You are studying bacterial communites on the ocean floor and are tasked with describing all bacteria living deep sea sediment. How?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 198
Terms in this set (198)
by controlling the concentration of nutrients added into a chemostat, bacterial cells can constantly be maintained at ___________Exponential (log) growth phaseYou have thick samples of biofilms from cargo ships and need to visualize different layers of the sample to identify the organisms involved in its formation. Best microscopy technique?confocal laser scanning microscopypeptidoglycan is formed by polysaccharide backbones that are cross linked by ________ bondspeptideExceeding the max temperature of a microorganism results in ______, where exposure below the minimum temp results in __________cell death, no growthDAPI is an example of what stain?FluorescentWhich of the following is not a characterstic of gram positive bacteria?prescense of two memebranes (outer and inner) - only has innerMolecular adaptations that allow psychrophiles to survive in extreme envrionments include all except:phospholipid monolayersWhy did nasa choose this microscopy technique of AFMS?AFMs do not require any sample preparation to obtain imagesA chemoheterotroph and chemoautotroph in the same environment would NOT compete for__________carbon dioxidethe biological function of endospores is to enable ___________bacterial dispersal across unfavorable habitatsthe higher the ___________ of a microscopes objective lens, the better the resolutionwavelengthThe ___________ method is a non destructive technique used for measuring microbial growthTurbidimetriclong term energy storage released from redox reactions occurs in carbon polymers such as _________glycogenWhat is false regarding nitrogen fixation?oxygen catalyzes the nitrogen fixation reactionDuring fermentation, pyruvate molecules are further catabolized yet no additional energy is produced. Fermentation is critical to ATP yield becauseNADH is recycled (oxidized) to NAD+ for subsequent rounds of glycolysisWhat hungarian physician was known as the savior of mothers? Introduced hand washing rules.Ignaz semmelweisYou are working in a lab and begin to study a new microorganism. You discover it used chemical as its energy source and CO2 as its carbon source. What type is it?ChemoautotrophCharacteristics of gliding motility includecontact with a solid surfaceOrganisms that convert ATP always start catabolism throughGlycolysisMycology is the study offungiwhich of the following is not true of archaeal and bacterial cytoplasmic membranes?both can survive in harsh conditions by forming phospholipid monolayersRecognized as the third domain of life. Discovered by woese and fox.ArchaeaYou have discovered a new rod shaped microorganism composed of peptidoglycan. What is it?BacteriumThe purpose of using heavy metal (gold) coating on a sample while using scanning electron microscopy is ________________-all of the abovecell size has important implications for bacteria. Smaller cells have higher surface are to volume ratios resulting in________________faster growth rates and rapid genome evolutionmembrane transport powered by an ATP binding cassette (ABC) system uses energy from _______-ATPWhich feature of anaerobic and aerobic respiration is different between the two catabolic strategies?the electron acceptorAll redox reactions are:coupledThe divisome complex includes the protein ____________, which functions in peptidoglycan synthesis during cell division and represents a new target for antibiotic drugsFtslAdvantages of using scanning electron microscopy to view microbial cells under the microscope includeenhanced cell contrastWhat type of microscope can be useful in viewing inside of microbial cells and has a magnification of 100,00- 500,000x?Electron microscopeSiderophores function to bind and transport the micronutrient ______, into cells representing an important virulence factor for many human pathogensIronDiscovers a colony of bacteria that is rod shaped in long chains. The also use light as their main energy source and inorganic carbon as a carbon source. What would be the best way to describe the colony?Streptobacillus and photoautotrophsA primary function of prokaryotic gas vesicles is to ____________confer buoyancy on cells by decreasing their densitythe development of new products, technologies an processes based on biological systems is called _____________biotechnlogyElectron microscopes achieve higher magnifications than limit microscopes because ___________electron beams have smaller wavelengths than visible lightis all the pyruvate broken down in catabolism?No, we can see it in anabolism to make things such as amino acidsRat bite fever is caused by streptobacillus monilliformis. To diagnose the disease, you are looking for __________rod -shaped cells arranged in chainsLaminar flow hoods are common laboratory equipment that maintain sterile work areas using ____________ sterilizaiton methodsFilter and radiationthe uptake of naked DNA from thee environment can be dangerous for bacterial cells. One mechanism to ensure tha naked DNA from related cells is acquired is ___________Induced competency, where cells only uptake DNA when population density is highHow does antisense RNA regulate translational activity in bacterial cells?By the binding of sRNA molecules to mRNA moleculesthe ames tests detects chemical mutagens by using __________ bacteral to quanitfy reversion mutationsAuxotrophicThe study of all genetic information in an environment is ____________metagenomicsWhich statement is true?Some viruses contain their own nucleic acid polymersWhich of the following is not a mechanism of antibiotic resistance in bacteris?RepressionViral proteins are categorized as early, middle, and late. Late proteins typically are necessary for ____production of viral capsid proteinsThe decimal reduction times of bacteria __________ with increasing temperaturesdecreasesThe bioinformatics 'bottleneck' refers to:the slow process of determining the function of genes in a sequenced genomeWhich radiation sterilization method is used to penetrate solids and liquids, such as the mail that gets sent to the white house or congresses?Ionizing radiationThe baltimore classification system groups viruses by the type of ______ they containnucleic acidsDuring the _______ step of PCR the reaction mixture is cooled to 55 C to allow the binding of ___________Annealing/ PrimersRegulatory proteins __________- are homodimeric - bind to specific DNA sites - regulate transcriptionA virus that kill its host is said to be:lytic (virulent)What does the netflix model of antibiotics refer to?Having a subscription to medical antibiotics on a yearly or monthly basis so that medical companies have incentives to make new antibioticsIn negative control of transcription, how does the presence of a corepressor affet transcription?The corepressor causes the repressor to bind to the operator; transcription is blocked__________ is the process of viral particles exiting a host cell without lysing the cell, causing persistent infection in animal hostsBudding____________ result from hydrogen bonds that form between nucleotides in the SAME strand of an RNA moleculesecondary structureThe uptake of DNA released form a cell (naked DNA) is called ______, while transfer of DNA with direct cell to cell contact is called _________Transformation / conjugationHow is the activity of a riboswitch controlled?By metabolite binding that changes mRNA secondary structure__________ are a class of broad spectrum antibiotics that inhibit microbial growth by inhibiting protein synthesisMacrolidesNegative (-) ssRNA viruses contain the enzyme _______ to allow the synthesis of RNA molecules from an RNA templateRNA dependent RNA polymerase__________ is the enzyme that mediates the transfer of transposable elementsTransposaseAntiseptics (germicides), such as iodine, are distinguished from other antimicrobial agents because they ________.can be used on living tissues without harmWhen packaged in the virion, the complete complex of nucleic acid and protein is known as __________NucleocapsidThe major technical advancement achieved with second (;next;) generation DNA sequencing compared to the sanger method is that _______Massively parallel sequence processing is possibleYou are in the lab studying, a new type of agent After several tests, you find that it only affects bacteria and lowers both their total cells count and viable cell count. This type of agent would be considered?BacteriolycticThe core genome of a prokaryotic species is the genomic content that isshared between all strains of a speciesA mutation that restores the function of a gene is called a ______ mutationreversionThe process of constructing a genome by DNA fragmentation, sequencing and assembly is called the ___________ approachshotgunA halophilic, aerotolerant bacterium would grow best in an ________ environmentoxygen depleted, salineWhich of the following is true regarding post-translational regulation?Post translational regulation increases or decreases the activity of a protein_________ is the most important feature of an effective antimicrobial drugselective toxicityWhat is the form of internal signaling that allows autoinducers to freely diffuse across the cytoplasmic membrane?Quorum sensingIn bacteria, a chromosome can be distinguished from a plasmid, because a chromosome is a genetic element that __________encodes for essential functional genesWhich type of protein would exhibit the most stability?A protein with more alpha -helices than beta sheetsFrameshift mutations are caused by _________- insertion/addition of nucleotides - a deletion of nucleotidesWhich dna sequencing method in requires a transmembrane protein?Nanopore technologyA research team has discovered a new organism that has a large genome. What can NOT be assumed about this organism?It contains a large amount of 'junk' DNAFor