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Review - Quarter 2 Unit Tests 089

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LR089 #1. In Pavlov's original experiment on classical conditioning, the unconditioned response (UCR) was A) salivation elicited by meat powder B) the presentation of meat powder following a tone C) salivation elicited by the sound of food D) the sound of a tone E) salivation elicited by a tone
ANS: A) salivation elicited by meat powder REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #004 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #2. Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to: A) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. B) practice and preach the virtues of cleanliness. C) practice cleanliness but not preach its virtues. D) neither practice nor preach the virtues of cleanliness. E) be the exact opposite with their own children.
ANS: A) preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 344 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #128 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #3. Carson used to really enjoy lime sherbet, and when he was in Mexico he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is A) the lime margaritas that Carson consumed B) the taste aversion that Carson develops when seeing anything lime C) the illness that followed the fourth margarita D) the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet E) the sight of lime sherbet
ANS: D) the queasiness that Carson feels when he sees lime sherbet REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #009 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #4. Because Mandisa would always pick up her newborn daughter when she began to cry, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a(n) ________ for crying. A) positive reinforcer B) conditioned stimulus C) unconditioned stimulus D) delayed reinforcement E) negative reinforcer
ANS: A) positive reinforcer REF: Myers8e(2) p. 329 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #056 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #5. The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves: A) secondary reinforcement. B) partial reinforcement. C) latent learning. D) delayed reinforcers. E) extrinsic motivation.
ANS: E) extrinsic motivation. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 335 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #098 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #6. Nolan has learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because drinking coffee makes the pain of the headache go away. This is an example of A) classical conditioning B) negative reinforcement C) positive reinforcement D) escape learning E) avoidance learning
ANS: D) escape learning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #144 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #7. A pigeon learns to peck at a disk lighted green to receive reinforcement, but not at a disk lighted red. This means that, for the pigeon, the color of the disk is A) a discriminative stimulus B) not a stimulus for reinforcement C) a punisher or a nonpunisher D) a reinforcer or a nonreinforcer E) a generalization stimulus
ANS: A) a discriminative stimulus REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #096 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #8. In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as: A) classical conditioning. B) latent learning. C) shaping. D) generalization. E) delayed reinforcement.
ANS: C) shaping. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 328 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #053 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #9. Marcy grows roses for the sheer joy of it; Jennifer grows them to sell at a profit. Marcy's behavior reflects ________, whereas Jennifer's behavior reflects ________. A) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation B) spontaneous recovery; acquisition C) secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement D) operant conditioning; classical conditioning E) a variable-ratio schedule; a fixed-ratio schedule
ANS: A) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation REF: Myers8e(2) p. 335 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #092 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #10. The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________. A) punishment; reinforcement B) primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer C) negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer D) generalization; discrimination E) acquisition; extinction
ANS: A) punishment; reinforcement REF: Myers8e(2) p. 329, 332 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #080 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #11. If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates: A) delayed reinforcement. B) latent learning. C) spontaneous recovery. D) modeling. E) shaping.
ANS: B) latent learning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 334 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #095 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #12. Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer? A) termination of shock after removing one's finger from a live electric wire B) applause for an excellent piano recital C) a spanking for eating cookies before dinner D) a paycheck for working one week E) a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day
ANS: B) applause for an excellent piano recital REF: Myers8e(1) p. 330 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #067 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #13. When Kristen asks her grandmother for a cookie, her grandmother usually gives her one. Last week at the park, Kristen's mother was embarrassed when Kristen walked up to five different elderly ladies and asked them for cookies. Kristen's behavior illustrates the concept of A) observational learning B) stimulus discrimination C) unconditioned reinforcement D) stimulus generalization E) conditioned discrimination
ANS: D) stimulus generalization REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #101 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #14. Pavlov is to ________ as Skinner is to ________. A) latent learning; classical conditioning B) latent learning; observational learning C) observational learning; operant conditioning D) respondent behavior; operant behavior E) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
ANS: D) respondent behavior; operant behavior REF: Myers8e(2) p. 316, 326 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #048 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #15. Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears: A) are acquired through observational learning. B) may be produced through classical conditioning. C) can be used as negative reinforcers. D) can be removed through punishment. E) can interfere with the process of learning.
ANS: B) may be produced through classical conditioning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 324 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #043 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #16. Little Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was paired with a loud noise. In this case, the loud noise was the: A) delayed reinforcer. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned reinforcer. D) conditioned stimulus. E) intermittent reinforcer.
ANS: B) unconditioned stimulus. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 324 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #041 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #17. In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________. A) US; CR B) UR; CR C) CS; US D) CR; UR E) US; CS
ANS: C) CS; US REF: Myers8e(1) p. 318 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #020 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #18. When Diana was three years old, she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of A) stimulus discrimination B) instinctive drift C) stimulus generalization D) stimulus indifference E) negative avoidance
ANS: C) stimulus generalization REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #053 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #19. For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented: A) shortly before the CR. B) at the same time as the US. C) shortly after the US. D) shortly after the CR. E) shortly before the US.
ANS: E) shortly before the US. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 318 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #017 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #20. The law of effect refers to the tendency to: A) observe only behaviors that are punished. B) learn associations between consecutive stimuli. C) lose intrinsic interest in an over-rewarded activity. D) learn in the absence of reinforcement. E) repeat behaviors that are rewarded.
ANS: E) repeat behaviors that are rewarded. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 327 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #050 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #21. Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. A) CR; UR B) CS; UR C) UR; CR D) US; UR E) CS; US
ANS: E) CS; US REF: Myers8e(1) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #022 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #22. A patient who had long feared going into elevators was told by his therapist to force himself to go into 20 elevators a day. The therapist most likely wanted to encourage the ________ of the patient's fear. A) shaping B) extinction C) negative reinforcement D) generalization E) latent learning
ANS: B) extinction REF: Myers8e(2) p. 319, 324 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #043 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #23. John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n): A) behaviorist. B) operant conditioner. C) physiological psychologist. D) psychoanalyst. E) cognitive psychologist.
ANS: A) behaviorist. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 316 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #006 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #24. Marvin creates a television ad that alternates between images of garbage dumps and people drinking in a bar. He is hoping that people who watch the ad will develop negative feelings toward drinking after seeing these ads. In Marvin's ad the conditioned stimulus would be A) the images of people drinking in a bar B) the images of garbage dumps C) people's feelings of disgust when viewing garbage D) the feelings people have toward drinking before they see the ad E) the feelings people have toward drinking after they see the ad
ANS: A) the images of people drinking in a bar REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #204 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #25. Jerome is training to be a vacuum cleaner sales person. Initially, he got paid for each customer he called on, even if the customer did not ask for a demonstration. Currently, he only gets paid for actually demonstrating the product. Eventually, he will only get paid for actually closing a sale. In this example, Jerome's sales skills are being developed through the use of A) shaping B) classical conditioning C) negative reinforcement D) modeling E) programming
ANS: A) shaping REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #087 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #26. Pavlov is to classical conditioning as ________ is to ________. A) Bandura; observational learning B) Garcia; computer assisted instruction C) Skinner; latent learning D) Thorndike; modeling E) Watson; extinction
ANS: A) Bandura; observational learning REF: Myers8e(2) p. 343 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #109 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #27. When Lindsay was nine years old, the neighbor's chihuahua bit her on the ankle. Today Lindsay is still terrified of chihuahuas, but she likes almost all other types of dogs. Lindsay's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of A) stimulus generalization B) negative avoidance C) stimulus discrimination D) instinctive drift E) secondary avoidance
ANS: C) stimulus discrimination REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #060 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #28. Positive punishment involves introducing a(n) ________ consequence of a certain behavior, and negative punishment involves withdrawing a(n) ________consequence of a certain behavior. A) undesirable; undesirable B) undesirable; desirable C) primary; secondary D) desirable; desirable E) desirable; undesirable
ANS: B) undesirable; desirable REF: Myers8e(1) p. 332 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #086 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #29. Without any explicit training from adults, many 8-year-old children know how to turn the ignition key in order to start their parents' cars. This best illustrates the importance of: A) observational learning. B) discrimination. C) operant conditioning. D) spontaneous recovery. E) classical conditioning.
