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13.1 Questions
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Terms in this set (80)
The Founders set the legislative powers in the hands of Congress instead of Parliament. They didn't want power to be concentrated in a single government institution because they feared it could lead to rule by an oppressive or impassive majoritarian, so they made a bicameral legislature with a House of Representatives and a Senate. The legislative powers of Congress would be shared with the President and Supreme Court.
Congress (with 453 members) wants to be big and powerful, and its members also want to be powerful as individuals and as a group. But, Congress being big is hard because then it cannot be powerful unless a small group is given the authority to run it. If a group runs the House, then individuals will lack power. Individuals can gain power, but only at the price of making the House harder to run and reducing its collective power. Because of the lack of a solution to these problems, the House is always changing.
13.3Gender and Race in Congress1950-2017: 9 women ⇾ 83, AA 2 ⇾ 47 Today (115th Congress) 21 women, 3 AA, 5 Latinos in the Senate. Increase comes up majority-minority districtsMajority-Minority districtsCongressional districts where a majority of voters are racial/ethnic minorities. Were created as a result of the Voting Rights Act. Increase descriptive representation. To create these, majority-minority citizens need to be packed into a single district - surrounding districts usually have fewer racial and ethnic minorities.Descriptive representationWhen citizens are represented by elected officials from their same racial/ethnic background.Causes of Majority-Minority districtsGerrymanderingGerrymanderingMoving districts to favor one party or class. Allowed in an affirmative way.Consequences of Majority-Minority districts- with fewer racial/ethnic constituents, there is less incentive to respond to the needs of minority voters. - surrounding districts become less likely to elect Democrats, which means Congress is less likely to pass legislation favored by racial/ethnic minorities, which lead to am increase in symbolic representation decrease of substantive representation.Symbolic representationMore minorities in Congress. Minority representation.Substantive representationAbility of citizens to elect officials who will enact into law policies that the citizens favor. Political view representation.IncumbencyIncumbents- people currently serving in an elected office. Growth: 1869- 50% 1969- 92% Now- 87% Advantage: name recognition, fund-raising (get re-elected 80% of the time, and in Congress 90%), travel at taxpayers' expense.Political PartiesOrganized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices. (definition not in notes but was title of the next topic)How did the Democratic Party dominate for much of the 20th century?1933-2021: Dems controlled both houses 28/48 x Cong. 1992-1994: Dems controlled House of Representatives.Conservative CoalitionRepublican + Southern Democrats. 1930s: Democrats = "Big Tent" Party Realigned political parties.Conservative Coalition 1930s1930s: Democrats = "Big Tent" Party - ^ liberal North wing + conservative South. Agreed on most things compared to today, where the parties now disagree heavily on most social issues. Then: Republicans = moderate to conservative. Northerners were moderate economically, and Southerners (white) were conservative socially and moderate economically.Conservative Coalition 1950sSocial issues begin to develop - race - culture (hippie lifestyle) - feminist movement ⇾ abortion. The coalition slowly begins to change parties.Conservative Coalition 1970sCoalition begins to fade away (white Southern Democrats aren't really a thing anymore). ^ Republicans begin to dominate the South ⇾ 80s.Conservative Coalition 1980s1. Republicans dominate the South. 2. Blacks in the South become Democrats. 3. Socially Liberal Northern Republicans go to Democratic Party. 4. Working Class Democrats in the North become Republicans.Types of voting behavior/viewsRepresentative view, organization view, attitudinal view.Representative viewMembers vote to please their constituents, so they can be re-elected.Organizational viewMembers vote on what their party wants, they will look at what other party members do. They usually do this when they don't have an opinion on an issue.Attitudinal viewMembers vote based on their own beliefs and what they want.13.4 Questions/definitionsCongressVast and complex collection of organizations by which business is carried on and through which members form alliances.Party OrganizationsDemocrats and Republicans in the House and Senate are organized by party leaders, who in turn are elected by the full party membership within the House and Senate.In the Senate, the real leadership is in the hands ofPro Tempore, Majority/Minority leaders, whips, the people who assign senators to the Senate's standing committeesPro TemporeA member of the Majority party, usually with the greatest seniority.Majority LeaderHolds the majority of the seats in the House or Senate. Their principal task is to schedule the business of the Senate.Minority LeaderHolds the minority of seats in the House or Senate. Helps schedule Senate business.WhipChosen by each party, a senator or representative who helps party leaders stay informed on what party members are thinking. They also round up members to take important votes, and attempts to keep a count of how voting on a controversial issue may go.Who assign senators to the Senate's standing committees?For Democrats: Steering and Outreach. For Republicans: the Committee of Committees.Party structure in the House of RepresentativesSimilar except for the titles. Leadership carries more