Ch 4 Minerals
Terms in this set (15)
Mineral - The 5 characteristics of minerals
MUST have ALL 5 of the following:
1. Naturally occurring (Is found in nature.)
2. Inorganic (Never was alive)
4. Specific chemical composition (Specific ratio)
5. Crystalline structure
A solid in which atoms are arranged in repeating geometric patterns.
Molten material found beneath the Earth's crust.
Large crystals formed it cools slowly far beneath earth's surface.
Small crystals formed when it cools quickly close on the earth's surface.
Liquid mixture that has more dissolved than normally possible.
Leads to crystal formation - crystals "precipitate" out of the mixture and become solid.
Example: As salty water evaporates, salt is left behind.
Very small amounts of an extra element can change the color of mineral, but NOT the streak color.
Example: Quartz can be clear, yellow, pink, or purple depending on what extra element is present.
The way a mineral reflects light from its surface.
The 2 main categories are metallic or non-metallic.
How a mineral feels.
Examples: smooth, rough, soapy, glassy
The color a material leaves when it is rubbed across a porcelain plate.
MORE DEPENDABLE than color of the mineral itself.
Can only be used when the mineral is softer than the plate.
The measure of how easily a material can be scratched. Harder minerals will scratch softer materials. Softer minerals cannot scratch harder minerals.
The ability of a material to break easily and evenly along a flat plane.
When a mineral breaks into pieces and leaves rough, non-smooth or jagged edges exposed.
Mineral that contains silicon & oxygen. Examples: Quartz & feldspar. Most common mineral group; 96% of minerals in the crust are silicates.
Dark colored silicates due to high amounts Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg).
Examples: Olivene, Pyroxene, Biotite, Amphibole.
Light colored silicates due to high levels Silicon and Oxygen, and very low amounts of Iron or Magnesium.
Examples: Quartz, Feldspar, Muscovite
Mineral made of carbon, oxygen (CO3) & 1 metal.
Example: Calcite. Found in rocks such as limestone & marble.