ANS: A) observational learning. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 341 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #104 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #30. The difference between punishment and negative reinforcement is that A) there is no difference between punishment and negative reinforcement in their effects on behavior B) punishment weakens undesirable behaviors, while negative reinforcement weakens desirable behaviors C) punishment has no effect on behavior and negative reinforcement strengthens behavior D) punishment strengthens undesirable behaviors, and negative reinforcement weakens undesirable behaviors E) punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior
ANS: E) punishment weakens behavior, while negative reinforcement strengthens behavior REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #159 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #31. Charity used to really enjoy potato salad, and at a family reunion she ate a large helping. Unfortunately, the potato salad had not been kept cold, and Charity became quite ill after eating it. Now she finds that even the sight of potatoes in the grocery store can make her feel sick to her stomach. In this example, the sick feeling Charity experiences when she sees potatoes in the grocery store is A) a conditioned response B) an unconditioned response C) a conditioned illness D) an unconditioned stimulus E) a conditioned stimulus
ANS: A) a conditioned response REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #016 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #32. Jane, your teenage daughter, was ridiculed at school for wearing a particular style of shirt. Now, she no longer wears that style of shirt to school. Being ridiculed is an example of A) modeling B) negative reinforcement C) a secondary reinforcer D) positive reinforcement E) punishment
ANS: E) punishment REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #154 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #33. The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by: A) Bandura's findings on observational learning and aggression in children. B) Pavlov's findings on the conditioned salivary response. C) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. D) Skinner's extinction studies with pigeons. E) Watson and Rayner's findings on fear conditioning in infants.
ANS: C) Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 322 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #038 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #34. After training one of his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, Pavlov continued to present the tone periodically without the food, with the result that the dog A) kept responding at the same intensity, despite extended exposure to the tone alone B) would only intermittently respond to the tone C) initially responded to the tone at an even greater intensity than before D) stopped responding immediately E) gradually stopped responding to the tone
ANS: E) gradually stopped responding to the tone REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #039 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #35. Operant conditioning is another name for A) respondent conditioning B) classical conditioning C) instrumental learning D) respondent conditioning E) observational learning
ANS: C) instrumental learning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #071 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #36. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? A) giving a child a sweet dessert as a reward for finishing his dinner B) cutting a child's TV time by 30 minutes each time she "talks back" C) paying a child $1 for each "A" received on her report card D) stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room E) taking away a child's toy for hitting a sibling
ANS: D) stopping nagging a child when he finally cleans his room REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #138 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #37. A rat is placed on one side of a two-compartment shuttle box. For each trial, a light is turned on and is followed 10 seconds later by a painful electric shock for one minute. The rat can terminate the trial by jumping a barrier into the other compartment. If the rat jumps during the light, it has learned to ____ the shock; if the rat jumps during the shock, it has learned to ____ the shock. A) avoid; resist B) escape; escape C) avoid; avoid D) escape; avoid E) avoid; escape
ANS: E) avoid; escape REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #143 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #38. Despite the painful hangovers that follow his use of alcohol, Boris continues to drink because just a couple of drinks begin to reduce his anxiety. His continued drinking most clearly illustrates the power of: A) partial reinforcement. B) spontaneous recovery. C) extinction. D) generalization. E) immediate reinforcement.
ANS: E) immediate reinforcement. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 330 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #065 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #39. Both classical and operant conditioning are forms of: A) associative learning. B) intrinsic motivation. C) reinforcement. D) respondent behavior. E) observational learning.
ANS: A) associative learning. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 339 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #112 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #40. Ten-year-old Karen frequently watches violent movies on television. This is most likely to lead her to: A) become less fearful about being criminally assaulted. B) underestimate the actual frequency of violent crimes in the real world. C) not know the difference between reality and fantasy. D) experience less distress at the sight of other children fighting on the school playground. E) become more hesitant about personally starting a fight with another child.
ANS: D) experience less distress at the sight of other children fighting on the school playground. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 346 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #117 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #41. Long after being bitten by a stray dog, Alonzo found that his fear of dogs seemed to have disappeared. To his surprise, however, when he was recently confronted by a stray dog, he experienced a sudden twinge of anxiety. This sudden anxiety best illustrates: A) shaping. B) latent learning. C) discrimination. D) spontaneous recovery. E) delayed reinforcement.
ANS: D) spontaneous recovery. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #024 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #42. The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction: A) the CS is eliminated. B) the CR is eliminated. C) the UR is eliminated. D) the CS is suppressed. E) the CR is suppressed.
ANS: E) the CR is suppressed. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 319 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #025 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #43. Henry got a bad sunburn on his face when he was skiing last winter. Now, before he starts a day of skiing, he uses a sunscreen on his face to prevent another sunburn. In this case, avoiding a sunburn functions as A) a positive reinforcer for using a sunscreen B) a positive reinforcer for skiing C) an unconditioned stimulus for skiing D) a conditioned stimulus for skiing E) a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen
ANS: E) a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #140 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #44. Reinforcement is to operant conditioning as ________ is to observational learning. A) spontaneous recovery B) punishment C) respondent behavior D) modeling E) extinction
ANS: D) modeling REF: Myers8e(2) p. 341 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #105 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #45. Continuous reinforcement occurs when A) the behavior is difficult to learn with just one reinforcer B) it is not known in advance what responses will be reinforced C) every behavior engaged in by the subject is reinforced D) every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced E) reinforcement is delivered continually, regardless of whether or not a response is made
ANS: D) every occurrence of the designated response is reinforced REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #109 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #46. When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent training experts would suggest that his mother should: A) return any snack foods that are already in her cart to the store shelves. B) give Hakim a token every time she throws a tantrum. C) continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums. D) offer to buy the snack food Hakim wants only if he quiets down and behaves himself. E) threaten to punish Hakim if he continues his tantrums.
ANS: C) continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 338 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #111 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #47. Rates of operant responding are ________ for fixed-ratio than for fixed-interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules. A) lower; lower B) lower; higher C) equal; equal D) higher; higher E) higher; lower
ANS: D) higher; higher REF: Myers8e(1) p. 332 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH08 #084 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #48. Mariah developed a fear of the water when she fell off a river raft last summer. This year she took swimming lessons and thought she had finally overcome her fear of water. She was eagerly looking forward to an upcoming rafting trip, however, as soon as she stepped onto the raft she was instantly terrified again. This illustrates the classical conditioning process known as A) stimulus generalization B) extinction C) second-order conditioning D) spontaneous recovery E) disinhibition
ANS: D) spontaneous recovery REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #044 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #49. Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as A) a reinforcer B) a conditioned response C) a conditioned stimulus D) a negative reinforcer E) a discriminative stimulus
ANS: A) a reinforcer REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH06 #074 STA: LR Test 2008-09
LR089 #50. Latent learning can occur in the absence of: A) cognition. B) experience. C) reinforcement. D) extinction. E) classical conditioning.
ANS: C) reinforcement. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 334 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH08 #089 STA: LR Test 2008-09
MM089 #1. Massed practice refers to learning material A) with large numbers of people (masses) B) in a quiet place with no distractions C) across several large sessions D) all at once E) through several different senses
ANS: D) all at once REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #189 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #2. Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that A) both students should have equivalent recall of the words B) Mallory will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding C) Mallory will have better recall of the words because she used phonemic encoding D) Bailey will have poorer recall of the words because she used structural encoding E) Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding
ANS: E) Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #022 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #3. Which of the following terms is synonymous with "motivated forgetting"? A) regression B) rationalization C) repression D) amnesia E) sublimation
ANS: C) repression REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #130 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #4. Echoic memory refers to: A) the automatic retention of incidental information about the timing and frequency of events. B) a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. C) a vivid memory of an emotionally significant event. D) information stored in auditory chunks. E) the encoded meanings of words and events in long-term memory.
ANS: B) a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 362 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #051 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #5. Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled: A) that the drivers of the vehicles were males. B) broken glass at the scene of the accident. C) that the drivers of the vehicles were intoxicated. D) that there were trucks involved in the accident rather than automobiles. E) the details of the accident with vivid accuracy.
ANS: B) broken glass at the scene of the accident. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 382 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #119 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #6. The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of: A) semantic encoding. B) implicit memory. C) iconic memory D) proactive interference. E) working memory.
ANS: E) working memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 352 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #008 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #7. The memory system that has an almost unlimited storage capacity is A) short-term memory B) long-term memory C) working memory D) time-based memory E) auditory sensory memory
ANS: B) long-term memory REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #051 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #8. The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is A) storage retrieval acquisition B) storage encoding retrieval C) encoding retrieval storage D) encoding storage retrieval E) acquisition encoding retrieval
ANS: D) encoding storage retrieval REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #001 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #9. Your female friend recently got married and changed her last name to that of her husband's. You have difficulty remembering her new last name because of A) response inhibition B) proactive interference C) memory decay D) memory reconstruction E) retroactive interference
ANS: B) proactive interference REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #120 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #10. D ja vu refers to the: A) tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with one's current mood. B) eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event. C) an increase in synaptic priming potential after a brief rapid stimulation. D) unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. E) emotional arousal produced by events that prime us to recall associated events.
ANS: B) eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 373 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #090 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #11. Using the phrase "Every good boy does fine" to remember the order of musical notes is an example of a(n) A) an acrostic B) a mnemonic C) an acronym D) a narrative E) a rhyme
ANS: A) an acrostic REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #195 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #12. Long-term potentiation is a(n): A) neural basis for learning and memory. B) the unconscious loss of previous memories. C) disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new information. D) process of getting information out of memory. E) elimination of anxiety-producing thoughts from conscious awareness.