bacteriophage and animal viruses __________ is the step in the viral life cycle that determines host cell or tissue specificity.AttachmentThe alarming spread of antibiotic -resistant pathogens is caused by all of the following exceptpromoting of a new antibiotic discoveryWhy would drugs that inhibit transcription only affect Bacteria and not Archaea even though they are both prokaryotes?Archaea have RNA polymers that are more similar to Eukaryotes than bacteriaHorizontally transmitted DNA can be inserted into bacterial chromosomes by ________homologous recombinationWhy is the spontaneous mutation rate NOT zero?Increased mutation rates can be advantageous in rapidly changing environments because some random mutations may be useful for survival._______ is a type of regulation by RNA molecules that controls transcriptional activityAttenuationBacterial endospores can survive temperatures up to 150 C, but are killed in autoclaves at 121 C due to _________The use of stream to enhance cell penetration and decrease spore resistanceSupercoiling is important for DNA structure because ___________it condenses the DNA so that it can fit inside the cellThe main mechanism of evolution of new genes in the genome is _______gene duplication___________ assist in the proper folding of newly synthesized and partially denatured proteins, ensuring proper protein structure and functionMolecular chaperonesWhat is dysbiosis?microbial imbalance on or inside the bodyWhich group of organisms is difficult to control through immunization because of their rapid and unpredictable genetic mutations?RNA virusesWhich of the following microbial groups is most resistant to dessication because of their thick cell wall?Gram positiveWhich of the following diseases are caused by viruses via direct contact?Mononucleosis and hepatitisThe ability to form capsules is a virulence factor for some pathogens. The absence of capsules prevents these pathogens from _____________adhering to host cellsTuberculosis is a highly contagious and potentially fatal disease caused by infection with _____________myobacterium tuberculosisGonnorhea is a particularly prevalent STD because ___________-It causes mild symptoms and infected individuals are unaware that they have the diseaseWhooping cough is disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide and is caused by the aerobic, gram negative bacterium _____________bordetella pertussisMost members of the oral cavity microbiome in humans are __________Facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobesAll of the following are true about most airborne pathogens that affect the respiratory tract except __________________They do not respond to antibiotic therapy_______, periodic reports on the susceptibility of clinically isolated organisms to the antibiotics in current local use, are partucularily valuable for tracking new antibiotic resistant strains.AntibiogramsA disease showing a relatively slow, progressive rise followed by a gradual decline is indicative of what ___________host to host epidemicFew microorganisms can survive in the stomach because __________low pHViruses target specific cells in the human body for infection. The airborne virus Influenza targets ________.Respiratory epitheliumIn which areas of the body is the resident microbiome foundskinInfectious proteins are called ________ and "replicate" by ________.prions, misfolding proteins among contact________ defines the accuracy of detection for particular pathogen cells (or products) in a diagnostic test.specificityIf John Mulaney is infected with measles (Basic Reproduction Number, R0=16) and performs to an audience of 100 susceptible people. What percentage of the audience members would you expect to become infected?16%A disease that is present in low numbers in restricted areas of the world is called ________.endemicMicroorganisms that cause disease only in the absence of normal host resistance (i.e. immunity) are called ________ pathogens.opportunisticThe decrease or loss of virulence in a pathogen is called ________.attenuationHIV/AIDS is one of the major causes of death by infectious diseases worldwide, with infected individual ultimately dying from ________.virus infected cells forming syncytiaCulturing techniques are commonly used to diagnostic pathogens in the human body. These techniques cannot be used for all pathogens because ________.the pathogen must be culturable to be detectedOver time, the relationship between a host-dependent pathogen and a naïve susceptible host population tends towards ________.A balance between host resilience and pathogen virulence such that both are maintainedWhen observing the spread of a pathogen, if the basic reproductive number is less than 1, then what is the effect of the disease on a population?the disease dies out________ are toxic proteins produced and released from pathogen cells as they grow.exotoxinsWhich of the following public health measures control against vehicles?water