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Bio 114 Ch.14 LO
Terms in this set (32)
Compare the SNS with the ANS
The SNS provides conscious and subconscious control over skeletal muscles. The ANS controls the visceral effectors: smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle, and adipocytes.
describe the role of the preganglionic neurons
part of the visceral reflex arcs, involved in mostly direct reflex responses, rather than responses to commands of the hypothalamus
explain the function of autonomic ganglia
Ganglionic neurons of autonomic ganglia innervate visceral effectors (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands, adipocytes)
identify two major divisions of the ANS
sympathetic and parasympathetic
compare the anatomy of the sympathetic division with that of the parasympathetic division
SNS- axons emerge from the thoracic and superior lumbar segments os spinal cord, axons innervate ganglia close to spinal cord; PNS- axon emerge from eh brainstem and sacral segments of the spinal cord, axons innervate ganglia very close to target organs
which division of the ANS is responsible for the physiological changes you experience when startled by a loud noise?
sympathetic division of the ANS
starting in the spinal card, trace the path of a nerve impulse through the sympathetic ANS to its target organ in the abdominopelvic cavity
preganglionic neuron-->collateral ganglia-->ganglionic neuron--> visceral effectors in abdominopelvic cavity
Describe an intramural ganglion
group of neurons embedded in the tissue of a target organ
list the general responses to increased sympathetic and parasympathetic activity
-heightened mental alertness
-increased metabolic rate
-decreased digestive and urinary functions
-activation of energy reserves
-dilation of respiratory pathways
-increased respiratory rate
-increased hear rate and blood pressure
-activation of sweat glands
-decreased metabolic rate
-decreases Heart rate and blood pressure
-increased secretions by salivary and digestive glands
-increased motility and blood flow in digestive tract
-stimulation of urination and defecation
define splanchnic nerves
Supply the viscera; three groups, cardiopulmonary, abdominopelvic, and pelvic
Name the plexuses innervated by the vagus nerve.
Cardiac plexus, celiac plexus, inferior mesenteric plexus, and hypogastric plexus
Which nerve carries most of the parasympathetic outflow?
what physiological changes are typical in a tense or anxious person?
increased alertness, increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased energy, increase in muscle tone mobilization of energy reserves
what neurotransmitter is released by all parasympathetic neurons?
Why is the parasympathetic division sometimes referred to as the anabolic system?
because it increases nutrients in the blood; growth and development; excess stored as lipids or glycogen for energy reserve
compare and contrast alpha and beta receptors
both are stimulated by epinephrine (E); alpha stimulated more by norepinephrine than beta, alpha-1: excites, alpha-2: inhibits, stimulates smooth muscle and glands; beta stimulates cardiac and smooth muscle, beta excites and inhibits target cell
Compare nicotinic receptors with muscarinic receptors.
nicotinic: found in sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglionic cells; muscarine: found in all parasympathetic neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions
a person with high blood pressure (hypertension) is prescribed a drug that blocks beta receptors. How could this medication alleviate hypertension?
blocking the beta receptors on cardiac cells would decrease (or prevent) sypathetic stimulation of tissues containing those cells as a result blood pressure would decrease
explain the significance of the ANS to homeostasis
ANS output impacts virtually every body system, maintain homeostasis with out instruction or interference from conscious mind
name the two types of motor pathways
somatic and visceral
identify somatic effectors and visceral effectors
Somatic effectors are skeletal muscle. Visceral effectors are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands, and adipose tissue.
define dual innervation
organs receive input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic or the ANS
Explain autonomic tone and its significance in controlling visceral function.
neurons show continuous activity; allows to be less active or more active without switching on or off
you go outside on a cold day, and blood flow to your skin is reduced, conserving body heat. You become angry, and your face turns red. Explain these changes.
sympathetic innervates blood vessels on the skin; NE- constrict, E-dilates
define visceral reflex
autonomic reflexes initiated in viscera
Compare short reflexes with long reflexes.
Short reflexes are autonomic responses that bypass the CNS, whereas long reflexes involve interneurons within the CNS and autonomic delivery of motor commands to the effectors.
describe the solitary nuclei
Large masses of gray matter on each side of the medulla oblongata that serve as processing and sorting centers for visceral sensory information
Define baroreceptors. Where are baroreceptors located within the body?
stretch receptors that detect changes in pressure; located along digestive tract, urinary bladder, carotid and aortic sinuses and in lungs
which type of receptor is sensitive to changes in blood pH?
what brain structure is considered to be the headquarters for the ANS?
What brain structure relays somatosensory information?
Harry has a brain tumor that is pressing against his hypothalamus. Explain the effect on autonomic function.
it would effect the autonomic function because the hypothalamus receives visceral sensory information and controls both sympathetic and parasympathetic functions
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