ANS: A) neural basis for learning and memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 365 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #063 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #13. After reading a newspaper report suggesting that drunken driving might have contributed to a recent auto accident, several people who actually witnessed the accident began to remember the driver involved as traveling more recklessly than was actually the case. This provides an example of: A) state-dependent memory. B) the self-reference effect. C) the misinformation effect. D) the serial position effect. E) proactive interference.
ANS: C) the misinformation effect. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 383 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #121 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #14. Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as: A) chunking. B) the serial position effect. C) automatic processing. D) the spacing effect. E) mood-congruent memory.
ANS: D) the spacing effect. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 355 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #023 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #15. In considering the seven sins of memory, misattribution is to the sin of ________ as blocking is to the sin of ________. A) proactive interference; retroactive interference B) transcience; source amnesia C) intrusion; distortion D) retroactive interference; proactive interference E) distortion; forgetting
ANS: E) distortion; forgetting REF: Myers8e(1) p. 376 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #098 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #16. The inability to remember how Lincoln's head appears on a penny is most likely due to a failure in: A) implicit memory. B) retrieval. C) encoding. D) storage. E) iconic memory.
ANS: C) encoding. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 377 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #100 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #17. The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory. A) short-term B) implicit C) echoic D) iconic E) explicit
ANS: E) explicit REF: Myers8e(1) p. 368 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #074 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #18. Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. A) short-term memory; long-term memory B) chunking; priming C) brainstem; hippocampus D) automatic processing; effortful processing E) explicit memory; implicit memory
ANS: E) explicit memory; implicit memory REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #073 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #19. Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory. A) semantic B) implicit C) explicit D) sensory E) flashbulb
ANS: B) implicit REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #072 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #20. You move to a new house and memorize your new phone number. Now, you can't remember your old phone number. This is an example of A) retroactive interference B) proactive interference C) anterograde amnesia D) retrograde amnesia E) motivated forgetting
ANS: A) retroactive interference REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #116 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #21. Even though Esmeralda was able to say all of her lines for the upcoming play without any errors in last night's rehearsal, her director insists that she run through them completely at least five additional times before opening night. In this case, the director is recommending that Esmeralda strengthen her memory of the lines using A) the link method B) overlearning C) the method of loci D) cramming E) massed practice
ANS: B) overlearning REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #184 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #22. Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength illustrates the use of: A) an acronym. B) the spacing effect. C) the method of loci. D) flashbulb memory. E) the "peg-word" system.
ANS: A) an acronym. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 360 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #045 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #23. Krista is 28 years old. She was burned quite badly in a kitchen accident when she was seven years old. Today, even though her parents still sometimes mention the kitchen accident, Krista has no memory of ever being burned. According to Freud, Krista may be A) experiencing retrograde amnesia B) experiencing the misinformation effect C) using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious D) experiencing the sublimation effect E) showing signs of proactive interference
ANS: C) using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #131 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #24. After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from: A) amnesia. B) long-term potentiation. C) source misattribution. D) repression. E) mood-congruent memory.
ANS: A) amnesia. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 367 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #069 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #25. Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates: A) the next-in-line effect. B) acoustic encoding C) the serial position effect. D) sensory memory. E) flashbulb memory.
ANS: E) flashbulb memory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 350 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #002 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #26. Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the individuals spent their time: A) physically exercising. B) watching television. C) sleeping. D) playing a card game. E) doing math problems.
ANS: C) sleeping. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 379-380 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #102 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #27. A relearning measure requires subjects to A) learn a task in two different ways B) memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved C) reproduce information on their own without any cues D) select previously learned information from an array of options E) indicate whether a given piece of information is familiar
ANS: B) memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #103 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #28. Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to: A) encoding. B) repression. C) chunking. D) automatic processing. E) imagery.
ANS: A) encoding. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 354, 372 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #29. Ebbinghaus' retention curve best illustrates the value of: A) chunking. B) implicit memory. C) priming. D) imagery. E) rehearsal.
ANS: E) rehearsal. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 354 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #30. When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________ failure. A) encoding B) rehearsal C) storage D) retrieval E) automatic processing
ANS: D) retrieval REF: Myers8e(2) p. 378 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #096 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #31. Taryn was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "pup, bucket, and loathe." Taryn's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list A) functionally B) structurally C) proactively D) semantically E) phonemically
ANS: D) semantically REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #018 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #32. Memory is best defined as: A) the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information. B) stored knowledge that has been semantically encoded. C) encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. D) the retrieval of stored information in precisely the same form in which it was encoded. E) the conscious encoding of information.
ANS: A) the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 349 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #001 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #33. Stress hormones facilitate the formation of new memories by: A) decreasing the availability of CREB. B) increasing the availability of glucose. C) increasing the availability of GABA. D) increasing the availability of dopamine. E) decreasing the availability of serotonin.
ANS: B) increasing the availability of glucose. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 366 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #067 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #34. The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is A) long-term memory B) flashbulb memory C) short-term memory D) sensory memory E) working memory
ANS: D) sensory memory REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #032 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #35. The psychologist Jean Piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of being kidnapped after hearing his nursemaid's false reports of such an event. His experience best illustrates: A) mood-congruent memory. B) the self-reference effect. C) implicit memory. D) proactive interference. E) source amnesia.
ANS: E) source amnesia. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 384 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #126 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #36. Wilder Penfield observed that electrical stimulation of the brains of wide-awake patients sometimes led them to report vivid recollections. Penfield incorrectly assumed that: A) the stimulation activated permanently stored memories. B) the brain stored information in the thalamus. C) the brain's physical memory trace decays gradually over time. D) his patients were inventing false memories. E) the brain's total storage capacity is very limited.
ANS: A) the stimulation activated permanently stored memories. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 364 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #059 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #37. Xavier was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: dog, pail, and hate. Later, he recalled these words as: "log, whale, and late." Xavier's errors in recall suggest that he had encoded the original word list A) phonemically B) retroactively C) morphemically D) semantically E) structurally
ANS: A) phonemically REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #016 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #38. Kiana was given a list of words as part of a memory test that included: "dog, pail, and hate." Later, she recalled these words as: "dig, paint, and hard." Kiana's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list A) semantically B) implicitly C) structurally D) phonemically E) functionally
ANS: C) structurally REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #014 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #39. If you were attempting to recall a memory, the memory process you would be using is A) acquisition B) storage C) information registry D) retrieval E) encoding
ANS: D) retrieval REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #005 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #40. As an aid to memorizing lengthy speeches, ancient Greek orators would visualize themselves moving through familiar locations. They were making use of: A) implicit memory. B) the spacing effect. C) the serial position effect. D) the next-in-line effect. E) the method of loci.
ANS: E) the method of loci. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 358 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #039 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #41. Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called: A) schemas. B) context effects. C) d j vu. D) retrieval cues. E) iconic traces.
ANS: D) retrieval cues. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 371 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #084 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #42. With rehearsal, information in short-term memory can be maintained for some time. Without rehearsal, the duration of short-term memory is A) no longer than 1 second B) about 5 minutes C) about 5 seconds D) about 20 seconds E) 1-2 minutes
ANS: D) about 20 seconds REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #038 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #43. An essay exam is most similar to the ____ method of measuring retention. A) encoding B) recall C) production D) relearning E) recognition
ANS: B) recall REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #102 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #44. Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be: A) distorted by our current assumptions. B) much more vivid if they are seldom rehearsed. C) difficult to retrieve but never completely lost. D) be repressed if not rehearsed. E) retrieved in the very same form and detail as they were originally encoded.
ANS: A) distorted by our current assumptions REF: Myers8e(1) p. 382 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #117 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #45. In normal situations, you tend to forget things which you have already finished while you remember the things you still have to do. This is called A) inattention. B) overlearning. C) positive transfer. D) Zeigarnik effect. E) repression.
ANS: D) Zeigarnik effect. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 07 #028 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #46. Distributed practice refers to learning A) through several different senses B) all at once C) across several large sessions D) over several sessions E) from several different sources
ANS: D) over several sessions REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH07 #188 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #47. Iconic memory refers to: A) the effortlessly processed incidental information about the timing and frequency of events. B) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory. C) audio sounds encoded into short-term memory. D) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second. E) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.
ANS: D) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 362 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #047 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #48. Watching a TV soap opera involving marital conflict and divorce led Andrea to recall several instances in which her husband had mistreated her. The effect of the TV program on Andrea's recall provides an example of: A) repression. B) the serial position effect. C) automatic processing. D) the spacing effect. E) priming.
