LGM - Exam 2 - Ch. 10

Who coined the term POSDCORB?
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Two most widely cited federal reform efforts that followed PPBS?1. Management by Objectives (MBO) 2. Zero-based budgeting (ZBB)What is MBO (management by objectives) and when was it instituted?Instituted by the Nixon Admin ('73-'74) MBOs encourage management and staff to work together to develop individual goals and align them with organizational goals. Progress on goals is then tracked over time.When was ZBB implemented and what was it?Implemented by the Carter administration between 1977-1979. Each unit of the organization was required to zero out the base and justify every expenditure each fiscal year.What is the rationale behind ZBB and downfalls?Govt bugdeting tends to be incremental. Would encourage staff to consider whether any given program was necessary to continue or whether the programs could be provided in a more cost-efficient way. Requires a lot of paperwork and is nearly nonexistent at the local level. Time consuming to do it properly.What reform has influenced the manager's toolbox the most?Reinventing Government movement of the 1990s.What books launched the Reinventing Government movement?Reinventing Government (1992) by David Osbourne and Ted Gaebler; Banishing Bureaucracy by David Osbourne and Peter PlastrikReinventing government was originally developed at _____The local govt levelWho embraced the Reinventing Government movement?Clinton adminWho led the National Performance Review initiative and Reinventing Government and between what years?Al Gore; 1993-2001What did Reinventing Government promise?Desire for more government for less. Four chilling effects on the federal budget: deficits, debt, debt, demographics. Public's confidence in lower levels of govt as service providers. The appeal and applicability of models from the private sector (rightsizing, delayering, lean management) Straitjacket effects of Progressive Era reforms (civil service requirements and line-item bdugets that sought to isolate the public service from partisanship and corruption but also impeded the ability of govt officials to respond effectively).What is Osborne and Gaebler's 1992 view of government?The role of govt is to steer the ship of state, leaving the rowing to the others, including private firms and nonprofit organizations.What are some of the core principles that reinventers contend should drive practice?1. Govts should use alternatives to in-house delivery and focus on making policy and conducting oversight while other orgs, esp the private sector, handle implementation; 2. Public agencies should be driven by their mission rather than by the rule book 3. PAs should be outcome and results oriented instead of input and process oriented, and performance assessments and funding awards should be based on the former 4. Clients should be considered customers, and their needs should be taken into account 5. PAs should work to empower citizens to participate in the planning and coproduction of services through neighborhood councils and community groups 6. Competition should be encouraged within the public sector 7. Authority and responsibility should be decentralized 8. Public agencies should be authorized to earn money through fees, surpluses and retain a portion of unspent appropriations for use in the next fiscal yearWhen was the Clinton administration's NPR established? And why?1993; to spearhead adoption of reinvention approaches by federal departments and agencies as well as by state and local governments that received federal funding.The promise of NPR, for a government that works better and costs less and moves from red tape to results, was partly achieved by reducing the federal civilian workforce by ____, promoting the smallest workforce since ____ and about ____ in savings, some of which were offset by relying on private contractors to do the work formerly performed by civil servants.272,900 positions (about a 12% cut); 1967; $108BWhat were the results of the 1998 Brookings Institution's five year Reinventing Government report card, investigated by Donald Kettl?"No admin in history has invested such sustained, high-level attention to management reform efforts" - Kettl NPR overall grade: B Effort: A+ Procurement reform: A Relaions with Congress: D Identifying objectives of government: DWhen was the NPR terminated?When George Bush became presidentWho advocated for a New Public Service model?Robert and Janet Denhardt; PAs should serve citizen not customers and not try to steer society in new directionsWhat are the five most important tools in the manager's toolbox?1. Strategic planning 2. Performance Measurement 3. Program evaluation 4. Budgeting for results 5. Succession planningWhere did strategic planning originate?Private sector, and began in the 1980sWhat spurred the growth of strategic planning?Book by former OH budget director John Olsen and consultant Douglas Eadie in 1982: The Game Plan: Governance with Foresight and the Reinventing Government movement and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993.What were the findings regarding a 1999 survey of state admins by Jeffrey Brudney, Ted Hebert, and Deil Wright RE strategic planning?Strategic planning was the most widely implemented of the Reinventing Government