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Politics of the United States
final exam practice questions
Terms in this set (219)
Which of the following statements is true about the beliefs of the framers of the constitution?
they believed that federalism was a pragmatic issue, one to be decided by the nation's needs rather than by inflexible rules
how does a professional association differ from a trade association?
its members typically hold a professional license issued by the state
what is the primary goal of state and local interest groups?
protecting local government interests from actions of the state legislature, the governor, and state agencies
in federalists no. 10, James Madison made which of the following predictions about the influence of interests groups?
the proliferation of many interests would cancel each other out
which of the following statements about democracy, as currently practiced in the US is most accurate?
in the United States national public policy is determined by the peoples representatives not by the people themselves.
why did the writers of the American constitution divided he power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches?
to keep a check on the power of the majority
a defining characteristic of American politics is the
widespread sharing power
in which of the following ways is Texas a good example of the plural executive structure
voters elect many of the important state administrators
in which of the following ways can the texas governor's veto or line-item veto be overturned?
which a 2/3 vote in both houses
the sunset advisory commission was created in 1977 for which of the following purposes
to periodically review state agencies and recommend changes
which of the following is not a formal qualification to be governor of texas
be a registered voter
independents have lower voting rates than party members because
partisanship is strong motivator for voting
which of the following statements about voting is true?
- it is the most widespread form of political participation.
- it is both a means by which government controls the people and a means by which people control government
. -it allows elected officials to claim that their policies reflect the will of the people
- it provides citizens with a regular way to express themselves
in order to maintain public support and enact policies that are important to success of their precidencies, presidents from jimmy Carter to Donald trump have relied on
the permanent campaign
congress has relied most frequently on_________ to curb presidential action
legislation aimed at limiting presidential discretion
in a constitutional system,
there are lawful restrictions on a government's power
the laws applicable to a case
constrain the judiciary, because court decisions must be based on applicable laws.
the large majority federal court cases involve _________law rather than _________ law
in which of the following ways can special sessions of the legislature be called in texas
only the governor can call special sessions
the continuing nationwide controversy over redistricting has led some states to adopt which of the following practices for coming up with redistricting plan?
appointing independent commissions lacking any legislators
which of the following is atypical about the lieutenant governor position in texas when compared to that position in the vast ,majority of other states?
the lieutenant governor is abnormally powerful, with a wide range of authority
under the principle of stare decisis, courts must do which of the following?
follow principles announced in former cases
which of the following has been used in recent years instead of the grand jury hearing?
which of the following describes the way in which partisan media affect ordinary Americans?
there is no firm evidence that partisan media are making ordinary Americans more partisan
which of the following is requirednto run as an independent in texas for statewide office?
the submission of a petition containing a number of signatures equal 1 percent of votes cast for the governor in the past election
the "sore law" accomplishes which of the following?
it prevents candidates who lost a primary election from running as independents in the general election
traditionally in texas, judges obtain their positions by
appointment either by the governor or a county governing body
which of the following is the highest court for criminal cases
the court of criminal appeals
in the allocation of electoral votes, the only two states that are exceptions to the unit rule
maine and Nebraska
the honeymoon period occurs during
the first year of a president's term
today, the American system of governance closely resembles
the us system is considered to be less democratic than some other systems because of
barriers to the power of popular majorities, like staggered terms of office
which of the following reflects Alexander Hamilton's view about the role of the public in determining the boundaries between federal and state power?
Americans would shift their loyalties between the nation and the states according to whichever level seems more likely to serve their immediate needs
which of the following is a major criticism of push polls?
they're unscientific, used to attack opposing candidates ideas.
what is the current general trend in American's level of trust in the media?
it is declining
what does increasing concentration of media ownership into the hands of a few conglomerates mean for those who watch the local news in texas
there is a selection bias that, increasingly, focuses on national issues
which of the following is the purpose of having a plural executive in texas?
to limit the executive power of the governor within the branch
which of the following statements about the distribution of power at the federal and state levels is accurate?
fereral law preempts state law, and state law preempts local law
federal grants-in-aid used only for a designated activity are called______________ grants.
Shared policy responsibilities and collaboration among national, state, and local policymakers is associated with ________ federalism, where as a separation of national and state authority is associated with ________ federalism.
republicans who favor more political power developed back to the states would likely prefer which of the following?
which of the following is true regarding the power relationship between the federal government and the states
the power of the federal government over state government has increased over time
which of the following statements about revenue is true?
the federal government raises significantly more tax revenue than all state and local governments combined
what provided the constitutional basis for the great society's social welfare programs?
congress' power to tax and spend money
since the 1930's the creation of the federal departments of transportation, health and human services, and education, serves an example of
the expansion of the federal government into policy areas reserved to the states
which of the following would create a situation in which states must use their own money to comply with a federal law
an unfunded mandate
which of the following is true of the vice presidency?
the constitution assigns no executive authority to the viceprecidency
in the 20th century, the __________, as a whole, declined significantly as an advisory resource for the president.
identify the factor that contributes to the problem of presidential control
the doubling of the number of bureaucratic agencies since Truman's time
in 1912, a candidate for which minor party managed to earn more votes than one of his major party opponents?
___________ does not have a competitive multiparty
the United States
the form of election system in which seats in the legislature are allocated according to a party's share of the popular vote is known as the ____________ system
the groups and interests that support a party are collectively referred to as
the party coalition
___________________ happen when political parties recognize in response to a period of crisis, drawing upon new public philosophies, policies, and bases of support.
how does texas compare in voter turnout among the 50 states when using the 2018 congressional and statewide races as a measure?
it ranks 41st
the term framing is used to describe
journalists crafting stories around particular aspects of a situation, such as partisan conflict, to provide their own interpretation of events
the Watergate scandal illustrates the
power of the media to serve as watchdog to safeguard against abuses of power
on-the scene coverage id a natural disaster is an example of the press's role as
assume that a traditional broadcast television network in the US introduces a prime-time show that primary focuses on investigate journalism. the program aims to expose corrupt government personnel involved in scandalous activities and seeks to undercover hidden evidence. based on there activities, the television program most likely is performing the media function of a
a cable news outlet is always supportive of the Republican Party and advocates its policies. what function is the news outlet performing?
what is the lowest level in the permanent party organization?
who chooses the state party chair?
delegates to the state convention
objective journalism is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to
report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate
the federal governments licensing of broadcasting is based o primarily on
the scarcity of broadcasting frequencies
what is a consequence of the elimination of the fairness doctrine
numerous radii stations began airing partisan talk shows
congress's inability to consistently provide leadership on board national issues is due to
the fragmented nature of congress
what is a positive outcome of the nationalization of politics?
party differences are increasingly apparent to voters
the presidency is better suited than congress to the task of providing leadership on major national issues because
executive power is vested constitutionally in the hands of a single individual
the responsibility of congress to see that the executive branch carries out the laws faithfully is referred to as the_________ function
a collective good is one that
cannot be selectively granted or denied to individuals; it must be shared.
which of the following statements is TRUE about party-line voting?
party-line voting has increased in recent years.
the ___________ is considered the second most powerful federal official, after the president.
speaker of the US house fo representatives
____________ are votes on which each member's vote is officially recorded
by tradition, the majority party's most senior member serves as ________________ of the senate
president pro tempore
the speaker of the House of Representatives always
comes from the majority party in the House.
in public opinion polls, a sample refers to
a relatively few individuals who are interviewed in order to estimate the opinions of a whole population
______________ is the key to scientific polling, which is theoretically based on probability sampling
which of the following might d=decrease an opinion poll's accuracy
- poorly worded questions
-respondents' lack of knowledge or interest in the issue
-questions about sensitive topics for which people might give socially acceptable answers rather than expose their true beliefs
which of the following is TRUE of letter writers and demostrators
their opinions are more intense and usually more extreme than those of most citizens
the degree to which an opinion poll's results might differ from what the population actually thinks is known as __________ error
public opinion polls measure_________ when they ask respondents what they regard as the country's most important issue
when respondents answer a question about an unfamiliar issue in order not to appear uninformed, their responses are labeled as
The writers of the Constitution established a federal system of government in part because
the states already existed as established entities and had to be preserved
according to the anti-federalists, a national government that is too strong meant
eventual encroachment upon the sovereignty of the states.
which part of the constitution allows the national government to meet the country's charging needs?
the necessary and proper clause
According to the U.S. Constitution, state governments do not have the authority to
regulate interstate commerce
the government system established under the articles of confederation is an example of a _______________ system
what part of the US constitution reserves all powers not delegated to the federal government to the state governments?
the 10th amendment
which of the following clauses implies that national laws will prevail over state laws in cases where there is a conflict between the two?