ANS: E) priming. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 372 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH09 #088 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #49. The temporary release of serotonin has been found to ________ memory formation, and the temporary release of stress hormones has been found to ________ memory formation. A) disrupt; facilitate B) facilitate; disrupt C) stop all; overload D) disrupt; disrupt E) facilitate; facilitate
ANS: E) facilitate; facilitate REF: Myers8e(2) p. 365, 366 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #060 STA: MM Test 2008-09
MM089 #50. Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________. A) recall; recognition B) encoding; storage C) rehearsal; relearning D) unconscious; conscious E) interference; repression
ANS: B) encoding; storage REF: Myers8e(2) p. 351 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH09 #004 STA: MM Test 2008-09
CG089 #1. Functional fixedness refers to A) inability to discover the relations among the parts of a problem B) arriving at a particularly insightful solution to a problem C) continued use of problem solving strategies that have worked in the past D) focusing on information that is irrelevant to the solution of the problem E) not seeing a new function for a familiar object
ANS: E) not seeing a new function for a familiar object REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #109 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #2. Which of the following was cited by Whorf as evidence in support of the linguistic determinism hypothesis? A) Chimpanzees can use signs and gestures to communicate with other members of their own species. B) Infants tend to babble only in the morphemes of their language. C) People with no words for colors can still perceive color differences. D) Hopi Indians cannot readily think about the past because their language has no past tense for verbs. E) The generic pronoun "he" is just as likely to trigger images of women as of men.
ANS: D) Hopi Indians cannot readily think about the past because their language has no past tense for verbs. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 418 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #090 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #3. Mr. Potter thinks that all socialists are political liberals and that the governor of his state is a political liberal. Mr. Potter's fear of socialism is so strong that he readily accepts the clearly illogical conclusion that his state governor must be a socialist. His difficulty best illustrates: A) the framing effect. B) belief bias. C) functional fixedness. D) confirmation bias. E) the availability heuristic.
ANS: B) belief bias. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #053 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #4. In English, adjectives precede nouns. This is a rule of syntax, which is the: A) smallest speech unit that carries meaning. B) derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. C) most logical and methodical procedure for solving a problem. D) orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences. E) length of time between words when they are spoken.
ANS: D) orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #066 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #5. When solving problems containing numerical information A) you should start by figuring out which information is relevant to the problem B) it is a good idea to start by trying to figure out how to use the numerical information C) you should first find all of the information that is irrelevant to avoid confusion D) it is safe to assume that all of the information will be needed to solve the problem E) insight will typically produce the fastest, most accurate solution to the problem
ANS: A) you should start by figuring out which information is relevant to the problem REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #107 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #6. After learning that her two best friends had lost their jobs, Mariah began to grossly overestimate the national unemployment rate. Mariah's reaction best illustrates the consequences of: A) the framing effect. B) the belief perseverance phenomenon. C) the availability heuristic. D) confirmation bias. E) the representativeness heuristic.
ANS: C) the availability heuristic. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 402 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #037 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #7. Experimental participants reviewed two research studies, one supporting and the other refuting the crime-deterring effectiveness of capital punishment. Afterward, the opinions of those who initially favored the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use. The opinions of those who initially opposed the use of capital punishment became ________ favorable toward its use. A) more; more B) less; less C) more; less D) less; more
ANS: C) more; less REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #054 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #8. Rylee's algebra teacher is amazed at the creativity Rylee shows in solving homework problems. He seldom uses the same method on two consecutive problems, even when the problems are very similar in content and structure. Although Rylee makes lots of mistakes in algebra, he is unlikely to experience A) mental set in his problem solving B) functional fixedness in his problem solving C) noncompensatory problem solving D) underregularization in his problem solving E) overregularization in his problem solving
ANS: A) mental set in his problem solving REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #117 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #9. The word "cats" contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s). A) 4; 2 B) 2; 4 C) 2; 1 D) 4; 3 E) 4; 1
ANS: A) 4; 2 REF: Myers8e(1) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #064 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #10. Despite overwhelming and highly publicized evidence that Senator McEwan was guilty of serious political corruption and misconduct, many who had supported her in past elections remained convinced of her political integrity. Their reaction best illustrates: A) functional fixedness. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) the framing effect.
ANS: D) belief perseverance. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 407 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #055 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #11. When Graham is printing copies from the computer in the computer classroom, the paper keeps jamming in the machine. He takes the paper out of the paper tray, fans it, and then flips it over, so the other side of the paper feeds first. This is the way he solves similar problems on the photocopy machine at the office where he works. In this case, Graham's method of solving the problem is consistent with the problem-solving heuristic known as A) means-end analysis B) searching for analogies C) working backward D) trial-and-error E) heuristics
ANS: B) searching for analogies REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #131 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #12. Which of the following is NOT a cognitive activity? A) remembering something B) solving a problem C) learning a language D) blinking at something E) making a decision
ANS: D) blinking at something REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #004 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #13. With respect to the debate over the process of language development, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________. A) Whorf; Chomsky B) Chomsky; Skinner C) Whorf; Skinner D) Skinner; Whorf E) Skinner; Chomsky
ANS: B) Chomsky; Skinner REF: Myers8e(1) p. 413-414 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #076 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #14. "Apple is to fruit as hamburger is to ____" is an example of A) a deductive reasoning problem B) a series-completion problem C) an analogy problem D) an arrangement problem E) the representativeness heuristic
ANS: C) an analogy problem REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #102 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #15. Esmeralda wants to use her roommate's computer to work on her term paper. However, the roommate has password protection on the computer's boot sequence. Rather than starting at "a" and systematically testing every possible word in the English language, Esmeralda makes some educated guesses about the passwords, based on what she knows about her roommate. In this case, Esmeralda is using A) an algorithm to get past the password protection B) reframing to get past the password protection C) representativeness to get past the password protection D) functional fixedness to get past the password protection E) a heuristic to get past the password protection
ANS: E) a heuristic to get past the password protection REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #125 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #16. The smallest speech units that carry meaning are called: A) phenotypes. B) concepts. C) morphemes. D) phonemes. E) prototypes.
ANS: C) morphemes. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #063 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #17. The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to: A) search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions. B) cling to one's initial conceptions even in the face of them being discredited. C) overestimate the degree to which other people will confirm our beliefs. D) overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. E) judge the likelihood of events on the basis of how easily we can remember examples of them.
ANS: A) search for information that is consistent with our preconceptions. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 399 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #021 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #18. Jerome believes that his 4-year-old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy's constant movement resembles Jerome's prototype of hyperactivity. Jerome's thinking best illustrates: A) belief perseverance. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) the framing effect. E) functional fixedness.
ANS: C) the representativeness heuristic. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 401 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #032 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #19. The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to: A) disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments. B) judge objects only in terms of their functional utility. C) not see a problem from a different point of view. D) make judgments in a very inefficient, timeconsuming fashion. E) judge event likelihood solely on the basis of event memorability.
ANS: A) disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 401 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #032 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #20. Which of the following statements concerning functional fixedness is MOST accurate? A) Compared to young children, older children and adults are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. B) All age groups are likely to show evidence of functional fixedness, especially when solving problems using unfamiliar objects. C) Compared to older children and adults, young children are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. D) Compared to all other age groups, adolescents are most likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. E) Compared to all other age groups, young children are more likely to show functional fixedness.
ANS: C) Compared to older children and adults, young children are less likely to show evidence of functional fixedness. REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #113 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #21. Marc loves to solve anagrams, and spends a great deal of time working through books of anagrams. It appears that Marc enjoys problems that require A) inducing structure B) deductive reasoning C) arrangement D) analogical reasoning E) transformation
ANS: C) arrangement REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #105 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #22. Working backward is a good strategy to follow when A) you can recognize the similarity between two problems B) a problem is unsolvable by heuristics C) a problem has obvious subgoals D) the problem does not have a well-specified goal E) you have many options available at the beginning of a problem, but few options at the end
ANS: E) you have many options available at the beginning of a problem, but few options at the end REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #126 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #23. The connotation of a word consists of A) a complex interaction between the word's phonology and syntax B) the separate sounds that make up the word C) novel messages created from a finite number of symbols D) its emotional overtones and secondary implications E) its dictionary definition
ANS: D) its emotional overtones and secondary implications REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #025 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #24. The sentences "She ate an apple" and "She an apple ate" have ______ surface structure and ______ deep structure. A) the same; the same B) the same; a different C) a different; a different D) a different; the same E) a strong; a weak
ANS: D) a different; the same REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414-415 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #084 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #25. Two-year-old Dirk's sentences "Dad come," "Mom laugh," and "Truck gone" are examples of: A) telegraphic speech. B) universal grammar. C) heuristics. D) babbling. E) mental sets.
ANS: A) telegraphic speech. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 413 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #074 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #26. Christmas is to holiday as ________ is to ________. A) availability heuristic; representativeness heuristic B) algorithm; heuristic C) heuristic; fixation D) prototype; category E) category; prototype
ANS: D) prototype; category REF: Myers8e(2) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #008 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #27. To promote cognitive efficiency, concepts are often organized into: A) mental sets. B) mental sets. C) algorithms. D) category hierarchies. E) neural networks.
