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consists of telencephalon and diencephalon


consists of brain and spinal cord; covered by meninges

Major Regions of Adult Brain

cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum

Brain Stem

includes pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain

Surface Features

"bumps" are gyri on the brain and the "grooves" are sulci


largest portion of brain that's responsible for higher brain functions

Part of cerebrum

5 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula


deep within the lateral sulcus (linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's homeostasis); one of the 5 lobes

Precentral Gyri

involved in motor control

Frontal Lobe

consists of cerebral cortex (motor areas); body regions with the greatest motor innervation occupy the largest areas of motor cortex (bigger = more motor neurons)

Frontal Lobe

affects personality

Postcentral Gyri

responsible for perception of somatesthetic sensation (with density receptors)

Parietal Lobe

consists of cerebral cortex (sensory areas); body regions with highest densities of receptors occupy the largest areas of sensory cortex


of the sensory cortex; MRI (protons H+ respond to a magnetic field); EEG can detect on surface of brain and measures "synaptic potenetial" by electrical currents

Temporal Lobe

functions: interpretation of auditory centers that receive sensory fibers from cochlea (inner ear) and interpretation and associate of auditory and visual information

Occipital Lobe

functions: primary area responsible for vision and coordination of eye movements


majory components: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland


composes majority of the diencephalon; acts as relay center for all sensory information (except olfactory) to the cerebrum

Relay Center

also known as transition area in thalamus


lateral geniculate nuclei relay visual information (vision nerve fibers pass through here)


medial geniculate nuclei relay auditory information (auditory nerve fibers pass through here)


also known as the cell body


below the diencephalon; contains the corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles, substantia nigra, and red nucleus


functions: visual reflex, relay center for auditory information, & motor coordination

Motor Coordination

degeneration of axon fibers from substantia nigra causes Parkinson's disease


consists of the metencephalon and myelencephalon


consists of pons and cerebellum (centers for respiratory)


contains respiratory centers


receives input from proprioceptors & coordination of movement (body balance)


also known as medulla oblongata and consists of: all descending and ascending fiber tracts between spinal cord and brain must pass through the medulla, cardiac control center, & regulates respiration with the pons


also known as fiber tracts

Cardiac Control Center

regulates autonomic nerve control of heart

Ascending Spinal Tracts

convey SENSORY information from cutaneous receptors, prooprioceptors, and visceral receptors to cerebral cortex; they cross-deliver (left to right and right to left)


for body balance

Visceral Receptors

internal organs (sensory)

Descending Spinal Tracts

pyramidal tracts descend directly without synaptic interruption from cerebral cortex to spinal cord and reticulospinal tracts (extrapyramidal)

Pyramidal Tracts

fine movements

Reticulospinal Tracts

gross motor movements


also known as a connection


also known as a nerve axon

Muscle Fiber

also known as a cell


cerebral cortex to spine

Cerebral Lateralization

specialization of one hemisphere, either left or right

Left Hemisphere

more adept in language and analytical abilities; right handed

Right Hemisphere

limited verbal ability, most adept at visual/spatial tasks; left handed

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