the supremacy clause
the powers that are not listed in the constitution but are related to the exercise of the powers that are listed are known as ______________power
the citizens of __________ are most likely to participate as campaign volunteers during an election.
which of the following is considered a limited form of political participation?
in the United States, more than ______________ percent of volunteer participation takes place through church- and school- related groups and civic organizations?\
most Americans are not very active in politics because of which aspect of American culture?
which of the following groups is least likely to engage in collective action
lower income Americans
in acknowledging the dilemma inherit in group activity, James Madison
worried that government would be overly dominated by groups, but recognized that a free society is obliged to permit the advocacy of self-interest
in recent years, the youth vote has done which of the following?
increased, but still remains lower than the turnout rate for the population as a whole
which of the following groups had the lowest turnout rate in the 2018 midterm elections?
political scientist Aaron wildavasky's "two presidencies" thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with congress on policy initiatives involving
a president is likely to purpose the most new programs
during his or her first year in office
during times of increasing unemployment and falling growth rates, it is more likely that
the presidents approval rating would fall
Committees kill more than ________ percent of the bills submitted in Congress.
Scheduling a bill for floor debate in the House of Representatives is the responsibility of the
when a bill emerges with the support of all or nearly all of its committee members, it is usually
pass by an overwhelming majority of the full chamber
for a bill to pass, the support of _________is required
a simple majority of the house and the senate
____________ refers to the selection of the individual who will run as the party's candidate in the general election
primary elections were introduced to
give control of nominations to the voters
the function that the national party organizations perform in relation to congressional candidates can best be describes as a
service role- helping candidates conduct their personal campaigns
which of the following is associated with retrospective voting?
the party in power almost always loses voters under weak economy
_________________ is based on judgement about what Candidates promise to do if elected
Imagine that the People's Union Party and the National Reformist Party are competing against each other in the upcoming elections. Because both parties understand the importance of televised ads, they allocate more than half of their funds toward the making and production of such ads. In an attempt to rebut the other party's negative ads, each party rapidly responds to those ads by creating and broadcasting new ads within hours. According to political scientist Darrell West, which of the following terms best describes the campaign strategy adopted by the two parties in this fictitious scenario?
scholars have done the least to study the political influence of which primary socializing agent on American citizens?
primary agents of socialization influence a person most
which of the following is secondary socializing agent?
which of the following statements are true?
-secondary agents of socialization have greater influence later in our lives
-the socialization process is lifelong and cumulative
-our preference of the republican or democratic party is a learned response
-the beliefs learned in childhood shape our political outlook throughout our lives
the 3/5 compromise was a response to
conflict over the institution of slavery
the words of the Declaration of Independence reflected
Locke's philosophy of inalienable rights
concerning judicial review, which of the following statements are true?
- judicial review allows the court to declare unconstitutional acts by congress or the president
-the power of judicial review was defined through the Marbury v, Madison case.
-the power of judicial review is not defined in the constitution
-a constitution amendment often is the only way for congress to reverse a courts decision
the us recognizes both the power of the majority to rule and claim of the minority to protection of its rights and interests. the dichotomy is an aspect of
the European philosopher whose concept of natural rights had a great impact on American politics is
which of the following was not provided for by articles of confederation?
an independent federal executive
which of the following events showcased the inadequacies of the articles of confederation?
According to the constitution, the federal courts can issue a decision
only in response ti a case presented to it
the lowest level of the federal court system is the
the Supreme Court decision in marbury v. Madison is significant
for the establishment of judicial review
who is eligible to attend a party's precinct convention?
any voter who has voted in that party's primary
After officers are elected, which of the following is the most important function of the precinct convention?
selection of delegates to the county convection
Marbury v. Madison was an ingenious decision because
asserted the power of the judiciary without creating the possibility of its rejection by either the executive or the legislative branch
where is the bill of rights found in the constitution?
the first 10 amendments
presidential appointments and treaties must be approved by
amendments to the us constitution can only be ratified if approved by
3/4 of state legislatures or 3/4 of special state convections.
which of the following is true of the president's veto power?
the veto is as much a sign of presidential weakness as of strength because it happens when congress refuses to accept the presidents ideas
Although federal district courts are theoretically bound by Supreme Court precedents, they sometimes deviate because
- the facts of a case are seldom precisely the same as those similar as those of similar cases decided by the supreme court
-ambiguities in Supreme Court rulings give lower courts some flexibility in deciding cases
-the Supreme Court may not have addressed all of the relevant issues
the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction in legal disputes involving
the Supreme Court typically agrees to hear fewer than________ cases each year
Imagine that Eva is involved in a property dispute with her town. When she files a case in the district court, the court rules in the town's favor. She then appeals to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court uses the Rule of Four to determine if Eva's case is deserving of review. Once the case is found deserving of review, the Court issues a request to the district court to submit a record of the entire case. In this scenario, this request is known as a writ of
in selecting judges, the states rely on what method?