ANS: D) category hierarchies. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #005 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #28. Word meaning is to word order as ________ is to ________. A) nomenclature; semantics B) semantics; syntax C) morpheme; phoneme D) concept; prototype E) phoneme; grammar
ANS: B) semantics; syntax REF: Myers8e(2) p. 411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #068 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #29. When Fred pronounced the words "this" and "that," he noticed that they share a common: A) morpheme. B) phoneme. C) phenotype. D) algorithm. E) prototype.
ANS: B) phoneme. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 410-411 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #061 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #30. Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of: A) functional fixedness. B) the availability heuristic. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) an algorithm.
ANS: E) an algorithm. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 397 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #015 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #31. Series-completion problems are examples of which of Greeno's (1978) categories? A) transformation B) recategorization C) arrangement D) inducing structure E) clustering
ANS: D) inducing structure REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #100 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #32. The requirement that a declarative sentence have both a noun phrase and a verb phrase is an example of a A) transformational rule B) heuristic C) morpheme D) phoneme E) rule of syntax
ANS: E) rule of syntax REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #027 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #33. Maribel is on a jury, and she is already convinced that the defendant in the case is not guilty. She listens very attentively to everything the defense attorneys have to say, but she tends to pay less attention when the prosecution is presenting evidence. In this instance, Maribel is showing evidence of A) the base-rate fallacy B) the conjunction fallacy C) the availability heuristic D) the overconfidence effect E) a confirmation bias
ANS: E) a confirmation bias REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #195 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #34. People told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10,000 people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk is one-tenth of 1 percent. This best illustrates the importance of: A) functional fixedness. B) framing. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) belief perseverance. E) confirmation bias.
ANS: B) framing. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 406 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #049 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #35. Heuristics are: A) ways to reduce algorithms when using insight. B) mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people. C) simple thinking strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently. D) methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems. E) problem-solving strategies involving the use of trial and error.
ANS: C) simple thinking strategies for solving problems quickly and efficiently. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 398 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #016 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #36. Chimpanzees are capable of learning to: A) use computer keyboards to communicate with other chimps. B) understand spoken words. C) string signs together into a meaningful sequence. D) to push buttons in a sequence. E) do all of the above.
ANS: E) do all of the above. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 426 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #101 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #37. Vivian is making quiche for the very first time. She carefully follows the step-by-step directions provided in her cookbook. In this case, Vivian is using A) a heuristic to help her prepare the quiche B) functional fixedness to help her prepare the quiche C) analogies to help her prepare the quiche D) framing to help her prepare the quiche E) an algorithm to help her prepare the quiche
ANS: E) an algorithm to help her prepare the quiche REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #123 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #38. Although Steve was certain that he answered between 70 and 80 items correctly on his biology test, he actually was right on only 55 items. Steve's misjudgment of his test performance illustrates: A) the belief perseverance phenomenon. B) the framing effect. C) the representativeness heuristic. D) overconfidence. E) confirmation bias.
ANS: D) overconfidence. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 403 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #043 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #39. Jenna is 14 months old and uses only "bottle, no, up, bye-bye, mama, and dada" when she talks. However, when the family is on their way to visit Jenna's grandmother, and her father tells Jenna to get her blue bunny from the bedroom and bring it with her, Jenna quickly runs to get the bunny. This episode demonstrates that A) toddlers' receptive vocabularies are larger than their productive vocabularies B) toddler's understand fewer "action" words than they can say C) Jenna is able to overextend her current vocabulary D) toddlers' productive vocabularies are larger than their receptive vocabularies E) infants have difficulty pronouncing phonemes they have never heard
ANS: A) toddlers' receptive vocabularies are larger than their productive vocabularies REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #042 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #40. People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their prejudice: A) heuristic. B) prototype. C) algorithm. D) premise. E) fixation.
ANS: B) prototype. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 397 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #012 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #41. Applying the behaviorist viewpoint to language development, B. F. Skinner emphasized that language is acquired through: A) children's imitation of the words and grammar modeled by parents and others. B) the positive reinforcement that adults give children for speaking correctly. C) the association of word sounds with various objects, events, actions, and qualities. D) the basic principles of operant conditioning. E) all of the above.
ANS: E) all of the above. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #076 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #42. When given a candle, tacks, and a box of matches and asked to mount the candle on a wall, people often fail to think of using the matchbox as a candleholder. This best illustrates: A) confirmation bias. B) functional fixedness. C) the framing effect. D) the availability heuristic. E) overconfidence.
ANS: B) functional fixedness. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 400, 402 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #028 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #43. The sudden comprehension of the double meaning of a humorous pun best illustrates: A) the representativeness heuristic. B) belief perseverance. C) insight. D) the availability heuristic. E) the framing effect.
ANS: C) insight. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 398 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #020 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #44. Chomsky's theory of language development suggests that children have an inborn: A) language acquisition device. B) understanding of the syntax of their language. C) linguistic prototype. D) surface structure. E) category hierarchy.
ANS: A) language acquisition device. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 414 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #081 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #45. Kailee has learned the word "kitty," but she uses this word when she is referring to cats, bunnies, squirrels, and other small furry animals. Kailee's use of this word illustrates A) babbling B) telegraphic speech C) fast mapping D) semantic slanting E) overextension
ANS: E) overextension REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #046 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #46. When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n): A) algorithm. B) heuristic. C) concept. D) phoneme. E) mental set.
ANS: C) concept. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 396 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH10 #003 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #47. A mental set is a: A) conclusion regarding to employ fixations or insight. B) group of conclusions derived from certain assumptions or general principles. C) methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems. D) tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past. E) mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
ANS: D) tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 400 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH10 #027 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #48. Fast mapping is A) mapping words to underlying concepts after only one exposure B) the type of play a child engages in at an early age C) understanding the meaning of words after 2-3 exposures D) the development of a mental representation of one's environment E) the pacing activity associated with genetics, allowing for anticipation of motivational events
ANS: A) mapping words to underlying concepts after only one exposure REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #043 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #49. You are listening to 2-year-old Annie as she says "No eat. No like." She is trying to let you know that she is not going to eat her broccoli because she doesn't like it. Annie's communication illustrates the use of A) overregularization B) overextension C) underextension D) telegraphic speech E) semantic slanting
ANS: D) telegraphic speech REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #052 STA: CG Test 2008-09
CG089 #50. Which of the following statements is MOST accurate? A) Babbling simply involves imitation of the parents' speech sounds. B) Babbling only emerges in infants who are not exposed to correct speech. C) Babies initially babble sounds used in many different languages. D) Babies only babble sounds that are part of the parents' language. E) Babies only babble sounds that they hear on a regular basis
ANS: C) Babies initially babble sounds used in many different languages. REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH08 #034 STA: CG Test 2008-09
IN089 #1. Most tests using the deviation IQ set the mean at A) 100 points and the standard deviation at 15 points B) 110 points and the standard deviation at 20 points C) 50 points and the standard deviation at 10 points D) 120 points and the standard deviation at 20 points E) 10 points and the standard deviation at 5 points
ANS: A) 100 points and the standard deviation at 15 points REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #071 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #2. Generating multiple possible answers to a problem illustrates: A) predictive validity. B) framing skills. C) factor analysis. D) neural plasticity. E) divergent thinking.
ANS: E) divergent thinking. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 438 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH11 #021 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #3. Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted because she "possesses" an IQ of 145. She is most clearly committing the error known as: A) savant syndrome. B) the naturalistic fallacy. C) reification. D) the Flynn effect. E) heritability.
ANS: C) reification. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 431 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH11 #001 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #4. Binet's recommendation of "mental orthopedics" highlighted the potential role of ________ in intellectual ability. Terman's sympathy with "eugenics" highlighted the potential role of ________ in intellectual ability. A) educational training; biological inheritance B) intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation C) convergent thinking; divergent thinking D) mental rotation; emotional intelligence E) brain size; neural plasticity
ANS: A) educational training; biological inheritance REF: Myers8e(2) p. 443, 444 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #038 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #5. The Binet-Simon scale of intelligence expressed a child's score in terms of A) a potential score B) an intelligence quotient C) a mean score D) a percentile score E) mental age
ANS: E) mental age REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #055 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #6. Psychologists would be likely to agree that: A) intelligence tests have greater predictive validity for males than for females. B) intelligence tests have comparable predictive validity for Whites and Blacks. C) intelligence tests have less predictive validity for high school students than for college students. D) intelligence test have more predictive value for adults in the work force. E) all of the above are true.
