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earth space science
semester one review
Terms in this set (41)
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
A layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth.
Coldest region in atmosphere. Upper region where meteoroids burn up "shooting stars" in the atmosphere.
Density- 3.3 gram, A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere. This zone of weak material exists below a depth of about 100 kilometers and in some regions extends as deep as 700 kilometers. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
A rigid layer made up of the upper most part of the mantle and the crust.
The portion of the earth's crust that primarily contains granite, is less dense than oceanic crust, and is 20-50 km thick
Material that makes up the ocean floor, Crust beneath the abyssal oceans, generally basaltic in compostion
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
Secondary waves move through solid rock only. (like when you shake a rope). These shear waves move the earth's surface side to side.
A device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
The energy field created by the spinning of the inner and outer cores.
The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations, Alfred Wegener, The gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
mantle convection currents
fluid mantle has convection currents that are created by heat trapped beneath the earth's surface, the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement in Earth Mantle. Believed to be the driving force of plate tectonics.
Movement of plates caused by uplift at ridge systems pushing plates toward subduction zones
A mechanism that contributes to plate motion in which cool, dense oceanic crust sinks into the mantle and "pulls" the trailing lithosphere along
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust.
Plate goes ontop of each other
strike slip fault
Two plates move in opposite directions
the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
The type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
A large channel in soil formed by erosion
An area of low land between hills or mountains
A tiny groove in soil made by flowing water.
waves may erode rocky shorelines to form hollow areas which may eventually become caves
A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
A large hole formed when the roof of a cave collapses.
fall of rock from a steep cliff
A deep narrow valley with steep sides.
u shaped valley
valleys eroded out by glaciers into the shape of a U
a ridge of sand created by the wind
Formed when particles of broken rock and organic materials are pressed and cemented together to form new rocks. Sediments are mud, sand, pebbles, shells, bones, leaves, and stems. Some rocks of this type can be sandstone, limestone, and gypsum.
an underwater mountain rising above the ocean floor
Flat topped seamount.
acute, sharp, or incisive; forceful; effective
A smooth, nearly flat region of the deep ocean floor
A gently rolling undersea slope between a continental slope and an abyssal plain
mid ocean ridge
An underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
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