Which of the following hypotheses does not help explain the "environmentalist's paradox?"
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According to the figure, the optimal range for the species is approximately... (tree graph)20-30 degrees CelsiusDriving along a highway, you start noticing plants with tiny blue flowers. Several miles later, these flowers are very abundant. Then even further, the flowers become less abundant, until finally, you do not see them at all. The regions with just a few of these plants represent the plant'sZones of stressWhich one of the following statements is NOT true about methane (CH4)?Methane is an inorganic molecule.In a chemical reaction,atoms are rearranged to form different kinds of matter.The muddy Mississippi River, transporting soils that have eroded from farm fields, represents a mixing of thelithosphere and hydrosphereIn the summer, the heater on an automobile still works well, even though you do not need it. This is because the heater in a car draws on surplus heat generated when gas is used to power the engine. This extra heat, wasted in the summer, is produced as a result of theSecond Law of Thermodynamics.Which one of the following best describes the state of a system's energy as entropy increases?Less concentratedAn average person might consume 2,000 Kilocalories of food in one day. This is enough energy to heat up how many 1-liter bottles of liquid water from 0 degrees Celsius to 100 degrees Celsius (just reaching the boiling point of water, but not turning the water into steam)?20 1-liter bottlesWhen comparing matter and energy, which one of the following statements is true?Both can be changed from one form into anotherWhich one of the following best represents the relationship between cellular respiration and photosynthesis?Complimentary because one produces chemical energy in the form of glucose while the other releases energy from glucoseThe majority of the air we breathe is composed of diatomic nitrogen. Unfortunately, most of that gas cannot be used by living organisms in this state. It must be converted into a usable form in a process called __________, a process that is primarily carried out bacteriaNitrogen fixationWhich one of the following represents the process of photosynthesis?6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2Which one of the following represents the process of cellular respiration?C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2OBacterial denitrification is an anaerobic process that converts NO3- toN2 (nitrogen gas)Some farmers in the Midwest rotate their crops from year to year, switching from soybeans to corn on the same fields. What is one of the advantages of doing this?The corn crop benefits from reactive nitrogen fixed through a biological process called nitrogen fixation and added to the soil by the soybean crop.In logistic growth, how does population growth change as the population nears its carrying capacity?population growth decreasesThe population of game fish in a lake is under heavy fishing pressure. If too many fish are caught, the population will crash and future years of fishing will suffer. The game fish can exhibit logistic growth under certain circumstances. Assuming logistic growth, it would be best to manage this game fish population by permitting the harvesting of just enough fish to keep the game fish populationat 50% of its carrying capacity.The grasshopper population in a prairie is limited in large part by the number of birds in the region. Following a terrible storm that killed many of the birds, the grasshopper population exhibits exponential growth. This happens because the grasshoppers experienceda steady biotic potential but decreased environmental resistance.Which one of the following is characteristic of an R-selected species?Fast reproductive rateDensity-independent factors such as earthquakes and hurricanes areabiotic factors that are not involved in maintaining a population near its equilibrium.Which one of the following is not an example of resource partitioning?Male songbirds sing to defend their territory during the nesting seasonYou watched a video on American Alligator in the Florida Everglades in your envs1126 class. The alligators play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the Everglades. For this reason, the American alligator is considered a ______species.Keystone speciesInvasive species are dangerous becausethe native species have not evolved with these organisms.The different Galapagos finch speciesevolved from a single ancestral species that flew to the Galapagos Islands.Terrestrial biomes are groups of ecosystems characterized by similar types ofPlants and climateWhat type of biome would you expect to find in a region where temperatures are high and precipitation is low year round?Hot desertYou are enjoying a salad with lettuce coated by mushrooms, tomatoes, carrots, and bits of bacon from grain-fed pigs. Your salad representsproducers, consumers, and decomposers.Chemoautotrophic organisms are classified as producers because they:use the energy of inorganic chemicals to manufacture organic molecules.In most natural ecosystems (such as a forest), nutrients essential for plant growth are mostly returned to the soil bydecomposersWhich of the following statements is true?All of the above (aerobic respiration)The information of an energy pyramid reveals that if the sun's energy could be measured in units like money, _________ would be the most expensive.foxAccording to the figure, this terrestrial biome has a high annual net primary productivity and a high percent of global net primary productivity.Tropical rainforestWhich one of the following is not an example of secondary succession?Lichens appear on basalt rock 50 years after a volcanic eruption on