Bio 22: ch 18 the digestive system

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The opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes to enter the abdominal cavity is called the esophagealhiatusThe chemical energy of food molecules is extracted during cellular respiration to makeATPThe theme of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, "rest and ", ————— reflects its role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract.digestacid in gastric juice• Denatures dietary protein • Converts pepsinogen to pepsin • Is necessary for coupling of intrinsic factor and vitamin B12 • NOT peptide bonds are broken by gastrinnon-enzymatic secretion of salivary glands, —————facilitates bolus formation during mastication.mucusThe organ beginning at the pyloric sphincter is the ______.small intestineFood is typically ingested as polymers of macromolecules, which are made from individual subunits called————-, especially for carbohydrates and proteins.monomersInhibitory peptides are released from pepsinogen by ————freeing the fully active enzyme pepsin.HClSaliva containsamylase and mucusThe active sites of brush border enzymes are oriented toward the _______ of the small intestine.lumenThe small intestine extends from the ——-sphincter, superiorly to the ———— valve, inferiorly.pyloric, ileocecalPeristalsis in the small intestine is _______ than in the esophagus.slower and weakerThe sequence of waste passage in the large intestine is first through the ______.ascending colonSimple columnar epithelial cells of the small intestinal mucosa possess ———— of the small intestine, ———- and goblet cells that secrete————Blank 1: microvilli Blank 2: lumen Blank 3: mucusAn action of gastric juice is to activate the enzyme ———— in the stomach.PepsinThe numbers of microorganisms _______ from the stomach to the large intestine.IncreasesSimple columnar epithelial cells absorb approximately 78% of the fluid (approximately 5.5 to 7 liters) that enters the _______, and approximately 90% of the fluid (approximately 1.4 to 1.8 liters) that enters the _______.small intestine......large intestineThe contractile pressure accompanying peristalsis in the small intestine is greater in the _______ than in the _______.Duodenum....IleumThe capillary spaces in the liver are calledsinusoidsIntestinal microbiota or microflora areMostly, but not exclusively, bacteria Normal residents of the human gastrointestinal tractIn intestinal epithelial cells, absorption of sodium by active transport, through the _______ membrane surface, drives the passive absorption of water, through the _______ membrane surface.basolateral; apicalWhen the anal sphincters relax and abdominal muscles contract, ___ occursdefecationGlucose and cholesterol can enter the bloodstream from cells of the _______ and _______.liver and small intestineThe gallbladderconcentrates bile. receives and releases bile through the cystic duct. is a distensible storage organ.Pancreatic islets are responsible for the ______ of the organ.endocrine functionGanglia of the enteric nervous system are interconnected by the ———— plexus, found along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, and the ————- plexus, located in the small and large intestines.outer , innerSecretion of pancreatic enzymes is stimulated by ACh and the hormone ______.CCkMaintenance of the structure of the gastric mucosa is dependent on the trophic effects of the hormone _______.gastrinVagal regulation of gastric secretion and motility by the CNS prior to the arrival of food in the stomach, is called the ——- phase.The enteric nervous systemconsists of neurons and glial cells. operates using several neurotransmitters.The arrival of chyme in the duodenum stimulates the secretion of _______ and _______, both of which stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juice.CCK and secretionThe digestion of complex carbohydrates begins in the ———— the digestion of disaccharides occurs in the ————-Mouth, duodenumMaintenance of the exocrine pancreas is dependent on the trophic effects of the hormone _______.cholecystokininStimulation of the vagus nerves by the brain in response to the sensory input from the special senses-describes the cephalic phase of gastric regulation -is a conditioned reflexThe major products of protein digestion by pepsin areshort-chain polypeptidesbile saltsemulsify fatsThe substrate for salivary amylase is _______, and the product is _______.starch to maltoseComplete digestion of protein occurs-around pH 8 -in the absence of pepsin -in the small intestineBile is most important for excretion of which mineral?emulsificationBile salt micelles-act like detergent on dietary triglycerides -from emulsification droplets with triglycerides -increase the surface area for chemical digestionPepsin would not be found in the stomach if the ________ cells were destroyed.chief cellsRead the statements about protein digestion, and choose the incorrect statement.a medication that inhibits the formation of HCl would decrease protein breakdown A) If HCl was missing, the stomach could not perform the initial steps of protein digestion. B) A medication that inhibits the formation of HCl would decrease protein breakdown. C) The low pH provided by HCl secretion allows the pepsin enzyme to be freed from pepsinogen enzymes. D) Protein digestion could be impacted by disease of both the stomach and the pancreas.Vitamin B12 is primarily absorbed in the _ileumAntihistamines would directly limit the gastric secretion of ________hydrochloric acidAcidic chyme is buffered by ________ secreted from the pancreas.BicarbonateWhich of the following disorders occurs as a result of acidic gastric juice traveling up into the esophagus?gastroesophageal reflux diseaseWhich of the following may be beneficial in treating gastric ulcers?H2 histamine blockersWhich hormone stimulates ECL cells to secrete histamine, which stimulates HCl release from parietal cells?gastrinThe three major steps of digestive function include all of the following, except absorption. secretion. ingestion. digestion.secretionSalivary amylase digestscarbohydratesThe parietal cells of gastric glands secretehydrochloric acidBile salts function like detergents in that they ___________ fat globules.emulsifyWhich of the following accessory digestive organs is the largest internal organ in the body?liverWhich of the following digestive functions involves the passage of nutrients from the alimentary canal into the blood?absorptionA molecule composed of many sugar units that are bonded together is called:polysaccharideMonosaccharides are absorbed into the body primarily through:small intestineThe sodium-potassium pump uses energy to movesodium out of the cell and potassium into the cellGlucose travels into epithelial cells of the small intestine by:cotransportation (symport) with sodiumWhich molecule(s) use(s) the Na+-K+ for absorption across the apical membrane of small intestine epithelial cells?sodium and glucoseIn the small intestine of a healthy person glucose passes:from the inside or lumen, through the gut wall, and into the bloodOuabain is known to:block the activity of the sodium-potassium pumps.