purificationInfluenza A virus contains two surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) that functions in attachment and neurominidase (N) that functions in ________ and is the target of the antiviral drug Tamiflu.the release of viruses from host cellWhich of the following is the correct disease progression of acute infections?Infection, Incubation Period, Acute Period, Decline Period, Convalescent PeriodThe BEST disease management strategy for measles is ________.preventing human transmission by human vaccinationWhat subviral entity relies on helper viruses?defective virusesWhich of the following is the correct order of transmission modes from easiest transmission to hardest transmission?Sexually Transmitted, Direct-Contact, AirborneVirulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus include the production of ________, which leads to fibrin clots that provide protection from attack by host cells.coagulaseAnti-viral mechanisms in bacteria, such as restriction endonucleases and the CRISPR system, target which stage of the viral life cycle?synthesisBacterial biofilms that grow on tooth surfaces are called ________. When these biofilms include lactic acid bacteria, acidic by-products of their fermentation break down tooth enamel, causing plaque, dental caries________ is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium and is the most commonly reported STD in the US.chlamydia________ are food and beverages that contain live culture of beneficial bacterial strains designed to restore the resident gastrointestinal microbiome.probioticsWhich of the following shows the correct relationship among the epidemiology terms listed?prevalence > incidence > mortalityThe attachment stage of viral infection is nearly impossible to prevent because ________.Viruses target surface receptors that cells need to surviveDiseases can be controlled through immunization even if the percentage of the population that is immunized is less than 100% because ________.herd immunityDisease reservoirs of host-dependent pathogens are usually ________.Animate (living organisms)Disease ________ is measured by the total number of new and existing disease cases within a population over a period of time, a record of disease burden.prevalenceInfectious RNA molecules are called ________.viroidsWhich of the following pairs correctly matches the direct contact disease with its pathogen?Mononucleosis - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)Bacteremia is a term used indicate the presence of bacteria in the bloodSexually transmitted diseases can also be passed person-to-person ________.during pregnancy (mother to offspring)Pathogenesis is ________.The process by which microorganisms cause diseaseWhich of the following resident microbiomes contain the lowest diversity of microbes?vaginaA public health measure to managed disease spread by restricting movement of disease carriers is called ________.quarantineBacteria produce restriction endonucleases to destroy viral DNA that enters the cell. These enzymes only digest viral DNA because the ________ DNA is, methylatedAt what stage in the plasmodium life cycle does the infected person start to see symptoms of malaria?Merozoites stageFungi can damage to the human body by ________.- causing allergic reactions - contamination with mycotoxins - infectious growthAll of the following statements are true regarding the Cholera pathogen EXCEPT ______.the pathogen causes infection in the lungsReverse transcriptase creates complementary DNA (cDNA) from mature mRNA and allows the expression of eukaryotic genes in prokaryotic hosts because ______.the resulting cDNA does not contain intronsIn nature, microorganisms commonly grow in thick layers called biofilms. Benefits of growing in biofilms include all of the following EXCEPT ______.enhanced potential for bacterial dispersalLichens are mutualistic symbioses between fungi and alga (or cyanobacteria) whose ecological importance includes a major contribution to ______.soil formationA unique feature of West Nile Virus is that the virus ________.replicates in the vector as well as the resvoirWhich of the following can result from infection with Yersinia pestis?bubonic plagueSymptoms of ________ include fever, headache and neurological issues leading to sleep cycle disruption.trypanomiasisWhich of the following microbial groups is LEAST commonly found in symbiotic relationships?archaea________ is a disease caused by a bacterium closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis and presents symptoms similar to other respiratory infections.Psittacosis (Parrot fever)Which of the following diseases does NOT require an arthropod vector for transmission?rabiesA person lacking the somatotropin gene will exhibit _______, while a cow injected with the same engineered protein will exhibit _______.dwarfism, increased milk productionMicrobial symbionts are ubiquitous in mammalian gastrointestinal and aid their hosts by digesting plant