PSY 344 Final New Material

Mike is handing out leaflets at work on how Jews and minorities are at the root of all the economic and social troubles in this country. He is telling everyone he knows to come to a rally this weekend where a prominent national white supremacist will be speaking. Mike is exhibiting aversive racism.
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Aversive racism actually involves some internal conflict, where one's emotional reactions about a group may be negative, even though one wants to be egalitarian. There tends to be feelings of guilt associated with one's prejudiced feelings toward the group. The behavioral consequence of aversive racism, though, is still discriminatory, as one avoids interacting with those from the outgroup, and one shows a preference for the ingroup, particularly when there are "reasons" one can point to for not choosing an outgroup person
Low prejudice persons and high prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the stereotypes, but differ with respect to how much guilt they experience and their willingness to overcome stereotypic thoughts.TWe like a person best if they have always liked us, rather than if they have gradually come to like us.F just the opposite - see Gain-Loss theoryStudents with a malleable belief in intelligence (in contrast to those with a belief that intelligence is fixed and inflexible) are more likely to take risks in learning, put more effort into learning and learn a greater variety of ideas.T and most importantly, they tend to persist more in the face of difficulties while learning. This explains why teaching this "growth mindset" about intelligence to people who are vulnerable to stereotype threat in academic settings can significantly counteracts or reduce the harmful effects of that stereotype threatResearch by Fincham & Bradbury, who studied 130 newly married couples over time, found that couples who made more situational attributions for negative partner behaviors early in their marriage were less happy a year later than those who made dispositional attributions for those behaviors.F just the opposite - those who made dispositional attributions for those negative partner behaviors where less happy a year later than those who made situational attributions for themBenevolent sexism is a form of paternalistic stereotyping in which women are viewed as warm and nurturing, but weak and less competent.TThe Implicit Association Test (IAT) was designed to capture people's uncensored, automatic reactions to people of different races. However these automatic reactions are less predictive of people's behaviors than are their controlled, explicit responses on surveys.F the automatic implicit reactions have often proved to be MORE predictive of people's behaviorsAccording to research by Fein & Spencer (1997), participants with a negative stereotype of Jewish people were more likely to judge a Jewish job applicant poorly if they (participants) had recently received negative feedback that lowered their self-esteem.T and their self-esteem appeared to "rebound" after making more negative evaluations of the Jewish person, further demonstrating that using their stereotypes to judge someone else poorly really was motivated by a motivation to make themselves feel better about themselves.An experiment by Turner and Pratkanis demonstrated that women who were led to believe they were selected for a job "because of their gender" as part of an affirmative action program later exhibited greater self-handicapping and less persistence on tasks than women who were led to believe they were selected "because of their abilities."TSocial categorization often leads to stereotyping and prejudice because we are motivated to view the groups we belong to as better than other groups, which is related to social identity theory (our self-concepts are partly based on the groups we belong to and thus our self-esteem is partly based on our evaluation of these groups).TThe illusory correlation explanation for how stereotypes develop is the polar opposite of the kernel-of-truth explanation for how stereotypes develop.T in the demonstrations of stereotypes based on illusory correlations, there clearly was no kernel of truth to be exaggeratedJane Elliott's "Blue-Eyed vs. Brown-Eyed" demonstration in her rural Iowa grade school classroom demonstrated stereotype threat in that being viewed as inferior caused students to perform more poorly.TDesegregated housing worked better at reducing prejudice than did desegregated public schools.T see textbook's discussion of contact hypothesis for an explanation)Scapegoating is related to the role that realistic conflict and competition play in the formation of stereotypes and prejudices.T It also relates to the frustration-aggression hypothesis -- when we are struggling with others or with our social and/or economic status in life, the frustrations associated with these struggles can lead us to take them out on others, particularly on groups who are not as accepted in a society and/or are the subject of negative stereotypes.When an autostereotype a group has of itself is essentially the same as the heterostereotype others have of the group, this is generally regarded as good evidence for the accuracy of the stereotype.F see the research by Clark & Clark (1947) and Goldberg (1968) which show that negative stereotypes can be internalized by those who are the targets of those stereotypes. This doesn't mean that the stereotypes are accurate.The three key ingredients in a consummate love are intimacy, passion, and commitment.TAnticipatory dissonance avoidance is one of the explanations for why being liked tends to liking others back (i.e., reciprocal liking).F it is one of the explanations for why proximity leads to likingThe term "bookkeeping," which refers to making sure that everyone is contributing their fair share in a relationship, is most likely to occur in a