the Big Island of HawaiiWhich of the following best represents a loss of biological wealth?the extinction of several beetle speciesThe species that are most vulnerable to extinction are those, which areendemic and limited to a single populationBiodiversity hot spots are vulnerable to species loss. Which of the following would be most likely to be identified as a biodiversity hot spot?Rain forests in BrazilThreatened and endangered species receive special protection from human activities such as hunting and habitat destruction because these activities aredensity independentAccording to the graph, which of the following groups has the highest number of species that are extinct, critically endangered, or endangered?AmphibiansPassed in 1900, the most significant legislation to protect wildlife from illegal killing or sale is theLacey ActA poacher kills polar bears in Alaska and ships their skins to buyers in Asia. The poacher is most likely in violation of laws that come from theEndangered Species Act and CITESIn the state of Arizona, the use of groundwater has been aggressively managed since about 1980. Before that time, agricultural, commercial, and private demands for water were growing at levels that were not sustainable. Before water regulation of any sort, demand for water in all its forms in the state of Arizona illustrated thetragedy of the commons.Which one of the following is the major cause of mortality in the least developed countries of the world?Communicable diseasesMost molecular compounds that have a mass similar to water are gases at room temperature. Because of the strong __________ bonds, water molecules are able to stay condensed in the liquid state.hydrogenIn many coastal areas, springs of outflowing groundwater lie under the ocean. ________ occurs in coastal regions where the water table is falling due to groundwater overdraft.saltwater intrusionWhich of the following is an example of natural goods from an ecosystem?Nuts gathered for foodThe maximum population of a particular species that an ecosystem can support without that ecosystem being negatively impacted, such as the maximum number of rabbits that can live in a forest without a massive loss of vegetation is known as the __________ of that ecosystem.carrying capacityThe Alabama Canebrake pitcher plant is a carnivorous plant that is unique to Alabama, growing in only Autauga and Chilton counties in the central area of the state. The Canebrake grows in acidic soils that are low in nutrients. If you wanted to photograph a Canebrake, what type of wetland would you go to?BogWhich of the following are processes that generally reverse each other?evaporation and condensationWhich of the following is NOT associated with the Dust Bowl in the United States in the 1930's?Planting grains in soils that could support only leaf crops sustainablyAs a cold front moves into an area of warm, moist air, we would expect to see cloud formations asthe warm air rises and condensesBased on a comparison of the age-structure pyramids, which of the following would likely be a higher priority in the Netherlands than in Niger?providing long-term care for the elderlyLook at the age-structure pyramids. The numbers between the bars (in the middle of the graphs) serve as the y-axis. What do these numbers represent?the age classes, in 5-year rangesWater vapor evaporates becausekinetic energy increases enough to allow water molecules to break away from each other.Which of the following statements regarding the expected future population profiles of developing countries is true?The greatest proportion of individuals is in the younger age categories.Which one of the following best illustrates consumptive use of a resource?A farmer in Indiana shoots a wild turkey for his Thanksgiving dinner.According to _______________, to allow for uncertainties, the total allowable catch should be much lower than the maximum sustained yield (MSY).the "precautionary principle"In which stage or stages of the demographic transition is the size of the population relatively stable? (birth or death rate)Stages 1 and 4Which one of the following statements is true? (birth or death rate)The epidemiologic transition has preceded the fertility transitionThe amount of land and ocean needed to provide the resources for one person and absorb his/her wastes defines theecological footprintA paper published in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. this year estimated the A-horizon loss and associated economic losses within the Corn Belt in the United States. What conclusions can be drawn from this figure?Approximately 35% of the US Corn Belt has lost its carbon-rich topsoil. This degree of erosion translates into a 6% reduction in overall crop yield.According to the soil texture triangle, if you have 30% clay, 30% silt, and 40% sand, which soil texture class do you have?Clay loamA declining dependency ratiopermits decreased spending on education and old-age medical expenses.Which of the following is more related to water quantity than water quality?depletion of aquifersWhat is the primary cause of land loss in Louisiana?SubsidenceThe planting of strips of trees and shrubs along the edges of plowed fields is used todecrease wind erosionClimate moderation is an example of which one of the following kinds of ecosystem servicesregulating servicesMost of the world population growth in the near future will be indeveloping countriesThe very deep roots of many prairie plants that have decomposed over thousands of years have contributed to the high fertility of theA horizon of molisolsConverting forests to mostly paved urban areas has largely altered the hydrology of the affected watersheds becauseinfiltration has decreased and surface runoff has increased.Social modernization involves many aspects