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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Unit Review-The Great Depression
Terms in this set (62)
Most widely used barometer of the stock market's health that is based on 30 representative large firms trading on the New York Stock Exchange.
risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
paying small % of stock as down payment and borrowing the rest.
What is the name given to October 29, 1929 when the stocks bottomed out resulting in the stock market crash
The Stock Market Crash(Black Tuesday)
After the crash, many people panicked and took their money out of banks. Why were they afraid of banks failing?
Because the banks started to close down
From what year to what year did the Depression take place?
Two other factors contributing to the Depression were the unequal distribution of wealth and buying on credit or installment plan.Explain how this would lead to economic problems.
Many people couldn't buy much since they were trying to pay installments and w/ overproduction, no would could buy anything.
Expensive, raised tariffs, strikes, and jobs cut.
long term unemployment, no more mines.
What were the three causes of the dust bowl?
-The Homestead Act
-Drought(lasted eight years)
-Overplowing top soil
What were migrants called that left the dust bowl- most of which followed the route 66 to california?
"Okies" cause they were from oklahoma
In 1930, Congress passed one of the highest tariffs in history to protect American Industry. What was the name of this tariff?
The Hawley-Smoot tariff
Neighborhoods often resentfully called "Hoovervilles" in which people lived in makeshift shacks.
Place where free or low cost food is served
Transients that wandered country hitching rides on RR boxcars and sleeping under bridges
How did the great depression affect minorities?
-caused many immigrants to go back to native countries
-would send poor immigrants back to native countries
Name 3 other ways the Depression had a human impact.
hardship, homelessness, and hunger
The farm securities Administration loaned money to tenant farmers to allow them to become landholders and established camps for migrant workers. They also hired famous woman photographer to create a pictorial record of the situation in rural american famous for her photo entitled "migrant mother".Who was this photographer?
Who was the famous photographer that captured ironies of the era most noted for her photo of African Americans in need in front of billboard entitled "highest standard of living"?
Created the radio broadcast war of the worlds and directed the movie Citizen krane
Folk singer who used music depict hardships of the depression
Created by painter Grant Wood depicting two stern faced farmers standing in front of their farmhouses.
Movie depiction of honesty winning over corruption (set in the senate)
Mr.Smith goes to washington
John Steinbeck novel on the difficulties of those who faced the dust bowl & became migrants to california
The Grapes of Wrath
Written by Richard Wright depicts the difficulties faced by a young man trying to survive in a rasict world
One of the most popular movies/novel about life amoung southern plantation owners during the civil war.
Gone with the wind
Still in line with his "trickle down" theory, this made loans to businesses such as banks, railroads, etc.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
$ for public works and loans for the states for direct relief
Emergency Relief and Construction Act
One of Hoover's projects did, however, bring jobs and also provided electricity and flood control. What was this project?
The Bureau of reclamations Boulder canyon project
Saying such as "hoovervilles"(shantytowns), hoover blankets, and hoover flags, were all terms that showed what atitude towards Hoover?
Unable to provide relief(negative atitude)
Hoover's reputaton were actions against the Bonus Army that marched on Washington D.C. Fearful of violence after the Patman Bill was denied, Hoover disbanded the marchers which ultimately resulted in tear gas, injury, and death. Who were these marchers & what did they seek in the first place?
Hungery marchers- were denied food & water
Frankling Delano Roosevelt became president and in the first 100 days of his program, a flurry of legislation was passed to help the economy. What was the name of his program?
The new deal
What was the name of the act that allowed for this survey to restore stability in the banks & allowed for going off the gold standard?
The Emergency Banking Relief Act
Before reopening the banks, FDR gave one of his famous radio conservations to explain his New Deal measures. What were these radio broadcasts known as?
also known as the Banking act...it established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp(FDIC) which provided federal Insurance for up to 5,000
The Glass Steagull act
Created the securities and exchange commission to regulate the stock market by requiring corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and prevent people with inside information from "rigging" the stock market for their own profit.
The Securities Act
The Home owners loan corp., the federal housing admin(FHA)& the farm credit administration, all provided what to property owners to prevent foreclosures?
Helped farmers refinance their mortgages
What was the name of the act that provided direct relief for the needy?
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Sought to raise crop prices by lowering production which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave a certain amount of creage unseaded & destroy surplus livestock
Agricultural Adjustment Admin
Federal corporation to construct dams & power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity and prevent floods
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
created jobs building roads, developing parks, planting trees, & helping with erosion & flood control
Civilian Conservation Corps.
Provided work in federal jobs but was very temporary to get many through the winter
Civil works Administration
created the National Recovery Administration to set prices of many products & establish standards of fair practice in industry
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
What is deficit spending?
Government practice of spending borrowed money rather than raising taxes, usually in an attempt to boost the economy
What twon New Deal legislation was stuck down by these court cases
The National Recovery Administration & Agricultural Adjustment Act
Through the Judiciary Recognization Bill what plan did FDR devise to stop the supreme court from killing other ND measures but did not have to do in the end?
The court-packing plan
Who was the fiercest critic felt the programs had not gone far enough & proposed his own share-our-wealth program which would tax the rich to help the poor?
Who was the critic that wanted the currecy to be inflated & nationalize the banks?
Who proposed the federal government pay those over 60yrs a pension of $200 that must be spent to increase buying?
established jobs that ranged from construction of airports to sewing clothes for the needy and also employed artists, musicians, actos, &writers to create murals, sculptures, etc.
Works Progress Administration
also called the National Labor Relations Act...Protected the right of workers to join unions & collectively bargain & established the National Labor Relations Board to handle disputes between emplyees and employers.
The Wagner Act
organized by the United Mine workers leader John L. Lewis who organized unions that included all workers skilled/unskilled in a particular industry(ex.Auto,Steel) using such tactics as the successful sit down strike.
Committee For Industrial Organization
Provided pensions for retired workers 65 & over, created temporary unemployment insurance & aided people with disabilities/dependents
The Social Security Act
set a national minimum hourly wage, limited workweek hours, & abolished child labor (under 16)
Federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
What role did Eleanor Roosevelt play in the Roosevelt Administration?
Eleanor told all the discoveries and problems she found to help the people and adress them in the new deal
What groups of people made of the "new" new deal coalition?
African americans, farmers, workers, immigrants, women progressives and intellectuals
What did FDR do in 1937 resulting another dip in the economy or recession that boosted the idea of Keynesian theory?
Cut WPA & PWA significantly and at the same time social security tooke $2 Billion out of the economy
FDR chooses her as first female cabinet member ever
helped organize the "Black Cabinet" to advise the president on racial issues
Mary McLeod Bethune
Helped create the Indian Reorganization Act to move toward Native Am autonomy
What impact do New Deal programs have on today
-old age pensions
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