-competitive elections of a partisan nature
-competitive elections of nonpartisan nature
which of the following describes the tenure limitations on the governor of texas?
4 year terms with no limit on the number of terms
which of the following limitations on the texas legislature makes the governor's veto power more powerful than it is in most states
the inability to call special sessions
which of the following statements about the work and office of the attorney general is true?
most of the attorney general's work involves civil law instead of criminal law.
a governments authority
is evidenced when government officials use their right to exercise power
what is a major limit on majoritarianism suggested by the author?
the public as a whole takes interest in only a few of the hundreds of policy decisions that US officials make each year.
democracy as practiced in the US and most other western nations is best described as
Eric, a first-time voter, wants to cast his vote for Alex Bradley, a Democrat. Members of Eric's family, being staunch supporters of the Republican Party, force him to vote for a Republican candidate instead. Based on the information provided in this scenario, which core principle of the American constitution has been violated?
which of the following statements is true about the American political culture?
america's cultural; beliefs are idealistic
which of the following accurately describes the term length and electoral schedule in the texas senate?
4 year terms; half of the body elected every 2 years
for which of the following reasons are most texas citizens effectively excluded from seeking to become legislators?
low pay for legislators cannot compensate for the time-intensive work.
which of the following is the primary purpose of conference committees in the texas legislature?
to workout differences in bills passed by the two houses
bout 2/3 of independents
lean towards the republicans or the democrats
a main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is that
issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, in that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops
most lobbyist receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for
which of the following is a safe inside-lobbying strategy for a group?
relying on trusted allies in congress
Assume that Jason is an independent business consultant who seeks a federal grant and approval for setting up a leather tannery in his county's suburbs, which is arable land. In order to discuss Jason's petition and arrive at a decision, a discussion committee is formed. The committee comprises the U.S. Forest Service, members of the House and Senate agriculture committees, renowned research scientists, representatives of environmental groups, and environmental policy activists. As committee discussions progress, committee members share their individual perspectives on how a leather tannery could affect the surrounding environment. The committee disbands after the members decide that Jason may not set up the tannery in the suburbs owing to environmental concerns. On the basis of the discussion group's composition and activities in this fictitious scenario, which of the following best describes the group?
economist manicure Olson refers to what aspect of interest groups as "the size factor"?
small groups are ordinary more united on policy issues and often have more resources, enabling them to win out more often than large groups.
among economic groups, which are the most numerous?
which of the following economic group seeks to promote policies that benefit workers in general and union members in particular
which of the following organizations is not an example of a single issue group?
national association of manufactures
americans' core ideals are rooted in
the European heritage of the first white settlers
what did Thomas Jefferson mean when he wrote"all man are created equal"?
all people are entitled to equal protection under the la
which of the following terms is defined as the principle that individuals should be free to act and think as they choose, provided they do not infringe unreasonably on the freedom and well-being of others?
a commitment to personal initiative and self-sufficiency is known as
the facts that the United States uses primary elections and has more elected officials than other countries is a reflection of the belief in
which is necessary within each chamber for lawmakers to reach agreement and pass legislation?
a spirit of compromise
identify a true statement about congress as an institution?
its structure allows a determined minority party to cause deadlocks
Congress is an institution in which
majorities do not rule easily
In Lochner v. New York (1905), the Supreme Court ruled that
state regulation of labor practices violated firms' property rights
Viewed in historical terms, federalism has been a
contentious and dynamic system that has adapted to the needs of the time.
the us Supreme Court restricted congress' attempts to outlaw slavery in any state under the Missouri compromise stating that
slaves were property, not people
supporters of dual federalism believe judges can use ambiguous language in the constitution to argument the powers of the national government at the expense of the states. t/f?
which amendment is favorite of supporters of dual federalism?
Supporters of dual federalism believe the states and national government are
what has been the effect of the constitutional provision that federal judges and justices hold office "during good behavior"?