communal relationship.F It is most likely to occur in an exchange relationship, which occurs between people who not close, such as strangers, acquaintances, or casual friends. In closer relationships (communal relationships, we stop bookkeepingA face where all the features of that face are average in size, shape, and position for the population, is generally judged as especially beautiful.also note that symmetry is important, as is clear complexion - lack of blemishesWhat is the self-fulfilling prophecy, and how can it explain why first impressions persist and stereotypes persist, despite encountering contradictory information?someone "predicting" or expecting something, and this "prediction" or expectation coming true simply because the person believes or anticipates it will and the person's resulting behaviors align to fulfill the belief Why impressions persist? we can't change a first impression Why stereotypes persist despite encountering contradictory information? - We're wired to form in groups and out groups and once we do, its hard not to change our views of the outgroup. We create a self-fulfilling prophecy - our stereotypes create the realities that confirm and reinforce our stereotypes (believing is seeing effect) - we perceive symbolic threats from other groups/views and actions that we think challenge our cherished beliefs and valuesWhich specific cognitive processes are influenced by the activation of stereotypes?associating a characteristic with a groupDescribe the Robber's Cave study with the boys at summer camp. What factors created prejudice and what factors reduced prejudice in that study?- 11 and 12 year old boys at a 3 week summer camp all of the same ethnicity and similar in SES - divided 22 boys into groups and drove them to a Boy Scout camp in separate buses, settled in bunkhouses about 1/2 mile apart - developed group identities ("rattlers" and "eagles")- camp staff set up a tournament of competitive activities between the two groups - the camp gradually degenerated into open warfare -the win-lose competitions produced intense conflict, and negative images of the outgrip, but also strong in-group cohesiveness and pride Factors that created prejuidice: open warfare - name calling, garbage wars, fights, win-lose competitions Factors that reduced prejuidice: strong ingroup cohesiveness and prideDefine the following key terms and give an example of each: institutional discrimination, autostereotype, benevolent vs. hostile sexism, implicit bias, outgroup homogeneity effect, scapegoating, attributional ambiguity, aversive racism, and stereotype threat.Institutional Discrimination: discrimination that occurs on the level of a large group, society, organization, or institution - doesnt necessarily involve personal prejuidice - may be that institutional policies have an unintended or intended discriminatory effect on some groups - ppl may not be prejuidice regarding something, they may just be following the policy Autostereotype: is a group's stereotype of itself - do psychologists think psychologists are generally boring? Benevolent vs. Hostile Sexism: H = Hostile sexism overtly keeps women in a subordinate position and is even a precursor for sexual harassment and violence toward women B = Benevolent sexism is a subtler form of sexism and is expressed in a seemingly positive way. Implicit Bias: an unconscious association, belief, or attitude toward any social group. Outgroup Homogeniety Effect: the tendency for members of a group to see themselves as more diverse and heterogeneous than they are seen by an outgroup. Scapegoating: the tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless Attritional Ambiguity: is the nature of the behavior, evaluations, or opportunities that I am receiving due to something about my internal dispositions or is it due to other people's prejudice toward people like me Aversive Racism: expressed by the avoidance of inter-racial settings, particularly when norms for appropriate behavior are unclear or behavior can be justified in non-prejudiced terms Stereotype Threat: the apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotypeDefine an illusory correlation and describe the steps that lead to the creation of an illusory correlation in our social perceptions.tendency to see relationships, or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated 1. when infrequent events co-occur it attracts considerable attention 2. the greater attention leads it to be more memorable later on 3. due to the availability heuristic, we overestimate the frequency with which those memorable events occurred When they're most likely to occur: when the events or people are distinctive or conspicuousWhat are the two different types of loneliness and which one is most damaging to one's sense of well-being?Social loneliness: feeling alone in a group full of people Emotional loneliness: feeling emotionally isolatedWhat is the difference between a low-prejudiced and a high-prejudiced person? In what way are they similar? (Devine)low-prejudiced individuals: are those for whom the stereotype and prejudice may come to mind but who are uncomfortable with their thoughts and feelings and will exert efforts to suppress the stereotype and prejudice high-prejudiced individuals: also have the same stereotype and prejudice come to mind, but feel not guilt about it and make no effort to suppress itList at least five factors that help to create stereotypes and prejudices, at least five conditions that help reduce prejudice, and at least two inhibiting factors that help to explain why the reduction of stereotypes and prejudices is so difficult.Reduce Prejudice: 1. mutual interdependence 2. a common goal 3. equal status of group members 4. having informal interpersonal contact 5. having multiple contacts with several members of the outgroup 6. when social norms are in place that promote equality Creating stereotypes/prejudices: - Factors that help to explain why the reduction of stereotypes and prejudices is so difficult: - subtyping?What is Sternberg's triangular theory of love? Specifically, list the 3 main factors, and list and describe the 3 main types of love we discussed in lecture.