ANS: B) intelligence tests have comparable predictive validity for Whites and Blacks. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 465 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #099 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #7. Hydrocephaly may lead to mental retardation because of A) the presence of an extra chromosome B) nutritional deficiencies C) a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid that destroys brain tissue D) an inherited enzyme deficiency E) a degradation of the myelin sheath
ANS: C) a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid that destroys brain tissue REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #104 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #8. The form of mental retardation that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome is A) psychosocial B) phenylketonuria C) Severe retardation D) Down syndrome E) hydrocephaly
ANS: D) Down syndrome REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #103 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #9. In very stressful or embarrassing situations, Sanura is able to maintain her poise and help others to feel comfortable. Sanura's ability best illustrates the value of: A) savant syndrome. B) emotional intelligence. C) extrinsic motivation. D) heritability. E) divergent thinking.
ANS: B) emotional intelligence. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 437 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #017 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #10. Dr. Benthem reports that the scores of 100 male and 100 female students on his new test of mechanical reasoning form a normal curve. From his statement we may conclude that: A) the average male score was better than the average female score. B) the average score on the test was 50 percent correct. C) the students were simply guessing at the answers. D) relatively few students' scores deviated extremely from the groups' average score. E) the test has content validity but not reliability.
ANS: D) relatively few students' scores deviated extremely from the groups' average score. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 447 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #054 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #11. Interested in learning how to fly airplanes, Roger has just taken a test designed to predict how well he is likely to do in a pilot training program. Roger has taken a(n) A) test of general mental ability B) intelligence test C) a projective test D) achievement test E) aptitude test
ANS: E) aptitude test REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #005 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #12. If your score falls at the 75th percentile on a standardized test, which of the following is an accurate interpretation? A) 75 people scored the same as you on the test. B) You correctly answered 75% of the items on the test. C) 75% of the people who took the test scored higher than you. D) Your answers to pairs of similar items on the test were the same 75% of the time. E) 75% of the people who took the test scored at or below your score.
ANS: E) 75% of the people who took the test scored at or below your score. REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #025 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #13. On which of the following tasks are males most likely to outperform females? A) interpreting literature B) locating objects C) learning a foreign language D) mentally rotating three-dimensional objects E) speed-reading
ANS: D) mentally rotating three-dimensional objects REF: Myers8e(2) p. 463 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #095 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #14. Dr. Carmody has designed a new critical thinking assessment test. He administers the test to a group of students in October. In April, he tests the same students and finds that the overall correlation between the two sets of scores is +0.91. Based on this information, Dr. Carmody could conclude that his new test A) will have high criterion-related validity B) provides valid measures of student ability C) has been well standardized D) likely has low construct validity E) appears to have high test-retest reliability
ANS: E) appears to have high test-retest reliability REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #034 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #15. Environmental stimulation during childhood often contributes to the development of intelligence by altering the circuitry of the brain. This alteration illustrates: A) heritability. B) neural plasticity. C) divergent thinking. D) the Flynn effect. E) standardization.
ANS: B) neural plasticity. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 440 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #028 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #16. Higher intelligence scores are positively correlated with the volume of ________ in specific brain areas involved in memory, attention, and language. A) serotonin B) gray matter C) endorphins D) epinephrine E) white matter
ANS: B) gray matter REF: Myers8e(2) p. 440 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #029 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #17. The test that provides separate verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed scores, as well as an overall intelligence score, is the: A) SAT. B) GRE. C) Stanford-Binet. D) WAIS. E) ACT.
ANS: D) WAIS. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 445 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #049 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #18. Educational programs for gifted children are most likely to be criticized for: A) tracking gifted students may lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy. B) assuming that intelligence test scores can predict children's academic success. C) underestimating the extent to which a g factor underlies success in a wide variety of tasks. D) overemphasizing the genetic determinants of giftedness. E) encouraging the segregation and academic tracking of intellectually advantaged students.
ANS: E) encouraging the segregation and academic tracking of intellectually advantaged students. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 453 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #076 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #19. Dr. Iverson has had 25 students who have repeated her advanced Economics class over the past five years. Each time, the students' grades for the second attempt in her course were nearly identical to the grades received on the first attempt. This leads Dr. Iverson to conclude that her testing procedures A) provide valid measures of student ability B) provide reliable measures of student ability C) are well standardized D) successfully measures abstract reasoning skills E) appear to have high test-retest reliability
ANS: B) provide reliable measures of student ability REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #033 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #20. In most school districts, designations of intellectual "giftedness" tend to be determined primarily by A) leadership skills B) IQ test performance C) degree of social competence D) creativity E) teacher recommendation
ANS: B) IQ test performance REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #109 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #21. Walter has taken a test that attempts to assess his interests and attitudes. Walter has MOST likely taken A) a personality test B) a standardized test C) a correlational test D) an aptitude test E) an achievement test
ANS: A) a personality test REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #014 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #22. Silas took the College Aptitude Test (CAT) when he was a junior in high school, and he attained a very high score on the test. When Silas was in college, he was suspended his first year, and when he was readmitted, he ended up dropping out because he was doing poorly in all his classes. When Silas went for career counseling, he retook the CAT, and again he earned a very high score. Based on Silas' experience, you might conclude that the CAT has A) been poorly standardized B) been highly standardized C) high validity, but low reliability D) high reliability, but low validity E) low reliability, and low validity
ANS: D) high reliability, but low validity REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #048 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #23. The vast majority of retarded people are classified as A) mildly retarded B) significantly retarded C) moderately retarded D) severely retarded E) slightly retarded
ANS: A) mildly retarded REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #096 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #24. The Flynn effect is least likely to be explained in terms of: A) changes in human genetic characteristics. B) changing communication technologies. C) improvements in infant nutrition. D) increasing educational opportunities. E) reductions in family size.
ANS: A) changes in human genetic characteristics. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 460-461 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #089 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #25. On which of the following tasks are females most likely to perform as well or better than males? A) reciting poetry B) copying geometric designs C) mental rotation test D) playing checkers E) playing video games
ANS: A) reciting poetry REF: Myers8e(2) p. 461 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #091 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #26. Compared to boys, girls are ________ capable of remembering objects' spatial locations and they are ________ capable of detecting odors. A) less; more B) less; less C) more; more D) more; less E) just as; just as
ANS: C) more; more REF: Myers8e(2) p. 462-463 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #093 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #27. Predictability is to criterion-related validity as ____ is to test-retest reliability. A) normalcy B) consistency C) standardization D) correlation E) predictability
ANS: B) consistency REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #209 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #28. Those who emphasize the importance of the g factor are most likely to encourage: A) intelligence tests both verbal and nonverbal questions. B) quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score. C) using a small standardization sample in the process of intelligence-test construction. D) discontinuing "gifted child" programs for intellectually advantaged children. E) deriving adult intelligence test scores from the ratio of mental age to chronological age.
ANS: B) quantifying intelligence with a single numerical score. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 432 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #007 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #29. If a psychological test is to tell you how you score relative to other people, test ____ must be developed. A) scales B) levels C) scores D) norms E) validity
ANS: D) norms REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #019 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #30. Psychological tests show that 18-year-old Isaiah has an intelligence score of 65. Nevertheless, Isaiah can, with a few seconds of mental calculation, accurately tell the day of the week on which Christmas falls for any year in this and the next century. It would be fair to conclude that: A) a stereotype threat exists. B) Isaiah excels in divergent thinking. C) intelligence tests are generally good measures of verbal but not of mathematical intelligence. D) the intelligence test Isaiah was given has no validity. E) Isaiah is a person with savant syndrome.
ANS: E) Isaiah is a person with savant syndrome. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 433 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #010 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #31. Of the following, who best illustrates Sternberg's concept of analytical intelligence? A) Freda, a business executive who effectively motivates her sales staff B) Nicole, a teenager who completes the road test for her driver's license without a single error C) Selma, a fifth-grader who solves complicated mathematical problems in record time D) Trudy, a high school student who receives lower grades in physical education than in any other course E) Wilma, a schoolteacher who refuses to pay taxes because they are used to develop new weapons
ANS: C) Selma, a fifth-grader who solves complicated mathematical problems in record time REF: Myers8e(2) p. 435 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #014 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #32. Brenna took a test designed to measure her creativity. She tells you that her final score on the test was 70. She knows you are taking a psychology class, so she asks you what this score means. You should tell Brenna A) 70 is probably a high score since most tests have a maximum score of 80 B) that you can't interpret her score without knowing the norms for the test C) 70 is probably an average score since it falls into the usual "C" grade category D) 70 is probably a low score since most tests have an average score of 100 E) she will need to take the test again before her score can be accurately interpreted
ANS: B) that you can't interpret her score without knowing the norms for the test REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #022 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #33. Psychologists have made extensive use of factor analysis to assess whether: A) differences in intellectual ability exist between groups of individuals. B) intelligence is a single trait or a collection of distinct abilities. C) intelligence scores remain stable over the life span. D) intelligence is determined primarily by heredity or by experience. E) there is a correlation between intelligence and creativity.
