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Interactions in Long-Term Memory
Terms in this set (12)
Memories are reconstructed using episodic & semantic (schema)
A. Schemata/Scripts - Large-scale knowledge structure about a topic
Guide interpretation -- e.g., restaurant, birthday party, grocery store
1. headers - early words/concepts that prime appropriate script
2. frames - details about specific events within script; slots filled in
3. default value - typical concept assumed true unless changed by details in story
Evidence for Reconstructive Memory?
1. Vague text studies - no theme e.g, Bartlett's War of the Ghosts
a. Omissions -- left out many details of story
b. Normalize -- make story fit in w/ own ideas, drop unfamiliar ideas; changed original story
2. Vague text studies with theme - Recall the 1st story... Recall based on theme not actual info
3. Clear text studies with theme; e.g. Adolf Hitler vs. Gerald Martin
Study: _____'s seizure of power. ____ strove to undermine the existing government to satisfy his political ambitions. Many of the people of his country supported his efforts....
Test: _____ was obsessed with the desire to conquer the world
What is the problems with Schema Theory?
1. Term vague - Brown
2. If change person's perspective 1 week later, remember details of study that never should have been stored (schema may affect retrieval more than storage)
What is distorted memory?
retrieval of memories are incorrect and information is remembered in a different way than what actually occurred
What causes distorted memory?
A. Leading questions
B. Misinformation Effect
C. False Memories
What is leading questions?
- Saw video of car crash
- "About how fast were the cars going when they_____ each other?"
- hit, smashed, collided, bumped, contacted
- Higher for stronger words & remember broken glass!
What is misinformation effect?
typical expt: show video, give misleading info, test memory
What cause false memory?
Bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, snooze, blanket, doze, slumber, snore, nap, peace, yawn, drowsy
Repressed or recovered memories - Is there empirical evidence?
1. Many say NO - false memories (Loftus)
• leading questions • imagery • hypnosis • pictures
2. Some say YES - anosagnosia ("Rama")
- After RH damage can't move left arm but insist they can
- Rama claims Freudian defense mechanisms located in LH
- RH challenges status quo: Everything may not be alright
- Mirror experiments
- "Jump-start" RH w/ cold H2O in left ear
What is Jacoby's Process Dissociation Procedure for dissociating the conscious and unconscious mind?
A. Inclusion vs. Exclusion
• Given study list; e.g., cat, pizza, shoe, key, etc
Inclusion task ⇒ Complete stem using a word from study list or if unable to remember first word that comes to mind; e.g. (k____)
Exclusion task ⇒ Complete stem using any word except something from the study list. If you remember studying the word then DON'T write it down; e.g. (k____)
B. Formulas for dissociating conscious recollection from unconscious familiarity
What are Assumptions of PDP that have been criticized?
1. C and U are independent
2. Guessing remains equivalent in inclusion and exclusion
Bottom Line Conclusions
1. General world knowledge (i.e., semantic memory) has an influence on memory for specific episodes (i.e., episodic memory)
2. Performance in memory tasks is influenced by conscious (explicit) and unconscious (implicit) factors
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