- the idea that different kinds of love consist of vary degrees of three components: - intimacy, passion, and commitment - evolutionary approach to loveList 3 factors that help promote attraction, and describe one research study on each.- proximityWhat is social exchange theory and how does it relate to satisfaction with and commitment to a relationship with another person? What are the two kinds of comparisons people make, according to this theory?-the theory holding that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they believe they deserve (comparison level), and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else (comparison level for alternatives)How is the research on arousal and attraction similar to the research on arousal and aggression? Under what conditions is each effect most likely to occur?Arousal & Attraction: our emotional experience may be based on how we interpret or label our physiological arousal. A person who has an elevated level of arousal could interpret that arousal as attraction to other other person (White, Fishbein, And Rutsein Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder) Arousal & Aggression: arousal can amplify aggressive responses. According to Hebb (1955), for example, arousal acts to energize, or strengthen, whatever behavior is most appropriate in the situationWhat are three main factors that affect how beautiful a face appears to be?Large eyes Prominent cheekbone Big smileAccording to the stereotype content model, what are the two dimensions by which all people are universally judged? Which group of people is judged very low on both dimensions, and as a result, is perhaps the most negatively viewed group in our country?1. Warmth 2. Competence Low on warmthWhich type of love tends to increase over time and which type of love tends to diminish over time?companionate love: the feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person when we care deeply for the person, but do not necessarily experience passion or arousal in his or her presence passionate love: the feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person when we care deeply for the person, but do not necessarily experience passion or arousal in his or her presence Passionate may decrease over timeWhat is the basic difference between an exchange relationship and a communal relationship and how is the issue of equity apply in each of these?exchange relationships: - we tend to "bookkeep" to make sure that everyone is contributing their fair share - relationships with strangers and casual aquaintances - making sure that some sort of equity is achieved, that there's fairness in the distribution and rewards communal relationships: - we do not bother to "bookkeep" and are simply more interested in the other person's long-term welfare - relationships with friends, family, and "wanna-be" friends - neither one of the partners are keeping scoreWhat is the key difference between a close relationship and a casual acquaintance?Close relationships: -strong -frequent -diverse interdependence - they affect each other emotionally -they support and encourage each other -they can reward and punish each other Casual acquaintance: someone you know. They are not close friends, but you know them. This means you have been introduced to each other in some way.A study by Bridgeman (1981) involving 10-year-old children who spent 2 months engaged in "jigsaw" classes found that these students were especially good at taking the perspective of another person (i.e., demonstrating empathy). What was the evidence for empathy / perspective-taking in this study?It leads them to like the people they helpWhat are the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse when it comes to marriages / close relationships that are likely to fail or end?1 .Criticism 2. Defensiveness 3. Contempt 4. WithdrawalWhat is the Gain-Loss theory of attraction and liking? What is the potential dark side to this theory in the context of long-term close relationships? What "dilemma" was described by the authors in connection with this potential dark side?suggests that we particularly like individuals who we have "won over"What is the pratfall effect? In general, how does a person's competence affect our liking for them? Does it enhance or hurt our liking of them if they are more competent than we are in a particular area?The Pratfall Effect states that people who are considered highly competent are found to be more likeable when they perform an everyday blunder than those who don't Like them moreSuppose you want a particular person to like you. You have a choice between (1) doing a favor for that person, or (2) getting that person to do a favor for you. Which is the better option? Describe research that supports your answer.1. Do a favor for that person, because it will make them see you as a good personWhat does Aronson mean by straight talk and what are the two characteristics of effective communication? How do these relate to his concepts of intimacy and authenticity?Person's clear statement of their feelings and concerns without accusing, blaming, judgement, etc. Not ridiculing the other person.Why does proximity often lead to attraction? List and explain 3 reasons.1. Familiarity 2. Mere Exposure Effect 3. Just being around someone or being repeatedly exposed to them increases the likelihood that we will be attracted to them.What is the evolutionary argument for why men seek women who are young and beautiful, while women are more likely to seek men who are older and financially resourceful? What are the critique of the evolutionary arguments for mate preferences?Older men are driven by goals and direction which is what makes younger