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15 terms

Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 19.1 Vocabulary

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Prokaryotes
unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
Bacilli
rod-shaped prokaryotes
Cocci
Spherical prokaryotes
spirilla
Spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes
chemoheterotrophs
heterotrophic prokaryotes that must take in organic materials for both energy and supply of carbon
photoheterotrophs
heterotrophic prokaryotes use sunlight for energy, photosynthesis, but also need organic compounds as a carbon source
photoautotrophs
autotrophic prokaryotes that use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds and oxygen
chemoautotrophs
prokaryotes that make organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide. do not require lights a source of energy
obligate aerobes
organisms that require a constant supply of oxygen in order to survive
obligate anaerobes
organisms that live in the absence of oxygen
facultative anaerobes
organisms that can survive with or without oxygen
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
conjugation
a hollow bridge forms between two bacterial cells and genes move from one cell to the other
endospore
type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm
nitrogen fixation
the process of converting nitrogen gas into a form plants can use