X-Y: A pair of cardioid mics that are turned inwards. Gives very clear signal, separation and time arrivement
Decca Tree - three cardioid mics, one facing forward, 2 ft in front of 2 that are faced to the side. Uses time and amplitude cues to develop a stereo image.
Spaced Pair: Creates a stereo image both in time and amplitude changes
ORTF: More of a wider stereo image, but a slight dip in signal in the centerClose Miking creates a tight, present sound quality, and it effectively excludes the acoustic environment from being picked up. If you place it too close to the source, the room acoustics won't be picked up, so you want to place it at a reasonable distance.
Distance Miking: It captures the recording environment as a whole, and it will create a natural acoustic environment. Phase cancellation is a thing to be careful about, and having the right mic placement is key.
Accent Miking: It gives solo instruments a voice and not buried within the overall, larger pickup. It creates assistance to help softer instruments increase their pickup. A thing to be careful about is that if you place a mic too close, the pickup will sound overly present, unnatural and out of context with the distant, overall orchestral pickup.
Ambient Miking: For recording the sound of the room.