reformsHow does John Bryson define strategic planning?A deliberate, disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it.What are the two organizational benefits of strategic planning?1. It helps promote strategic thought and action 2. Improves decision making and organizational effectivenessThrough strategic planning, an org can gain legitimacy with its stakeholders by ____.Engaging them in the process, soliciting their assessment of how well the organization is performing, and relating goals and objectives to their expectations.Bryson's 25-yr review of The Game Plan includes:"strategic planning does not produce positive benefits on a modest scale, and in some instances, produces quite outstanding positive results."What are the eight components of strategic planning?1. A situational analysis (SWOT/SOAR) 2. A mission statement of why and for whom the org exists, why it is unique, what the core functions are, how it adds value; 3. Values statement regarding what the org stands for ad how it treats its employees and customers 4. Vision statement of what the organization will look like and the impact it will have when the plan is fully implemented 5. Goals statements 6. Objectives statements for each goal, quantifying what progress is expected over time and embracing SMART principles 7. Strategies and action plans 8. Performance measuresWhat is SOAR?Strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and resultsWhat is SMART?Specific, measurable, aggressive but attainable, results-oriented, and time-boundThree questions of strategic planning?1. What should we do? 2. How do we do it? 3. How are we doing?According to Bryson, what are the reasons for the spread of strategic planning across the US?1. Strategic planning may be only under coercion, esp in smaller orgs 2. In larger jurisdictions, there may be normative pressures for strategic planning to be considered necessary for innovationBryson and others argue that governments should make the journey from ____.Strategic planning to strategic management. This includes the ongoing integration of strategic planning across an organization, including performance measurement and management, evaluation, budgeting, and human capital management, in order to fulfill its mission.Describe performance measurement.Once an organization decides where it wants to go in terms of goals and the related strategies, measuring progress using the SMART objectives or performance targets tells administrators, elected officials, and stakeholders how much progress is being made, what corrective actions are required to stay on course, how much more work needs to be done, and what resources will be needed.What two reforms gave performance assessment a boost?1. Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) was adopted as a key component of W. Bush's management agenda as a successor to the NPR 2. Red, yellow, green "Stoplight Scores" were assigned by the Office of Management and Budgeting to agencies based on their success in advancing and achieving outcome-based performance targetsWhen did Congress pass the GPRA?1993What was GPRA?Required federal agencies and funding recipients to prepare strategic plans covering a 3- to 5- year time period and containing goals, objectives, measures.When did Congress pass the GPRA modernization act?2010; Directed agencies to prepare a four-year plan and submit it to Congress one year after a President is elected or reelected, using common definitions of such terms as goals and objectives.What are the challenges facing performance measurement, outlined by Radin?1. Taking a one-size fits all approach to the collection of performance information ignores the diversity of agencies and programs 2. When GPRA's reporting requirements were enacted, some critics said that they did not consider widely varying databases, information collection systems, and analytical capabilities. 3. If not carefully managed, performance measurement systems can take on a "blame and shame" natureAccording to James Q. Wilson, the work of what organizations area easiest to measure?Production organizations (state and local transportation, welfare, public works) are easier to measure than coping organizations (school and police departments -- neither outputs nor outcomes can be readily observed or connected and multiple factors influence performance.Who asserted that "all performance measures are gamed," and measures create incentives that may be dysfunctional if punishment rather than progress is the focus.Donald KettlWhat was the problem with the PART experience?Performance ratings are not objective or politically neutral. During the Bush admin, Republican-est programs got more favorable scores than Democratic-est programs.When was the PART program discontinued?When Obama took office.For performance management to be an effective tool, esp for local strategic plans and websites, managers will ____.Need to find ways to routinely include this data and analysis in program assessments, budget requests, personnel appraisals, and day-to-day administration. As with strategic planning, managers must work to embed performance management in their organizational culture.What is one of the most commonly used tools?Program evaluationContemporary program evaluation technology enables managers to _____.Evaluate how well their