural connections with linguistic, motor, limbic and sensory brain areasinsula_____ _____ is located on the *left superior temporal gyrus* -junction of the parietal and temporal lobes -*speech comprehension*Wernicke's area_____ _____ _____ results from damage to Wernicke's area -patient have difficulty *comprehending language* -*fluent speech sounds* but nonsensical and jumbled words -contains paraphasiafluent Wernicke's aphasia_____ are replacement words that no do fit into a normal sentenceparaphasias_____ _____ is a *bundle* of *axons connecting Broca's area and Wernicke's area*arcuate fasciculus_____ _____ is when there is damage to *arcuate fasciculus* usually paired with damage to *supra marginal gyrus* in the parietal cortex -Broca's and Wernicke's areas are spared symptoms: -difficultly repeating words -paraphasic errors -errors during spontaneous speechconduction aphasia*supra marginal gyrus* is implicated in ability to _____ words with meaninglinkthe _____ _____ is found in the *inferior parietal lobe* -involved in language and number processing, memory, and reasoning -highly important for being able to make sense of the meaning and content of written wordsangular gyruslesions affecting the _____ _____ disconnect the systems involved in *visual* and *auditory* language -patients can speak and understand but have *difficulty reading aloud* -*dyslexia* (word blindness)angular gyrus