LGM - Exam 2 - Ch. 11

Most of the important problems or issues that affect local governments ____.
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In 2010, more than ____ of the US population lived in one of the country's 366 metropolitan areas.83%Which metropolitan area experienced the most record-breaking growth from 2000 to 2010?The Palm Coast, FL; with 92% growth.Areas with population growth rates over 40%:St. George, UT; Las Vegas, NV; Cape Coral, FL; Raleigh, NCWhat are the environmental and economic implications of sprawl?- Reliance on cars leads to air and water pollution, high noise levels, and congestion - Rapid growth leads to loss of green space, increasing risk to air and water cleanliness; - Migration of residents from central cities to suburban areas can result in central city declineWhat has been introduced to address some of the problems of sprawl?Light rail lines; but costs may be bigger than the benefits.One study of 24 rail transit systems in the US found ____.none of the systems provided net social welfare gains without accounting for externalities.In 2015, ____ of US residents lived in nonmetropolitan counties.14%Between ______, US rural counties experienced an overall population loss, and population growth rates in nonmetropolitan areas have been considerably lower than those of metropolitan areas since the ____.2010 and 2012; 1990sThe average age in rural areas is higher than that of urban areas, leading to _____.lower fertility ratesIn 2012, more than ____ had death rates that exceed birth rates, meaning a natural population loss.1,000Hundreds of small municipal governments are at risk of disincorporation because _____.These communities rely on a limited property tax base, given their small populations and lack of commercial development.When a municipality fails to collect sufficient revenue to cover basic services, dissolution may be offered as a solution. What happens when this occurs?Service responsibility is typically transferred to the county.Between 1900 and 2000, there were close to ____ municipal dissolutions.250In 2013, the American Society of Civil Engineers updated its infrastructure report card for the US from ____.a D to a D+The US continues to trend mostly ____ when it comes to the condition of our public infrastructure.downwardThe amount of funding needed to get public infrastructure into good shape is estimated to be over _____.$2 trillionOnly the ____ is in the position to complete an overhaul of the public infrastructure system.federal governmentSince the _____, the federal government has left much of the infrastructure work to the state and local governments.1980sIn December 2015, Congress passed a _____ infrastructure bill to work on bridges, roads, and rail lines.$305 billionExamples of public infrastucture that may be privatized:Airports, water systems, sewer systems, toll roads, Chicago's parking meter leaseWhat were the five "mega issues" Elizabeth Kellar identified in 2011?1. A long-term economic outlook 2. Strained relationships w/ state governments 3. Demographic challenges 4. Resource challenges 5. New media and technologyState governments turned to ____ as a source of revenue to meet their own budget shortfalls during the recession.local governmentsManagers will need to be good ____.Communicators and facilitators, and engage citizens in a meaningful way. There also needs to be greater diversity in the profession -- more women and minorities -- to more closely relate to the community members they serve.How can local government managers address wicked problems?No one is sure yet, but the solution must be collaborative and innovative.Nancy Roberts offers three possible strategies to gear up innovation and combat wicked problems:- Authoritative: assign responsibility to a single group or individual and have the others agree to abide by the decision made by that entity - Competitive: assume a win-lose outcome in which various entities compete for resources to address the problem - Collaborative: seek a win-win outcome in which stakeholders partner across boundaries to develop a solution. Roberts claims that the collaborative approach is the most promising.What is Clarke and Stewart's advice for dealing with wicked problems?They stress that it is essential that the definition of the problem not be narrowed and that people be open to the definition evolving over time. Addressing wicked problems requires holistic/broad thinking.What are the advantages local governments have over other governments that may make them the best advocates for solving the most intractable public-sector problems?- LGs are smaller organizations than the state/fed facilities and can act more quickly - Citizens trust LGs more than other levels - LGs may be best at taking a long-term view of public policy, given the high percentage of municipal and county governments that are professionally managed - LGs are closest to the people they serveThe most obvious way to add capacity and to attempt to solve the complex problems of local governments is to _____.Engage in regional and/or cross-sectoral collaborationThe training and experience that municipal and county managers bring to their jobs allows their communities to build ___.Resiliency to withstand the challenges of the futureMetropolitan areas will become more powerful ___ while LGs will become more _____.economic engines; active innovators, experimenters, and entrepreneurs.Why does Robert O'Neill see the second decade of the 21st century as the "decade of local government"?An important facilitating factor in addressing critical issues such as jobs, education, safety, health care, the environment, and infrastructure is the trust citizens have in local government.According to O'Neill, leadership will have to span the normal coundaries of the local govt org and the political boundaries of the jurisdiction:1. to match the geography and scale of significant issues 2. Reach all the sectors and disciplines necessary to make meaningful change. At the same time, LGs will need to preserve their own sense of "place" and what distinguishes their community and makes it special.Katz and Bradley of Brookings point out that even as ideological divides, bureaucratic inertia, and dysfunctionality paralyze the fedgov and many of the states:a metropolitan revolution is underway across the county.Shifts in what make understanding solutions more difficult?Culture, ideology, demographics, and technology. The solutions may lead to unintended consequences.Wicked problems needsystematic solutions or wide concepts about how to deal with them.How can municipal and county managers better face wicked problems?Understand how the wicked problems affect their community.When did growth slow slightly?The Great RecessionWhere is the urban-suburban-rural divide the most prominent?South and southwestGrowth in urban and suburban areas have come at the expense of ____.Rural areasSome governments have turned to ____ to fill the infrastructure gap.private companiesWhat was the unintended consequence of Chicago dealing its parking operations to a private vendor?The city lost control of pricing and revenueOther issues affecting LGsGreat Recession Do states hate their cities and counties (actions to limit the power of cities and counties, states use their cities and counties to collect revenue for the state government operations) Hitting LGs with unfunded mandates Tax limits Impact on baby boomers Dropping fertility rates Immigration policy changes Retirements Workforce dislocations and skills and knowledge gapsTo tackle wicked problems, LMs should consider ways to ____.Bolster innovation capacity of their organizations.Governments tend to be _____.Rigid, hierarchical, and risk averse, which tends to hinder innovation.Elected officials tend to be _____.Short-term oriented.