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COMD 380 A&P CH 2 ANATOMY/RESPIRATION
JUST NOTES NO OIA
Terms in this set (70)
exchange of gas between an organism and its environment
minuscule air sacs where the gas exchange takes place
breath in oxygen
breath out waste products
to sustain life by breathing in and out
what is the primary purpose to sustain life by breathing in and out
what is the secondary purpose of respiration
adbdomen, chest and back
respiration results from muscle activity of the ____,_____, and ______
respiration occurs due to
-States that "if a gas is kept at a constant temperature, pressure and volume are inversely proportional to one another and have a constant product".
-An increase in volume will result in negative pressure in the lungs with respect to the atmosphere; therefore, air rushes into the lungs until the outside and inside pressure is equalized.
air pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure
air pressure that is less than atmospheric pressure
1. Nasal and Oral Cavities
5. Mainstem Bronchus
6. Secondary Bronchi
7. Tertiary Bronchi
the respiratory passageway consists of
1. Vertebral Column/Spinal Column
2. Pelvic Girdle
3. Pectoral Girdle
4. Rib Cage
skeletal system for respiration contains
- continual group of bones from the base of the skull to the upper part of the lower back. Serves as a conduit for the spinal cord.
-Composed of 33 segments of bone. Grouped in 5 divisions:
1. Cervical vertebrae: C1 - C7
2. Thoracic vertebrae: T1 - T 12
3. Lumbar: L1 - L5
4. Sacrum: 5 fused
5. Coccygeal: 4 fused
the bones of the vertebral column of the functional unit of the vertebral column
protected foramina (hole or passageways)
more bone in corpus
a cartilaginous disc between the vertebrae that absorbs shock to the vertebral column
central or vertebral canal-- houses the spinal cird
vertebrae are connected by
from posterior point of attachment for the ribs
large compared to other vertebrae to aid in lifting and ambulation
5 fused vertebrae following the lumbar section. has sacral foramina that function like the intervertebral foramina
considered 1 piece, but composed 4 rudimentary vertebra. the most inferior section of the vertebral column
-The lower extremities are attached to the axis (vertebral column) by means of the pelvic girdle.
-The coxal bones or hip bones are paired bones that form the pelvic girdle. Several muscles that influence breathing are attached to the paired pelvic girdle.
the largest of the 3 bones, the upper portion (groin), wing like
superior part of the ileum
the inferior portion of the pelvic girdle
the most inferior medial section
where the 2 pubic bones meet
-aka shoulder girdle
-includes scapula and clavicle which attach to the sternum
paired broad flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder; reasonably free floating because it does not attach to a bone structure medially; and articulates with the clavicle laterally.
clavicle (collar bone)
paired bone that articulates with the scapula laterally and the manubrium of the sternum medially. Located in the shoulder anteriorly and superiorly to the 1st rib.
how many pairs of ribs are there
term relating to ribs
the bulk of the bone/rib
provides the articulating surface with the spinal column (part of the rib)
where the rib makes a rather abrupt change in direction (curve)
posterior section made of bone/rib
articulating surface for vertebral colum
true ribs (vertebrosternal)
Each pair attaches directly to the sternum by means of the chondral portion. (1-7)
false ribs (vertebrochondral)
Indirectly attached to the sternum by a common cartilage that runs superiorly to attach to the sternum. (8-10)
vertebral (floating ribs)
The only skeletal attachment is vertebra. Not attached to any other ribs or the sternum. (11-12)
-held in place by the ribs
-(breastbone) an oblong structure with two bony sections and a cartilaginous section.
1st 7 ribs articulate directly with the sternum
manubrium, corpus, xiphoid process
3 parts of the sternum
the upper part made of bone. Articulates with clavicle and rib one.
body of the sternum made of
bone. It is the central and largest section that
articulates with ribs 2-10 (directly or indirectly).
Xiphoid Process (Ensiform)
cartilaginous portion of the sternum.
highly elastic cone-like structure that collapses easily due to air in the alveoli
has 3 lobes
has 2 lobes
bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
The lungs contain the __________, ____________, and _________.
-a modification of the uppermost tracheal cartilage
-forms as highky specialized valve that may open and close the air passageway
entry of solids or liquids (food) into the lungs
-(windpipe) a midline structure that is an elastic tube made up of cartilage and membrane which extends from below the larynx into the thoracic cavity and passes air to and from the lungs. The trachea bifurcates at the carina trachea to become the mainstem bronchi
-Made up of horseshoe-shaped hyaline cartilage connected by membranes which makes it both flexible and rigid.
characterized by increasingly smaller tubes within the lungs
trachea, mainstream bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, and alveoli
list the bronchial tree
Point at which the trachea bifurcates (divides) into the left and right mainstem bronchi.
breathing in; the power stroke of respiration
may raise the lowest ribs
elongates neck and controls head
an extensive system of tendinous sheets. It is a broad flat sheet of tendinous tissue situated on the ventral abdominal wall.
part of the abdominal aponeurosis; lies at midline and runs from the
sternum to the pubic symphysis. It is
a dense fibrous band
a joint of the pelvis
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