that revolve aroundthe education and enfranchisement of womenWhat factor is a threat to both coastal marshes and inland wetlands?Hydrology changesIf a country experiences 7 births, 2 deaths, and 1 new immigrant every minute of a year, how will its population change in one year?the population will increase by about 3.2 million peopleThailand has experienced a dramatic drop in fertility rate, increased per capita income and an increase in life expectancy between 1960 and 2005. These are all signs that Thailandhas undergone demographic transition.You are a newly appointed advisor in a government program to help socialite proposals to determine how soils impact global climate change. With limited financial resources, which of the following would be your highest priority?the factors that determine the rate of biomass decomposition and carbon storage in soilsThe ability of an ecosystem to replenish itself leads tosustainabilityWhich wetland restoration strategy involves pumping sediment from river bottoms into areas where land has eroded away?DredgingWhat conclusion can be drawn from this figure of the maximum sustainable yield? (blue graph)the maximum sustainable yield is about half of the carrying capacity of the population.Which of the following contributes the most to global warming?Water vapor in the airUsing the IPAT formula, which of the following would most likely reduce the environmental impact of a society?greater use of birth control by most members of a societyThe location of deserts in the northern and southern regions of Africa is best explained by understandingconvective air movement in Hadley cells.Global warming during the 21st century is expected tospeed up the hydrologic cycleWhich of the following best describes mycorrhizae?Symbiotic fungi that increase soil nutrient uptake in plant rootsCod landings from the Georges Bank of North America, according to the 2013 data (orange graph)are seriously depleted and need prolonged sustainable management practices.While tailgating on LSU campus you meet an oyster fisherman who is generously passing out gumbo. You talk to the fisherman for a while and find out he is strongly opposed to the river diversions in Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan. Why would an oyster fisherman be opposed to river diversions?Lowering the salinity of the water kills the oysters.Even if a developing country reduces its birth rate and maintains replacement-level fertility, its population will still continue to grow for several decades because of_____________. This population growth is due to the current number of people in the childbearing age-range.population momentumMajor causes of soil erosion includeOvercultivation, overgrazing, and deforestationWhich of the following represents the correct sequence of revolutions as they occurred?neolithic, industrial, medical, green, environmentalWhich of the following is a uniquely human trait?ability to regulate our reproductionWhich one of the following soil types will hold the most water? The most water would be held by a soil consisting of equal masses ofsilt and clayWhen completed, the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan willredirect much of the water flow southward.The Industrial Revolution has led to an increased reliance on fossil fuels topower farm machinery and to produce fertilizers and pesticides.In any food web, biomagnification will result in the highest concentrations of toxins in thehighest tropic level of the systems.The amount of biomass on successive trophic levels in a food chain forms a pyramid in which the biomass on trophic level N+1 is only 20% of the biomass on trophic level N. If pesticide P is transferred from one trophic level to the next with 80% efficiency, what will be the concentration of P on trophic level 5 if the concentration of P on trophic level 2 is 4 parts per million (ppm)?256 ppmIf r represents a gene for resistance to DDT, and to be resistant an individual but be homozygous, choose the resistant individual(s) below:rrGenetic engineering insets desired traits into plants and animals to produce GMOs toall of the aboveWhich of the following about Bt crops is true?They incorporate the gene for producing a potent bacterially produced insecticide.Which of the following statements is a reasonable interpretation of the Hubbert curves?The world's oil and gas production is decreasing. Even if this is incorrect, it will eventually decrease after reaching peak production.The EROI system of evaluating energy exploitation from various sources is based uponthe ratio of energy extracted to energy invested in the extraction process.Which of the following contributes the most to increase in the atmospheric concentration of carboncoalThe fossil fuels that we burn today were formed long ago from buried organic matter. However, only a small fraction of the original organic carbon remains in the coal, oil, or natural gas that is formed. Thus, it requires approximately 90 metric tons of ancient organic matter—so-called paleoproduction—to result in just 3.8 L (1 gal) of gasoline. The graph presents estimates of the amount of paleoproduction required to produce the fossil fuels humans used each year between 1750 and 2000. The red line represents annual human consumption of paleoproduction by fossil fuel combustion. The dashed line indicates current annual net primary production (NPP) for the entire planet. Now calculate the total carbon content of the fossil fuel consumed in the year 1750 (assume 0.03 trillion kg C). How many times greater was the total carbon content of the fossil fuel consumed in 2000 than in 1750?1.7 x 10^-6In coal-power plants, fluidized-bed combustion using limestone is employed toprevent from the formation of acid rain134^Cs and 137^Cs differ from each other