ANS: B) intelligence is a single trait or a collection of distinct abilities. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 432 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #004 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #34. Research has indicated that seventh- and eighth-graders who outscored most high school seniors on a college aptitude test had begun ________ at an unusually early age. A) walking B) teething C) crawling D) talking E) reading
ANS: E) reading REF: Myers8e(2) p. 451 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #070 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #35. Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to assess: A) heritability. B) academic aptitude. C) savant syndrome. D) divergent thinking. E) emotional intelligence.
ANS: B) academic aptitude. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 443 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #034 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #36. Dr. Darden is concerned about whether or not the final exam in his physics class accurately measures a student's accumulated knowledge about core concepts from the course. It appears that Dr. Darden is most concerned with the A) standardization of his final exam B) impact of confounding factors on his final exam C) convergence of his final exam D) reliability of his final exam E) validity of his final exam
ANS: E) validity of his final exam REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #039 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #37. Over the past 60 years, children with mental retardation have increasing been likely to: A) be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms. B) have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living. C) be diagnosed as having a chromosomal abnormality. D) grow up in a specialized center for mentally retarded children. E) demonstrate symptoms of savant syndrome.
ANS: A) be mainstreamed into regular school classrooms. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 453 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH11 #076 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #38. Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and ________ intelligence. A) intrapersonal B) physical C) creative D) musical E) spatial
ANS: C) creative REF: Myers8e(1) p. 435 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH11 #013 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #39. The original IQ formula would be least appropriate for representing the intelligence test performance of: A) preschool students. B) middle school students. C) grade school students. D) university students. E) kindergartners.
ANS: D) university students. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 444 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #041 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #40. Ishmael and Aliyah were enrolled in different sections of the same course. When Aliyah was taking her midterm exam, there was a lecture being held in the next room. This distracted her and made it difficult for her to concentrate on her exam. When Ishmael wrote his midterm exam, the room next door was empty, and he had no distractions. In this example, the administration of the midterm exam for this course A) did not have adequate test norms B) would have poor construct validity C) did not have high test-retest reliability D) was not standardized across the two course sections E) was standardized across the two course sections
ANS: D) was not standardized across the two course sections REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #018 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #41. The average intellectual aptitude gap between graduating white and black college graduates has been observed to ________ during their years in high school and to ________ during their years in college. A) decrease; increase B) increase; decrease C) increase; increase D) stays the same; increase E) decrease; decrease
ANS: B) increase; decrease REF: Myers8e(2) p. 461 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #090 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #42. The intelligence scores of adopted children are least likely to correlate positively with the intelligence scores of their: A) adoptive parents. B) biologically related siblings. C) biological parents. D) biologically unrelated siblings. E) middle childhood.
ANS: A) adoptive parents. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 456 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #080 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #43. If a child of age 10 made a mental age score of 8 on the Binet test, his IQ would be A) 125 B) 90 C) 100 D) 80 E) 75
ANS: D) 80 REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #060 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #44. The extent to which a test measures some abstract personal quality, such as creativity or intelligence, is a matter of A) face validity B) internal validity C) construct validity D) content validity E) criterion-related validity
ANS: C) construct validity REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #051 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #45. The correlation is likely to be lowest between the: A) Stanford-Binet IQ scores and grades of elementary school children. B) GRE scores and grades of graduate students. C) SAT scores and grades of college freshmen. D) Wechsler intelligence scores and grades of junior high school students. E) WKCE scores and grades in middle school.
ANS: B) GRE scores and grades of graduate students. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 449 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #066 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #46. As adults age, the size of their brains ________ and their nonverbal intelligence test scores ________. A) increase; decrease B) decrease; increase C) remains the same; increase D) decrease; decrease E) increase; increase
ANS: D) decrease; decrease REF: Myers8e(1) p. 440 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH11 #025 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #47. Intelligence tests have traditionally been designed to measure: A) economic achievement. B) emotional intelligence. C) cognitive aptitude. D) social aptitude. E) moral achievement.
ANS: C) cognitive aptitude. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 442 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #032 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #48. The Flynn effect best illustrates that the process of intelligence testing requires up-to-date: A) heritability estimates. B) reliability indices. C) factor analyses. D) predictive validity. E) standardization samples.
ANS: E) standardization samples. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 447 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #057 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #49. Madisen has just completed a two-year internship with a law firm. She takes a test that is designed to assess her current knowledge of general legal principles. In this case, the test that Madisen takes would be classified as A) an achievement test B) an aptitude test C) an intelligence test D) a projective test E) an abilities test
ANS: A) an achievement test REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH09 #012 STA: IN Test 2008-09
IN089 #50. Experts who defend intelligence tests against accusations of racial bias are most likely to note that racial differences in intelligence test scores: A) occur on nonverbal as well as verbal intelligence test subscales. B) are a clear indication that the heritability of intelligence approaches 100 percent. C) have not real influence on the scores from differing racial groups. D) are just as significant as intelligence differences among members of a single race. E) have increased in the past decade despite the introduction of less culturally biased test items.
ANS: A) occur on nonverbal as well as verbal intelligence test subscales. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 464 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH11 #097 STA: IN Test 2008-09
DV089 #1. Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the: A) knee. B) arm. C) foot. D) hand. E) cheek.
ANS: E) cheek. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 142 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #016 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #2. During the last few years, 75-year-old Mrs. Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can't find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband. It is most likely that Mrs. Yamaguchi is suffering the effects of: A) habituation. B) Alzheimer's disease. C) menopause. D) conservation. E) crystallized intelligence.
ANS: B) Alzheimer's disease. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 180 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #153 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #3. The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by: A) Piaget's cognitive development theory. B) Freud's psychosexual theory. C) Harlow's attachment theory. D) Kohlberg's moral development theory. E) Erikson's psychosocial development theory.
ANS: A) Piaget's cognitive development theory. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 150 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #048 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #4. In order to test whether newborns can visually discriminate between various shapes and colors, psychologists have made use of the process of: A) conservation. B) habituation. C) imprinting. D) accommodation. E) attachment.
ANS: B) habituation. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 143 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #020 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #5. People experience surging physical growth and sexual maturation during: A) the sensorimotor stage. B) the preoperational stage. C) late adolescence. D) late childhood. E) puberty.
ANS: E) puberty. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 165 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #104 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #6. Piaget is to cognitive development as Kohlberg is to ________ development. A) social B) emotional C) intellectual D) physical E) moral
ANS: E) moral REF: Myers8e(1) p. 167, 168 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #115 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #7. Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for: A) intimacy. B) trust. C) autonomy. D) habituation. E) competence.
ANS: A) intimacy. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 172 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #135 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #8. Chloe can clearly sense when her sister's teasing is intended to be friendly fun or a hostile put-down. This best illustrates that Chloe has developed a(n): A) concept of conservation. B) theory of mind. C) stranger anxiety. D) sense of object permanence. E) insecure attachment.
ANS: B) theory of mind. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 151 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #054 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #9. The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called: A) attachment. B) assimilation. C) the rooting reflex. D) habituation. E) imprinting.
ANS: A) attachment. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 155 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #066 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #10. Dr. Janczak wants to study the effects of poverty on one's self concept To do this he interviews a group of subjects from the inner city once every five years for a period of 30 years. This experiment is an example of what type of study? A) cross sectional study B) longitudinal study C) correlational study D) Gesell's dome E) more information is needed to determine the design of the experiment
ANS: B) longitudinal study REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #018 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #11. Recognizing whether someone's facial expression is conveying a happy smile or a self-satisfied smirk is especially difficult for those with:: A) no sense of object permanence. B) fluid intelligence. C) autism. D) crystallized intelligence. E) infantile amnesia.
ANS: C) autism. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 152 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH04 #052 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #12. The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as ________ parents. A) egocentric B) authoritarian C) permissive D) authoritative E) attachment
ANS: B) authoritarian REF: Myers8e(1) p. 162 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #098 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #13. The age at which people are expected to leave home, get a job, and marry has changed dramatically in Wallonia over the past 50 years. Developmentalists would say that the country's ________ has been altered. A) social clock B) family calendar C) habituation D) maturation cycle E) developmental norm
ANS: A) social clock REF: Myers8e(1) p. 186 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #168 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #14. The development of control of the muscles of the body is a definition of A) cognitive development. B) mental development. C) motor development. D) maturity. E) physical development.
ANS: C) motor development. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #016 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #15. Mrs. Potter asks Malik if he wants his sandwich in one piece, or cut into two pieces. Malik asks her to keep it in one piece, because he isn't hungry enough to eat two pieces. Malik's answer suggests that he A) does not yet understand conservation B) is in between the stages of assimilation and conservation C) cannot assimilate changes in the shape of the sandwich D) cannot accommodate changes in the shape of the sandwich E) has not yet mastered object permanence
ANS: A) does not yet understand conservation REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #100 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #16. Fluid intelligence refers most directly to a person's: A) ability to utilize diffuse brain regions for storing memories. B) ability to reason speedily and abstractly. C) accumulated knowledge. D) ability to understand object permanence. E) ability to assume the perspective of others.