-it has enabled presidents to influence judiciary policy through their appointments long after leaving the White House
- it has meant that some justices have timed their retirement so that a like-minded president will appoint the successor
-it has provided them the opportunity to carry out their duties without immediate fear of reprisal by the president or congress
-it has meant, in effect, that they will serve until they die or choose to retire
nearly 20 percent of presidential nominees to the Supreme Court have been rejected by the senate. before 1900, the reason for a nominee's rejection was usually
identify a true statement about lower-court nominees
recommendations from US senators of the presidents party are usually sought during the process of nominating lower-court appointments
which of the following is true of the nature of ballots and voting in texas today?
since 2008 election, all 254 counties in texas have used electronic voting systems
the Texas State election code defines minor party as any political organization that does which of the following?
receives between 5 and 19 percent of the total votes cast for any statewide office in the past general election
Official minor parties in Texas must nominate their candidates for office in which of the following ways?
party caucus or party convention
PACs tend to contribute the most money to
which of the following is an example of outside lobbying efforts?
A business group encourages group members to write or e-mail their representatives in Congress to support a bill that will soon be voted on.
what development brought about a dramatic reduction in television's capacity to regulate an interest in news?
a rapid spread of cable
identify a consequence of todays high choice media system in the US
widening of the partisan divide
which of the following best characterizes the era in which there was an information commons?
the public shared a base of information through access to the same news outlets and stories, which were presented in similar ways
the process by which a society settles its conflicts and allocates the resulting benefits and costs is called
as described by the authors, "critical thinking"
is the process of forming an opinion after weighing the relevant facts
which of the following is not a value central to the political culture of the united states?
political _________ can be best defined as the widely shared and deep-seated beliefs of a country's people about politics?
the key factors in determining the accuracy od an opinion poll are
the size of the sample and use of random selection to build the sample
which of the following statements about the seniority system for congressional committees is most accurate?
seniority is no longer absolute in the selection of committee chairs, but it is usually followed
Identify the act that requires that each bill introduced in Congress be referred to the proper committee.
1946 legislative reorganization act
Senators often serve on _____ committees.
which of the following refers to the term "ranking members"?
committee and subcommittee leaders who belong to the minority party
The writers of the Constitution used the term ________ to describe a form of government that is limited both by the people's constitutionally guaranteed rights and by institutions designed to protect the minority from the power of the majority.
________________is the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Who was serving as chief justice of the Supreme Court when it decided the case of Marbury v. Madison?
the ______________ proposed by William paterson demanded a stronger national government than that provided for by the articles of confederation
_____________ explains the ideas of the constitution and urges its ratification
the federalists papers
which state did not ratify the constitution until 1790, after the new government had already taken effect?
one of the goals of the framers was to
preserve the states as governing entities
the probability that an incumbent will win reelection is about_________ percent
legislation intended to secure federal spending projects for a legislator's constituency is
A senator running for a third term in office would be a(n)
house incumbents usually outspend their challengers by a margin of roughly
five to one
in the United States, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the
most local governments in the US hold elections
in odd-numbered years
American aged 18,19,20 were granted voting rights during the
when it comes to protest activities, a majority of Americans are
not as supportive of protest as they are of voting
the farmers entrusted the selection of US senators to
the whig theory holds that the presidency
is a limited office whose occupant is confined to the exercise of expressly granted constitutional powers
what was the primary aim of the men who assembled in the constitutional convention of 1875?
to limit the power of the state government
which of the following is the first if the two steps in amending the Texas constitution?
2/3 of each house of the legislature must propose amendments
which of the following is not among the major reasons for low voter turnout for Texas State constitutional amendments?
amendment placement on ballots in years when statewide office elections garner all the attention
candidate-centered politics encourages
-introduction of new blood to politics
-greater responsiveness to local interests
-an increase in the power of special interest groups
-greater flexibility in electoral politics
which of the following statements is true about party-centered campaigns?
they are characterized by a high chance of members getting voted out of office when problems surface since voters hold the majority party responsible
which of the following is true of PACs
they collect and distribute money to candidates
which of the following interest groups is most likely to suffer from the "free-rider problem"?
the American civil liberties union
what best describes lobbying groups known as "astroturf" organizations?
groups that lack members but are very good at mobilizing nonmemeber citizens to their cause
The condition of "capture" refers to the extreme closeness that can occur between what two entities?
an interest group and a state agency
which of the following occurs in the practice of rent seeking?
an individual or group tries to secure benefits for themselves through political means
what three parties can make up an example of the "iron triangle"
interest groups, a state agency, and a legislative committee
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