in theirneutron numberIn a nuclear power plant fueled with uranium-235, what is the purpose of the moderator?slow neutronsLoss-of-coolant accidents are initiated due to the loss ofmoderatorYou sampled a level of radioactivity of soil from a radioactively contaminated site and monitored changes in the radioactivity level for 10 days. The following table shows your measurements. What would be the radioactivity of your sample on day 15? (4 - 3.87 - 2 - 1)0.5Which of the following cannot penetrate your skin?Alpha radiationCompared to coal power plants, nuclear power plantsgenerate radioactive wasteCompared to conventional energy sources, a noticeable advantage of renewable energy resources is thatthey are not depletedWhich of the following should be considered when you design a solar power system? (how to...)All of themWhich of the following is a key process of ethanol production?Fermentation of starches or sugarGiven the problems of inconsistent winds, the best place to position new wind turbines would bein offshore locations where winds are more consistentWhich of the following diseases is caused by a bacterium?TuberculosisData detailing deaths from smoking, obesity, and alcohol use are examples of environmental hazards related tocultureExamining an old abandoned home several months after a flood, a relief worker suddenly experiences difficulty breathing. At the hospital, she learns that she experiencedan acute respiratory illness, asthma, more common in the developed world.Drinking water becomes contaminated with lead. If each of the following people consumes 32 ounces of this contaminated water each day for three months, who will most likely be impacted by this poison?a 6-month-old girlLast year (2020) was the most active hurricane season on record in the Atlantic Ocean and this year (2021) the hurricane season has become the third most active on record. Which one of the following global climate changes is most associated with increased hurricane activity?Warmer oceansWhich of the following chemical reactions causes ocean acidification?CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → HCO3- + H+Which one of the following chemical reactions causes shell dissolution?A) CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca2+ + 2HCO3-Which of the following chemical reactions is (are) involved in ozone depletion in the stratosphere?All of the aboveWhich of the following statements regarding methane is FALSE?It is decreasing in concentrations in the troposphere.This graph compares the toxicity of pollutant A and pollutant B. LD50 is the dose at which 50% of the population is killed. Which one of the following statements is correct?A is more toxic than BWhich one of the following best illustrates a type of adaptation to global climate change?Building taller levees to hold back storm surges along ocean coastlinesYou examine an ice core sample from 10,000 years ago when global temperatures were unusually high. Based upon past studies and insights from current GHG levels, we expect that at that time, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxideand methane were unusually high.The light, bleached color of dying coral in marine ecosystems is most likely the result ofinterrupted coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis by increased ocean temperatures.Which of the following states will most likely experience the greatest warming in the next 50 years?AlaskaA major federal law aimed at controlling air pollution is theClean Air ActAcid rain is rain that has been made acidic by pollutants like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the air. Rainwater having a pH of 4 is1000 times more acidic than pure waterWhich rock type is most effective at buffering acid precipitation?LimestoneWhich one of the following gases causes respiratory irritation in animals and tissue damage in plants when it is in the troposphere but can absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation and reduce cancer rates when it is in the stratosphere?O3Which one of the following gases accounts for the greatest percentage of the greenhouse effect?Water vaporGlobal warming during the 21st century is expected toSpeed up the hydrologic cycle and slow the thermohaline circulation of the oceanAccording to the IPCC special report "Global Warming of 1.5 °C" published in 2018, which statement is correct?A) when it comes to warming, coral reefs would suffer a 70-90% loss at 1.5°C but a 100% loss at 2°C.Which one of the following is most associated with an air-pollution disaster like the one in 1948 in Donora, Pennsylvania?A temperature inversionOzone, PANS, and aldehydes and ketones are examples of primary pollutantsFalseThe device in this image is responsible for decreased levels of (engine)carbon monoxide, VOCs, and nitrogen oxides in the air you breatheAccording to NASA's annual records on the ozone layer over the Antarctic (see the figure), which statement is not correct?The hole's size and minimum ozone have been declining.The causes of mortality differ greatly between developing and developed countries. In developing countries, a high proportion of mortality is caused byinfectious disease while in the developed world, most deaths are related to voluntary behaviors.Using ice core samples and analyses, researchers have discovered that over the past 800,000 yearsthere is a strong correlation between global temperatures and greenhouse gases.Global warming is raising sea levels because ofmelting ice and thermal expansionAt the UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), which opened in Glasgow, Scotland on October 31, 2021, developing countries have urged developed nations to provide financial support for measures to cope with climate change. This argument illustrates theequity principle