ANS: B) ability to reason speedily and abstractly. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 184 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #163 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #17. Assuming that R stands for running (a dominant gene) and r stands for waltzing (a recessive gene), what would be the outcome if a female Rr and a male RR produced four offspring? A) One cannot say from the information given. B) Two of the offspring would be runners and two would be waltzers. C) One of the offspring would be a waltzer. D) All of the offspring would be runners. E) Three of the offspring would be runners and one would be a waltzer.
ANS: D) All of the offspring would be runners. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #003 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #18. With the exception of the sex cells, every cell in the human body contains A) 46 chromosomes B) 23 recessive genes and 23 dominant genes C) 46 homozygous pairs D) 23 chromosomes E) 46 heterozygous pairs
ANS: A) 46 chromosomes REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH03 #167 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #19. The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to: A) the rooting reflex. B) insecure attachment. C) infantile amnesia. D) imprinting. E) stranger anxiety.
ANS: C) infantile amnesia. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 146 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #028 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #20. The idea that even if an object changes shape or appearance the underlying quantity of the object remains the same is Piaget's principle of A) assimilation B) conservation C) acquisition D) irreversibility E) object permanence
ANS: B) conservation REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #097 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #21. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as: A) attachment. B) maturation. C) imprinting. D) generativity. E) continuity.
ANS: B) maturation. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 145 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH04 #020 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #22. When Teresa's mother hides her favorite doll under a blanket, Teresa acts as if it no longer exists, and she makes no attempt to look for it. Based on this information, you can infer that Teresa is in Piaget's A) sensorimotor period of cognitive development B) preoperational period of cognitive development C) object permanence period of cognitive development D) concrete period of cognitive development E) formal period of cognitive development
ANS: A) sensorimotor period of cognitive development REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #095 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #23. An instinct is A) an unlearned behavior found in all members of a species. B) a behavior which is rigidly patterned. C) a species specific behavior. D) all of the above E) none of the above
ANS: D) all of the above REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #002 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #24. When researcher Karen Wynn (1992, 2000) showed 5-month-old infants a numerically impossible outcome, the infants: A) stared longer at the outcome. B) demonstrated an obvious lack of object permanence. C) acted as if nothing was wrong. D) showed signs of formal operational reasoning. E) displayed rapid habituation.
ANS: A) stared longer at the outcome. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 149-150 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #043 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #25. Avoiding physical punishment is to ________ morality as respecting the laws of society is to ________ morality. A) preconventional; conventional B) preconventional; postconventional C) conventional; postconventional D) conventional; preconventional E) postconventional; conventional
ANS: A) preconventional; conventional REF: Myers8e(1) p. 168 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #121 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #26. As far as we know, in humans the same genotype A) only occurs in dizygotic twins B) only occurs when the same phenotype occurs C) never occurs, even in twins D) only occurs in identical twins E) only occurs in fraternal twins
ANS: D) only occurs in identical twins REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH03 #182 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #27. According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the: A) adolescent. B) preschooler. C) integrity. D) toddler. E) elementary school child.
ANS: A) adolescent. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 170 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #130 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #28. Christine is a psychologist who conducts research on the effects of reward on maze learning in rats. Christine would most likely be considered a A) behaviorist B) psychoanalyst C) Gestalt psychologist D) evolutionist E) structuralist
ANS: A) behaviorist REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH01 #039 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #29. A fertilized egg is called a(n): A) teratogen. B) habituation. C) zygote. D) fetus. E) embryo.
ANS: C) zygote. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 140 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH04 #004 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #30. Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be: A) conservative. B) authoritarian. C) authoritative. D) attached. E) permissive.
ANS: C) authoritative. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 162 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #099 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #31. Bob is asked, "Do you have a brother?" He replies, "Yes." "What's his name?" "Joe." "Does Joe have a brother?" Bob answers, "No." Bob is most likely in which stage of cognitive development? A) sensorimotor B) concrete operational C) formal D) preoperational E) postoperational
ANS: D) preoperational REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #111 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #32. The formation of a placenta signals the onset of ________ development. A) ovular B) zygotic C) teratogen D) embryonic E) fetal
ANS: D) embryonic REF: Myers8e(1) p. 141 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #007 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #33. The body structures that enable reproduction are the: A) social clocks. B) secondary sex characteristics. C) sex-linked genes. D) primary sex characteristics. E) teratogens.
ANS: D) primary sex characteristics. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 165 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #105 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #34. Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle. A) longitudinal B) embryonic C) genetic D) social E) cross-sectional
ANS: D) social REF: Myers8e(1) p. 139 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #001 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #35. Four-year-old Melanie is exploring one day, and she finds a bottle of vitamins in a cupboard. They look just like some of the candies she got for Halloween, so she eats them all. Melanie's error illustrates the process that Piaget referred to as A) accommodation B) assimilation C) acquisition D) object permanence E) centration
ANS: B) assimilation REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #084 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #36. Which of the following terms refers to a person's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills? A) concrete operational intelligence B) conservation C) crystallized intelligence D) fluid intelligence E) formal operational intelligence
ANS: C) crystallized intelligence REF: Myers8e(1) p. 184 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #162 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #37. Adolescence extends from: A) the beginning of concrete operations to the end of formal operations. B) the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood. C) 12 to 15 years of age. D) 13 through 19 years of age. E) the beginning to the end of the growth spurt.
ANS: B) the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 164 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #103 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #38. A person's genotype refers to his or her A) having only homozygous pairs B) being dominated by the paternal contribution to genetic makeup C) genetic makeup D) being dominated by the maternal contribution to genetic makeup E) observable characteristics and traits
ANS: C) genetic makeup REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH03 #174 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #39. When groups of subjects of differing age are compared at a single point in time, the study is called a A) sequential study B) longitudinal study C) multi-factorial research design D) cross-sectional study E) cross-cultural study
ANS: D) cross-sectional study REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #039 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #40. Menopause refers to: A) the end of the formal operations stage. B) the cessation of menstruation. C) the loss of sexual interest in late adulthood. D) the loss of male sexual potency. E) irregular timing of menstrual periods.
ANS: B) the cessation of menstruation. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 176 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #142 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #41. Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This most clearly contributes to: A) basic trust. B) habituation. C) object permanence. D) conservation. E) egocentrism.
ANS: A) basic trust. REF: Myers8e(1) p. 158 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #086 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #42. The longest stage of prenatal development is the A) neonatal stage B) embryonic stage C) germinal stage D) zygotic stage E) fetal stage
ANS: E) fetal stage REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH11 #013 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #43. Lorenz found that after a gosling is born it tends to follow the first large moving object it sees. This is an example of A) reaction formation. B) an instinctive behavior released by environmental cues. C) a reflex. D) a developmental sequence of conditioning. E) none of the above
ANS: B) an instinctive behavior released by environmental cues. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #012 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #44. The child can understand the abstract during which of Piaget's stages? A) concrete B) preoperational C) sensorimotor D) formal E) Piaget does not say what stage the example would fit into.
ANS: D) formal REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #032 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #45. Which of the following is the sequence of motor development? A) body trunk, head, arms and legs B) arms and legs, head, body trunk C) body trunk, arms and legs, head D) arms and legs, head, body trunk E) head, body trunk, arms and legs
ANS: E) head, body trunk, arms and legs REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #029 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #46. Sue has dark hair and has a recessive trait for light hair. She also has dark skin with no recessive traits for skin color. This is a description of Sue's A) characteristical traits. B) chromosomes. C) phenotype. D) genotype. E) none of the above
ANS: D) genotype. REF: Class Material (Korek) NAT: Korek Unit 03 #019 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #47. Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of: A) self-awareness. B) egocentrism. C) habituation. D) conservation. E) object permanence.
ANS: A) self-awareness. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 161 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH04 #089 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #48. Family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies are primarily designed to A) demonstrate the empirical nature of psychological research B) form the basis of the human genome project C) assess the effects of modern child-rearing methods D) disentangle the effects of genetics and experience on behavioral traits E) establish the groundwork for genetic engineering programs
ANS: D) disentangle the effects of genetics and experience on behavioral traits REF: Class Material (Weiten6eAP) NAT: Weiten6eAP CH03 #179 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #49. The term menarche refers to the: A) onset of male sexual potency. B) development of the primary sex characteristics. C) first menstrual period. D) cessation of menstruation. E) transition period from childhood to adulthood.
ANS: C) first menstrual period. REF: Myers8e(2) p. 166 NAT: Myers8e(2) CH04 #101 STA: DV Test 2008-09
DV089 #50. Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development? A) concrete operational, sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational B) sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational C) preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor D) preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational E) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
ANS: E) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational REF: Myers8e(1) p. 148 NAT: Myers8e(1) CH04 #039 STA: DV Test 2008-09