Psychology Unit 3 Test Dr C

Behaving because personality, character, and motives
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Terms in this set (64)
T or F: It's easier to get someone to form an attitude rather than to change an attitude.TrueThe theory that if you're wanting something big from someone, first ask for something small, then after a period of time, ask for the big thing.Foot-in-the-door phenomenonThis person's famous experiment involved a dozen "normal" men being selected via interview and psych tests to participate in an experiment where they had to be in prison for two weeks. To throw the participants off, and to get accurate results, the experiment was done the night before it was supposed to start. The participants were given gowns and only called by their gown or inmate number. They had nothing except a toothbrush and chains on their ankles. As the experiment went on, the guards started getting harder and harder on the participants. The "prisoners" were totally miserable. ____ announced they could apply for parole which involved individual hearings with the parole board. However, none of them got granted parole (obviously it was a set up for failure). The experiment was supposed to be two weeks long, but ended in 6 days because it had gotten out of hand.Zimbardo's famous Stanford prison experimentAcquiring a passive, hopeless, "giving up" response in the face of repeated pain or frustration, eventually not even taking advantage of opportunities to escapeLearned helplessnessIn Zimbardo's experiment, why didn't the participants just quit?Learned helplessnessOnce Zimbardo's experiment quit (after 6 days), the prisoners were thankful but the guards wanted the experiment to continue. They were so caught up in the experiment they couldn't pull themselves out. Why?The abusiveness of the guards had nothing to do with their personalities. The roles they were playing and the situation they were in did.This term means inside your mindcognitiveFestinger's cognitive dissonance experiment involved people having to rotate nuts and bolts on a board in a 90 degree angle and put tiny rods into small holes in the board. Some participants got paid $2 and some got paid $20. After the experiment, he questioned them and the people most likely to said it was truly interesting was __.the participants that got paid $2T or F: The more you can get people to engage in a public and voluntary behavior, the more likely they are to change their beliefs/values and attitudesTrueIf you give a person a task they can't do, they respond with something they can do.Ossorio's maximEx: Essay question that you don't know, you write down everything you do know similar to that subjectOssorio's maximThis law is gender neutral. It involves wearing a dress shirt (collared button up), neck tie, and a tire pressure gage (chrome or bronze)Carskadon's lawT or F: 90% of all professionals operate not in accordance with the needs of the people they are serving, but rather in accordance to their own particular needsTrueThe definition of being a professional is to not fall under the 90% (to acknowledge the patients needs instead of their own)Carskadon's corollaryAdjusting our behavior or thinking to match a group standardConformityT or F: With the thought of conformity in mind, people will laugh if you laugh: people will smile back at you if you smile at themTrueT or F: We mimic the people we are aroundTrueThis famous experiment focused on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. Involved all types of people except women. Consisted of one learner (the confederate(actor)) and one teacher (the actual subject). Each mistake the learner made the teacher had to shock him, each time increasing in voltage. However, the learner wasn't actually shocked, it was an act. The learner stopped responding after 22-30 shocks. However, 62.5% of the subjects did the entire experiment because Milgram told them to. When Milgram gave the orders to the teacher over the phone, most of them didn't go through with it. However, when Milgram was there with them (the teachers) most of them did as he said. Women were just as likely to go through with it also.Milgram's first famous experimentT or F: The results of Milgram's famous experiment relates to the real world. Ex: The holocaustTrueT or F: All obedience is bad.False. 9/11 first responders died trying to get people out from obeying ordersLoss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that create feelings of arousal and anonymityDeindividuationT or F: An example of deindividuation is fans at football games screaming all kinds of things at the referees.TrueT or F: An example of deindividuation is group papersFalse; that is an example for social loafingT or F: Group polarization doesn't necessarily have to be badTrueT or F: Whatever you believe, you can hardly ever find others who share the same views on the internet.False; you can pretty much always find someoneT or F: When in a group, if you doubt the decision being made, you usually speak up.False, most people don't say anything (groupthink)When we tend to assume people are noticing much more than they really areSpotlight effectT or F: An example of spotlight effect is girls thinking they are having a bad hair dayTrueUnjustifiable, usually negative, attitudes toward a group and its members, involving stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predispositions to discriminatory actions toward themPrejudiceUnjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its membersDiscriminationGeneralized, usually overgeneralized, beliefs about a group of peopleStereotypesInfluences the way you behave, but you aren't aware of itImplicit (Automatic, Unconscious) PrejudiceThat prejudice provides an outlet for anger by people who are frustrated for various reasonsScapegoat theoryT or F: We are likely to have vicious prejudice against groups we are most likeTrue Ex: MSU vs Ole Miss rather than MSU vs Norte DameEstimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, particularly vivid examples of eventsAvailability heuristicBelief that the world is just Ex: if you do bad things, bad things will happen to you and vise versa Ex: if bad things happen to you then you must be a bad person and vise versaJust world phenomenonT or F: Both animals and humans have no genetic or biological aggressionFalse; they both have itT or F: Violent criminals have more testosteroneTrueT or F: Testosterone levels increase with ageFalse; decrease with ageFrustration (blocking people from achieving their goals) creates anger, and anger creates a readiness for aggression, depending on the situationFrustration-aggression principleT or F: Foul odors make us more aggressiveTrue; cig smokeAt this age, children start imitating models they see on TV14 months (some), 2 years (all)T or F: The TV had no effect on rates of homicideFalse; they doubled when TVs came outThe idea that releasing aggressive energy, either through fantasy or through actual behavior, relieves and reduces aggressive urges; that we will "blow off steam" by venting our emotionsCatharsis hypothesisT or F: The Cartharsis hypothesis is only temporary and makes people more aggressive, not lessTrueT or F: The aggression in men didn't change when they witnessed erotic filmsFalse; they become more aggressive towards womenThe tendency for a witness to an emergency to be less likely to help a stranger in need if other witnesses are presentBystander effectT or F: people are most likely attracted to people with similar values or goals in lifeTrueComparing ourselves to people better off than we are rather than to people worse offRelative deprivationIf people feel good themselves, they are more likely to do good for othersFeel-good, Do-good phenomenonValues and ideals interpreted to you by your parents; feel guilty when you don't live up to your ideals; striving for protection not connected with external realitySuperegoT or F: There are treatments to Antisocial disorderFALSEGenetic predisposition AND history of childhood abuseCauses of Antisocial disorder ***Can't be either or, has to be bothDoesn't work well, get the desired results but instead makes things worse instead of betterDysfunctional