women get attracted to them. ... This is because women are usually more mature than men and they look for someone who would match their level of maturity.Aversive Racismexpressed by the avoidance of inter-racial settings, particularly when norms for appropriate behavior are unclear or behavior can be justified in non-prejudiced termsGain-loss Theorya theory of attraction that posits that liking is highest for others when they increase their positivity toward you over timeExchange Relationships- we tend to "bookkeep" to make sure that everyone is contributing their fair share - relationships with strangers and casual aquaintancesCommunal Relationships- we do not bother to "bookkeep" and are simply more interested in the other person's long -term welfare- relationships with friends, family, and "wanna-be" friendsCompanionate Lovethe feelings of intimacy and affection we feel for another person when we care deeply for the person, but do not necessarily experience passion or arousal in his or her presencePassionate Lovethe feelings of intense longing, accompanied by physiological arousal, we feel for another person; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstasy but when it is not, we feel sadness and despairSternberg's Triangular Theory of Love- the idea that different kinds of love consist of vary degrees of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment- the idea that different kinds of love consist of vary degrees of three components: intimacy, passion, and commitmentStereotypebelief that associates a group of people with certain traits (if you see a homeless person, you want to avoid them)Allport & Stereotypesdescribes a stereotype as faulty and inflexible generalization inflexible = not altered by contradictory info faulty = assumes "facts" about all members of the groups that are not true of all or most members of the groupThree Reactions1. Discrimination > Behavior 2. Stereotypes > Cognitive 3. Prejuidice ? Affective We think about these things in a linear way, they're all interconnected so we can start anywhereWhat's wrong with stereotypes?- we all do it. It's built into us - we categorize and generalize. helps us navigate through life - can lead to prejuidice and discrimination - can influence what we notice and attend to in our environment - can influence how we interpret the events we notice - can influence how we explain or make attributions for the causes of events we notice - can lead us to remember better events and info that fits our stereotypes (remember things in a way that reinforces) - can influence our emotional reactions and our subsequent behaviorGroups that are targets of prejuidice:Depending on the content of our stereotypes of the competence and warmth of different groups, we'll have different emotional and behavioral reactions to these groupsThe Sterotype Content Model (Fiske et. al 2002)- postive stereotypes - negative stereotypes - mixed stereotypes PATERNALISTIC: high warmth/low competence ( elderly, disabled people, some gender ST) (women taking care of hard working husbands) ENVIOUS: low warmth/high competence (asians & jews, rich people (lawyers)) 4 different combinations of warmth and competence are associated with different intergroup emotions Low competence/low warmth - contempt low competence/high warmth - pity high competence/low warmth - envy high competence/high warmth - prideA Kernel of TruthStereotypes have a degree of truth to them but are exaggerated and/pr overgeneralized "professors are boring" - might be generally true, but ST may exaggerate how boring they are and it might be overgeneralized for all professorswhat is the affective (emotion) component of the terrible trio?prejudicewhat is the behavioral component of the terrible trio?discriminationaccording to the stereotype content model what two types of mixed stereotypes are therepaternalistic stereotypes and envious stereotypesClark and Clark (1947)-Doll preference study - demonstrated that black kids, even as young as 3 years of age in some cases, rejected black dolls in preference for white dolls - often said the white dolls were prettier -The majority of both white and black children preferred white doll -Later studies found different results for positive views of own ethnicityGoldberg (1968)- asked women to read scholarly articles and then evaluate them in terms of competence, style, etc.- 1/2 of the participants got the article with the author's name listed as John T. McKay- 1/2 of the participants got the same article, but with the author's name listed as Joan T. McKay- females rated the article significantly higher if it was supposedly written by a male author than if it was written by a female authorwhy does the outgroup homogeneity effect occur- lack of contact - unrepresentative sample - lack of mental efforts to individualizeTajfel's Social Identity Theory- Self-esteem derives in part from personal identity and accomplishments - But also from the status and accomplishments of the various groups to which people belong - people maintain their self-esteem in part by believing the groups they belong to are better than other groups - postulates that the underlying motive behind in-group bias is self-esteem maintenance and enhancementsocial identity theory research- after university athletic teams win a game, students are more likely to (1) wear clothes that identify the school, and (2) use the word "we" when describing the game's outcome, especially if their self-esteem has recently been challenged by a personal failure - a review of 34 separate studies found people who are high in self-esteem, who therefore have the most to lose if their self-esteem is undercut, exhibit more in-group bias than do people low in self-esteemFein and Spencer study (1997)- experiment temporarily altered students' self-esteem by giving them bogus feedback after an intelligence test - half their participants told they scored in the top 10% for their