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13 terms

Fatty Acids

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Fatty acids oxidized as fuels are principally...
long-chain fatty acids released from adipose tissue triacylglycerol stores
major fatty acids that are oxidized:
palmitate, oleate, and stearate
lipolysis is activated by
decreased insulin levels
increased levels of insulin couterregulatory hormones
glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine
Energy is derived from oxidation of fatty acids to
acetyl CoA in the pathway of B-oxidation
triacylglycerols
three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone
lipases
enzymes that release long-chain fatty acids from adipose tissue during fasting and other conditions of metabolic need
Albumin
a major serum protein that transports the hydrophobic fatty acids
fatty acids must be activated to ____ before they can participate in B-oxidation and other pathways
acyl CoA derivatives
the fatty acid reacts with an ATP to form a high-energy fatty acyl AMP and pyrophosphate
AMP is then exchanged for CoA
Pyrophosphate bond is later used for energy
Three types of rxns in the B-oxidation pathway
hydration
oxidation
carbon-carbon bond cleavage
unsaturated fats have a higher/lower melting point than saturated fats
lower
saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature
three fatty acids essential in diet
arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic
the energy yield from unsaturated fatty acids is lower because
it has to be oxidized first which requires energy
very long chain and branched chain fatty acids are...
broken down in the peroxisomes until they are more manageable