matter. Mammals that use microbial fermentation to digest food prior to reaching the stomach, such as sheep and cows, are called ______ fermenters.foregutFood poisoning is caused by the ingestion of food containing ________.microbial toxinsAgrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium used to create GMOs by transferring genes into ______ cells.plantThe MOST effective way to prevent cholera outbreaks is ________.Maintaining adequate sewage treatment and safe drinking waterSome of the mail in the United States has to undergo ionizing radiation to help kill this soil-borne microbe used in bioterrorism.bacillus anthracisWest Nile Fever is a flavivirus that invades the nervous system. Infected individuals most commonly have ______.swellingThe BEST disease management strategy for rabies focuses on ________.Preventing transmission by animal vaccinationThe most common cause of food infection in the US is ________, a microaerophilic bacterium present in the resident microflora of poultry.CampylobacterWhich engineered animal was modified by replacing a growth hormone promoter sequence and became the first genetically modified, FDA-approved animal for human consumption?AquaAdvantage salmonSymbiotic interactions in which both organisms benefit from the association are ______ relationships.mutalisticFunctional analyses in microbial ecology focus on groups of metabolically similar microorganisms, called ______, that shared specific habitats, called ______.guilds, niches______ causes food poisoning by producing heat-stable enterotoxins that contaminate meat products and cream-filled desserts.staphylococcus aureusHigh coliform counts in a water sample indicate ________ contamination.wastewaterBiotechnology typically relies on ______ scale production of ______ value commercial products.small, highYou are studying an anti-cancer secondary metabolite produced by an industrial microbe. At what phase of the growth cycle would production of your anti-cancer compound be highest (i.e. when is the best time to harvest)?log (exponential phase)Which of the following is NOT considered a waterborne disease?listeriosisTreatment of tetanus includes the administration of ________ to neutralize toxins in the body and ________ to prevent additional toxin production.antitoxin, antibioticsWhat was the first GMO released into the environment?FrostbanWhich component of diversity accounts for the evolutionary relatedness among species in a community?PhylogeneticThe most important SINGLE factor for public health is ________.Clean waterLyme disease incidence increases with local deer populations because deer ________.Are breeding grounds for the ticks that transmit Lyme diseaseTo prevent disease transmission, animals diagnosed with plague must be ________.Killed and destroyedAthlete's foot is an example of a(n) ________.Superficial fungal infectionZooxanthellae (dinoflagellates) are ______ symbionts found in cnidarians and critical to the formation and maintenance of coral reef ecosystems.PhotosyntheticMalaria, Chagas and Sleeping Sickness are diseases caused by ________ pathogens and thus can be readily diagnosed using microscopy.ProtistThe reservoir for West Nile Virus is ______, while incidental hosts include ______.Birds, Humans + HorsesThe removal or inclusion of ______ (grape skins, stems and seeds) during wine production determines whether the final product is white or red wine.PomaceWhich of the following diseases was a common wartime disease and is caused by rickettsia bacteria?TyphusFungal symbionts found on plant roots that enhance the ability of the plant to uptake water and nutrients are called ______.MycorrhizaeThe most severe and fatal form of anthrax is ________.Inhalation anthrax________ is a newer technique for food preservation that kills microbes in food products by high hydrostatic pressure.PascalizationThe MOST effective disease management plan for Legionellosis (Legionnaire's Disease) is ________.Preventing transmission by proper maintenance of heating/cooling systems_______ is an antibiotic derived from the high-yielding fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and is most commonly prescribed by physicians in a ______ form.Penicillin, semi-synthetic________ is a Biosafety Level 4 virus that causes viral hemorrhagic fever and is transmitted from animals to human by inhalation of infected rodent feces.HantavirusHow does the rabies virus travel through the body to the brain without being attacked by the immune system?By traveling through nerve cellsYou are studying a bacterial culture in the laboratory thought to represent a single species. After detailed genetic investigation, you find that there are actually three different species in your culture. Accordingly, you now refer to this group of microorganisms as a ______.community______ produces amino acids on an industrial scale, including the flavor enhancer MSG and the essential amino acid lysine (added to bread and cereal).Corynebacterium glutamicum