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apush period 6
Terms in this set (80)
Economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Although rejected by biologists, this theory from the 1870s is often associated with Herbert Spencer and is said to have justified the competition of laissez-faire capitalism, the new racial superiority ideas, and imperialist policies.
An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
john d rockefeller
An American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.
..., Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. Horizontal integration is an act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
An attempt by one company to simultaneously control several related aspects of the media business.
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
sherman anti-trust act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
..., A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
panic of 1983
bankruptcy, railroads charge too much, inflation, land
knights of labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
great railroad strike of 1877
large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men
A bomb was thrown at a squad of policemen; killing one police man and injuring several others. The Knights of Labor were blamed for throwing the bomb, resulting in a loss of members and support for their union. Eventually, this caused their union to end.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
A labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized Strikes.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
the new south
The new revitalized South following reconstruction. Vision of new industrial South was conceived by New Democrats. Old democrats opposed this rebirth.
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
us fish commision
was an agency of the United States Government created in 1871 to investigate, promote, and preserve the fisheries of the United States.
American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.
department of the interior
is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
An association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
colored farmers alliance
An organization for coloured farmers who rallied behind political reforms to solve the farmers' economic problems.
las gorras blancas
the White Caps, group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan.
william jennings bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
was the largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States, and was the primary promoter of women's right to vote.
was formed in November 1869 in response to a split in the American Equal Rights Association over the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
was organized by women who were concerned about the destructive power of alcohol and the problems it was causing their families and society.
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
"founder of the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service, which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities; considered the founder of public health nursing"
transcontinental railroad building was very costly and risky (great initial losses)--> needed government subsidies
morill land grant acts
Law Passed awarding proceeds from the scale of public land to the states for the established of agricultural and mechanical colleges
frederick jackson turner
(1861 - 1932) He was an American historian in the early 20th century. He is best known for The Significance of the Frontier in American History, where he stated that the spirit and success of the United States is directly tied to the country's westward expansion. According to Turner, the forging of the unique and rugged American identity occurred at the juncture between the civilization of settlement and the savagery of wilderness.
a chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn (1849-1877)
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
great sioux war
Largest military event since Civil War and one of the largest against Indians in US history, spanning 15 months with 15 battles. Started when Custer brought an expedition of miners searching for gold onto Sioux land. Sioux were victorious in the Battle of Little Bighorn, representing the only Native American triumph during the Indian Wars. However, American soldiers soon regained the offensive, and forced Sioux off their land into reservations. Demonstrates fierce Native American resistance, but also Native American helplessness in the face of superior American numbers and resources
little big horn
Battle between Custer's Seventh Cavalry and the Sioux, Custer's Seventh was decimated
leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904)
dawes severalty act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
A cult that tried to call the spirits of past warriors to inspire the young braves to fight. It was crushed at the Battle of Wounded Knee after spreading to the Dakota Sioux. The Ghost Dance led to the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This act tried to reform Indian tribes and turn them into "white" citizens. It did little good.
massacre at wounded knee
(1890) the U.S. Army's killing of approximately 150 Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota; ended U.S-Indian wars on the Plains
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Construction company formed in 1864 by owners of the Union Pacific RR, used it to dishonestly skim railroad profits for themselves
(USG) , the corrupt part of Tammany Hall in New York City, started by Burly "Boss" Tweed that Samuel J. Tilden, the reform governor of New York had been instrumental in overthrowing, Thomas Nast exposed through illustration in Harper's Weekly
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
interstate commerce act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
A government-printed ballot of uniform dimensions to be cast in secret that many states adopted around 1890 to reduce voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public
initiative and referendum
Initiative was the citizens proposed laws by signing petitions. Referendum was the citizens voting on laws passed down by their legislation.
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
chinese exclusion act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
american protective association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
jim crowe laws
laws assed in the south after reconstruction enforcing the segregation of blacks and whites
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
plessy v ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
gospel of wealth
..., This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
A religious cusade emphasizing social responsibility as a means to salvation. E.G. The Slavation Army, offered materials and spiritual services to the urban poor.
booker t washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement.
editor of black newspaper and spoke out against violence, wrote about lynching
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants
helen hunt jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
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