university, and half told that they scored below average - later, in what appeared to be an unrelated study, participants were asked to evaluate a job candidate who was presented as either Jewish or Italian - participants who suffered a blow to their self-esteem later evaluated the candidate more negatively when she seemed Jewish than when she seemed Italian - no difference was found among participants who were given positive feedback about their intelligence - moreover, students who received negative feedback about their intelligence showed a rebound in self-esteem after devaluing the Jewish candidate; that is, by putting down the Jewish candidate, the increased their self-esteemrealistic conflict theory- limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination - prejudice, discrimination, and violence against out-group members is positively correlated with scarcity of jobs or other resourcesDevine (1989)- developed a theory about how stereotypical and prejudiced beliefs affect information processing - her theory is based on the distinction between automatic and controlled information processing - according to her theory, when we process information about another, first the stereotypes that we know about are automatically triggered, then in the controlled process we decide whether or not to accept the stereotypelow prejudice vs. high prejudice individuals according to Devinelow-prejudiced individuals: are those for whom the stereotype and prejudice may come to mind but who are uncomfortable with their thoughts and feelings and will exert efforts to suppress the stereotype and prejudice high-prejudiced individuals: also have the same stereotype and prejudice come to mind, but feel not guilt about it and make no effort to suppress itresearchers suggest there are three types of people when it comes to automatic negative reactions. what are the three?1. those who do not have an automatic negative reaction to members of a given group 2. those who do have an automatic negative reaction but have no problems expressing their prejudice 3. those who have an automatic negative reaction but want to suppress itJemmott and Gonzales study (1989)- took elementary school children and made some "high-status" by giving them a big fancy "BOSS" button, while others were made "low-status" by giving them a small unimpressive "helper" button - kids were put into 4-person groups that varied a child's status as well as whether they were in the majority or minority (3-BOSSES plus one helper or 1 BOSS plus 3 helpers) - after a brief group activity, the children then were given a series of 10 anagrams to solve on their one - BOSSES did better than helpers on the anagram task, especially when helpers had been in the minority in their groupOyserman et al. study (2006)- boys who rated themselves as dark-skinned blacks and significantly higher GPAS, higher academic confidence and higher social acceptance than those with lighter skin tones - the results were replicated with Latino students who "looked Latino" - minority students who do well in school can be labeled as "acting white" so those who more visibly appear to be a member of the minority group are freer to act outside the group normjigsaw classrooma classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learnt course material and do well in the classwhy does jigsaw classroom's work- one reason for the effectiveness of the jigsaw classroom is that it succeeds in breaking down in-group versus out-group perceptions - this learning environment also places people in a "favor-doing" situation and leads them to like the people they help - in addition, the jigsaw classroom works because it fosters empathywhat causes initial attraction?-proximity -similarity -reciprocal liking- physical attractivenessMoreland and Beach (1992)- they had four typical and comparable female students list a class during a semester either 0, 5, 10, or 15 times - frequency of exposure had a significant influence on subjects' liking of the women on a variety of measures including (ratings of intelligence, popularity, honesty, physical attractiveness etc.) -the more often a female came on, the more likely they were to rate her attractiveness and personality higherDarley and Berscheid (1967)found that people evaluated another person with whom they expected to interact more favorably than one with whom they did not expect to interactByrne and Blaylock study (1963)- found a moderate degree of similarity in the attitudes of married couples -but when they asked the husband or wife to predict the attitudes of his or her partner, the similarity scores were significantly higher - thus, it may be the perceived similarity that is important, not the actual degree of similarityNovak and Lerner study (1968)-found that when subjects were led to believe that their attitudes and general background were similar to those of a particular mental patient, the subjects reported liking the mental patient less than subjects who were told they are dissimilar to the mental patientSwann et al. (1992)-have shown that people with high self-esteem like and interact with those who like them, but people with low self-esteem prefer to interact with somebody who criticized themClifford and Walster study (1973)- showed 5th grade teachers a report card with information about a hypothetical student- all the teachers saw the same report but the pictures attached to the card varied in attractiveness- teachers' assessment of the students' IQ and expected future level of performance was higher for attractive studentssocial exchange theory-the theory holding that how people feel about a relationship depends on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they believe they deserve (comparison level), and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else (comparison level for alternatives)What causes initial attraction?proximity, similarity, reciprocal liking, physical attractiveness