jurisdiction's programs and services are working on several fronts - including stakeholder assessments - efficiency and effectiveness indicators - Benchmark comparisons against peers using dashboardsProposed systems since Planned Programming Budgeting System (PPBS) have a variety of names:Zero-based budgeting, program budgeting, budgeting for results, performance-based budgeting, responsibility-centered budgeting, and budgeting for outcomes.What is at the core of budget reform?An effort to change the rules of the budget game by aligning resources with results. The process involves systematically connecting plans and programs with budget requests at the outset and then monitoring, evaluating, and providing feedback on results. Performance information is an integral part of budget development, execution, and evaluation.What is a facilitating factor of the budget reform process?Growing use of websites to show how dollars are being spent and priorities.What is the focus of succession planning?Human capital (not plans, budgets, and evaluations), driven by the so-called silver tsunami, need to identify knowledge, skills, abilities and invest in developing employees.ICMA has reported that approximately ___ of the managers currently serving communities will be eligible for retirement within 10 years.60%What do succession plans do?Identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will be necessary to fill a particular position as well as possible internal candidates who could be groomed to move into vacated positions.Why is succession planning not widely practiced?- Some orgs do not have the resources to develop a succession planning system, or have too few management-potential employees to make it realistic - Concern that investing money in developing employees may be wasted if the new training makes them more marketable to other orgs - Some managers prefer to bring in fresh perspectives from outside rather than relying on internal - EOs may not be supportive, so they may be unwilling to agree in advance to groom individuals for sr. mgmt positions, esp where turnover occurs - Legal hurdle: civil service requirements, grant conditions, and HR office practices may mandate that recruitment for all positions be wide open and that no favoritism be shown toward particular candidatesHow does Theodore Poister distinguish performance management from strategic management?Strategic management focuses on taking actions now to position the organization to move into the future; performance management is largely concerned with managing ongoing programs and operations at present. Large, complex orgs use a wide variety of performance measures and systems at different mgmt levels, different units, and different program areas. Performance measurement and performance management systems are more encompassing than strategic planning and management.Harry Hatry asserted that performance can improve the absence of strategic planning, even though _____.It would lead to an emphasis on the immediate situation and diminish attention to where the organization should be going in the future.According to the 2008 report by the Government Performance Project, how many states got a C or D grade on their effort to generate performance information and use it to support decision making? How many states received an A?24; 6When the Government Performance Project examined 75 large counties and municipalities, how many got As or A- in the "managing for results" category?8A survey of 72 county and municipal governments having a reputation for good performance management found that ____ focused on systems for collecting, compiling, and improving performance data, with another ____ indicating that their emphasis was limited to upgrading performance measures. Only _____ connected it with managerial philosophy.49%; 24%; 28%When was Alabama's SMART initiative launched and what did it stand for?2004; "specific results, measurable key goals, accountable to stakeholders, responsive to customers, transparent to everyone"When were state agencies no longer required to submit their budget requests connected with SMART and worsening financial conditions?2011What led to the demise of performance budgeting?Lack of legislator buy-in, uneven support from departmental and agency leadership, outmoded technology, disconnects between annual goals and statewide strategies.Managers using the five tools has what benefits, according to David Ammons?1. Thoughtful analysis elevates the quality of debate on an issue; 2. Important ramifications of a decisions become more apparent. 3. Even when recommendations are rejected, careful analysis permits decision makers to proceed with eyes wide open, fully aware of the likely consequences of a particular decision.What are the manager's toolsStrategic planning Performance management Program Evaluation Budgeting for results Succession planningOther traits of PPBS-Annual budgeting process linked to longer-range objectives -Emphasis was placed on the program rather than the organizational unit - Inputs were tied to outcomesThe new governmental principles hopefully lead to more:- Nimble operations - Entrepreneurial - Customer-focusedThe managerial tools should be ____.Embedded into governmental cultures and management systems; involve elected officials in using them as well