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45 terms

Physiology Exam 2

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Forebrain
consists of telencephalon and diencephalon
CNS
consists of brain and spinal cord; covered by meninges
Major Regions of Adult Brain
cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum
Brain Stem
includes pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain
Surface Features
"bumps" are gyri on the brain and the "grooves" are sulci
Cerebrum
largest portion of brain that's responsible for higher brain functions
Part of cerebrum
5 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and insula
Insula
deep within the lateral sulcus (linked to emotion or the regulation of the body's homeostasis); one of the 5 lobes
Precentral Gyri
involved in motor control
Frontal Lobe
consists of cerebral cortex (motor areas); body regions with the greatest motor innervation occupy the largest areas of motor cortex (bigger = more motor neurons)
Frontal Lobe
affects personality
Postcentral Gyri
responsible for perception of somatesthetic sensation (with density receptors)
Parietal Lobe
consists of cerebral cortex (sensory areas); body regions with highest densities of receptors occupy the largest areas of sensory cortex
MRI
of the sensory cortex; MRI (protons H+ respond to a magnetic field); EEG can detect on surface of brain and measures "synaptic potenetial" by electrical currents
Temporal Lobe
functions: interpretation of auditory centers that receive sensory fibers from cochlea (inner ear) and interpretation and associate of auditory and visual information
Occipital Lobe
functions: primary area responsible for vision and coordination of eye movements
Diencephalon
majory components: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and pineal gland
Thalamus
composes majority of the diencephalon; acts as relay center for all sensory information (except olfactory) to the cerebrum
Relay Center
also known as transition area in thalamus
LGN
lateral geniculate nuclei relay visual information (vision nerve fibers pass through here)
MGN
medial geniculate nuclei relay auditory information (auditory nerve fibers pass through here)
Nuclei
also known as the cell body
Midbrain
below the diencephalon; contains the corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles, substantia nigra, and red nucleus
Midbrain
functions: visual reflex, relay center for auditory information, & motor coordination
Motor Coordination
degeneration of axon fibers from substantia nigra causes Parkinson's disease
Hindbrain
consists of the metencephalon and myelencephalon
Metencephalon
consists of pons and cerebellum (centers for respiratory)
Pons
contains respiratory centers
Cerebellum
receives input from proprioceptors & coordination of movement (body balance)
Myelencephalon
also known as medulla oblongata and consists of: all descending and ascending fiber tracts between spinal cord and brain must pass through the medulla, cardiac control center, & regulates respiration with the pons
Axons
also known as fiber tracts
Cardiac Control Center
regulates autonomic nerve control of heart
Ascending Spinal Tracts
convey SENSORY information from cutaneous receptors, prooprioceptors, and visceral receptors to cerebral cortex; they cross-deliver (left to right and right to left)
Proprioceptors
for body balance
Visceral Receptors
internal organs (sensory)
Descending Spinal Tracts
pyramidal tracts descend directly without synaptic interruption from cerebral cortex to spinal cord and reticulospinal tracts (extrapyramidal)
Pyramidal Tracts
fine movements
Reticulospinal Tracts
gross motor movements
Synaptic
also known as a connection
Fiber
also known as a nerve axon
Muscle Fiber
also known as a cell
Corticospinal
cerebral cortex to spine
Cerebral Lateralization
specialization of one hemisphere, either left or right
Left Hemisphere
more adept in language and analytical abilities; right handed
Right Hemisphere
limited verbal ability, most adept at visual/spatial tasks; left handed