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18 terms

Functional Groups of Organic Compounds

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Hydroxyl Group-Structure
[1] (-OH), a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule.
Carbonyl Group-Structure
[1] ( ⟩C=O), consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.
Hydroxyl Group-Functional Properties
[2] Is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself
[3] Attracts water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such a sugars
Hydroxyl Group-NOC
[4] Name of Compound: Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol)
Carbonyl Group-NOC
[2] Name of Compound: Ketones (if the ******** group is within a carbon skeleton)
[3] Name of Compound: Aldehydes (if the ******** group is at the end of the carbon skeleton)
Carbonyl Group-Functional Properties
[4] A ketone & aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
Carboxyl Group-Structure
[1] (O=C-OH) When an oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group. **Carbon is asymmetrical: O & -OH are branched of of C which is attached to the specific skeleton
Carboxyl Group-NOC
[2] Name of Compound: Carboxylic Acids, or organic acids
Carboxyl Group-Functional Properties
[3] Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions
[4] The covalent bond between O & H is so polar that Hydrogen ions (H⁺) tend to dissociate reversibly
[5] In cells, found in the Ionic form, which is called a carboxylate group.
Amino Group-Structure
[1] (-N ⟩ H or -NH2) Consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
Amino Group-NOC
Amines
Amino Group-Functional Properties
[2] Acts as a base; can pick up a proton from the surrounding solution(s):
(a). N bonded to 2 hydrogens (nonionized)
(b). N⁺ bonded to 3 Hydrogens (ionized)
[3] Ionized, with a charge of 1+, under cellular conditions
Sulfhydrl Group-Structure
[1] (-SH) Consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape
Sulfhydrl Group-NOC
Thiols
Sulfhydrl Groups-Functional Properties
[2] Two of this specific type of group(s) can interact to stabilize a protein structure
Phosphate Group-Structure
[1] A phosphorous atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms; one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton; two oxygens carry negative charges. 'Top' oxygen is double bonded to the Phosphorous atom
[2] (-OPO₃²-) is an ionized form of a phosphoric acid group (-OPO₃H₂; note the two hydrogens).
Phosphate Group-NOC
[3] Organic phosphates
Phosphate Group-Functional Properties
[4] makes the molecule of which it is a part of an anion (negatively charged ion)
[5] Can transfer energy between organic molecules