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Hydroxyl Group-Structure

[1] (-OH), a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule.

Carbonyl Group-Structure

[1] ( ⟩C=O), consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.

Hydroxyl Group-Functional Properties

[2] Is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself
[3] Attracts water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such a sugars

Hydroxyl Group-NOC

[4] Name of Compound: Alcohols (their specific names usually end in -ol)

Carbonyl Group-NOC

[2] Name of Compound: Ketones (if the ******** group is within a carbon skeleton)
[3] Name of Compound: Aldehydes (if the ******** group is at the end of the carbon skeleton)

Carbonyl Group-Functional Properties

[4] A ketone & aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.

Carboxyl Group-Structure

[1] (O=C-OH) When an oxygen atom is double bonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to a hydroxyl group. **Carbon is asymmetrical: O & -OH are branched of of C which is attached to the specific skeleton

Carboxyl Group-NOC

[2] Name of Compound: Carboxylic Acids, or organic acids

Carboxyl Group-Functional Properties

[3] Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions
[4] The covalent bond between O & H is so polar that Hydrogen ions (H⁺) tend to dissociate reversibly
[5] In cells, found in the Ionic form, which is called a carboxylate group.

Amino Group-Structure

[1] (-N ⟩ H or -NH2) Consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton

Amino Group-NOC


Amino Group-Functional Properties

[2] Acts as a base; can pick up a proton from the surrounding solution(s):
(a). N bonded to 2 hydrogens (nonionized)
(b). N⁺ bonded to 3 Hydrogens (ionized)
[3] Ionized, with a charge of 1+, under cellular conditions

Sulfhydrl Group-Structure

[1] (-SH) Consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape

Sulfhydrl Group-NOC


Sulfhydrl Groups-Functional Properties

[2] Two of this specific type of group(s) can interact to stabilize a protein structure

Phosphate Group-Structure

[1] A phosphorous atom is bonded to four oxygen atoms; one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeleton; two oxygens carry negative charges. 'Top' oxygen is double bonded to the Phosphorous atom
[2] (-OPO₃²-) is an ionized form of a phosphoric acid group (-OPO₃H₂; note the two hydrogens).

Phosphate Group-NOC

[3] Organic phosphates

Phosphate Group-Functional Properties

[4] makes the molecule of which it is a part of an anion (negatively charged ion)
[5] Can transfer energy between organic molecules

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