power because the House rules. House must debate and schedule its business with great care, and the leaders who manage have substantial influence.Speaker of the HousePresides over the House. Is elected by the Majority party. Expected to use power to pass legislation favored by the Majority party.Formal powers of the Speaker- Decides who shall be recognized to speak on the floor. - rules whether a motion is revelant and germane to the business at hand. - decides the committees to which bills are assigned. influences what bills are brought up to vote. - appoints the members of special and select committees. - 1975 - select the Majority party members of the Rules Committee (the consideration of bills).Informal powers of the Speaker- Controls some patronage jobs in the capital building. - can assign extra office space.What is party voting, and what three reasons for why "party voting" is so high in Congress?A party vote is a vote where most Democrats are on one side of the bill, and the Republicans are on the other. The reasons why "part voting" is so high in Congress because: 1. members of Congress do not randomly decide to be Democratic or Republican. 2. it is impossible to rank members from most to least liberal in most policy ares. 3. members of Congress may not have an opinion on an issue, so they go to their fellow party members for advice.What is a Caucus?An association of Congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest.Three Types of CommitteesStanding, select, jointStanding committeePermanent established legislative committee that considers and is responsible for legislature within certain subject area.Select committeeAppointed committee for a limited amount of time, for a certain purpose.JointCommittees on which both senators and representatives serve.... Conference CommitteeJoint committee, appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House version of the same bill.Standing Committees of the HouseBudget Minority CommitteeBudget Committee (Minor)Chair: John Yarmuth Ranking Member: Jason Smith Job: draft an annual concurrent resolution on the budget that provides a framework for spending and revenue levels.Standing Committees of the SenateAppropriations Majority Committee, Rules and Administration Minority CommitteeAppropriations Major Committee (Major)Chair: Patrick Leany Ranking Member: Richard Shelby Job: writes legislation that allocates federal funds to the numerous government agencies, departments, and organizations annually.Rules and Administration Committee (Minor)Chair: Amy Klobuchar Ranking Member: Roy Blunt. Job: responsible for the rules of the US Senate, admin of Congressional building, and credentials and qualifications of Senate members.What are Congressional staffers, and how have they changed Congress?Congress staffers draft bills, support Congress members, answer constituents' questions, and write speeches. As Congress has shifted, staffers have shifted the attention of Congress away from legislating and towards communication and constituent service.13.5Who can introduce a bill?Any member of Congress may introduce a bill in either the House or Senate. Technically, the President cannot, but they can have a member sponsor a bill. Another way to set a bill through Congress is a resolution.ResolutionsSimple and concurrent resolutions (doesn't have the force of law). Joint resolution (needs full vote of House and Senate) (has the force of law) signed by the President. used for Amendments and Annexations.What happens after a bill is introduced?They are numbered and printed and must be passed within one session of Congress (one year) or the bill dies.What happens to a bill while being studied by the Committees?A bill is referred to the committees by the Speakers or Pres Tempore Rules Committee will dictate what Committee gets a bill. If bill doesn't leave the committee, it is usually dead.In the House where do bills for raising revenue go?Ways and Means CommitteeIn the House where do bill for appropriating money go?Appropriations CommitteeWhy do some bills go to a subcommittee?To undergo changes, revisions, or amendments.What happens after a bill is finished/revised?Goes to full House or SenateWhat is a discharge petition?A vote that gets a bill out of committee. (House)How many members need to sign a discharge petition?218.What does a bill go on before it can go to the floor?A calendar. In the House: House or Union Calendar. In the Senate: Calendar of Business - normal stuff Executive Calendars - treaty, appointing.Rules CommitteeA standing committee of the House of Representatives. Selected by the Speaker. Restrictive/Closed Rule and Open Rule.Restrictive/Closed RuleShort time limit of debate. No amendments or riders.Open RuleOpposite of a closed rule.Floor debate in HouseTo have a debate you need 100 members present - ^ "Committee of the Whole" Need 218 (a quorum) to vote.Floor debate in the SenateNo closed rule. Debate can continue until Cloture. Double-tracking-allows filibustering to happen even though no one is actually talking. This allows the Senate to move onto other business Filibusters no longer exist for nominations, but still do for legislation.Methods of voting in the HouseVoice Vote - "yea" or "nae" Division Vote - standing Roll-Call - say name (1/5 needs to request)Methods of voting in the SenateRoll-Call VoiceWhat happens when the House and Senate version of the bill do no match up?The last house to vote will refer it back to the other, if the changes still are not reconciled, a conference committee is formed.How much of Congress does it take to override veto?2/3 of both houses (of those present).Divided governmentOne party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress.Unified governmentThe same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress.