Med term questions

________ nerves carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord.
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Terms in this set (208)
The ER physician suspected Baby Chang had meningitis and performed a lumbar puncture to obtain ________spinal fluid for analysis.CerebroWhite fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell is called:myelin sheath________ disease is the degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, muscle rigidity, and a shuffling gait.ParkinsonThe brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system.centralThe purpose of the blood-brain barrier is toRegulate the passage of potentially harmful substances form the blood into the nerve cells of the brainInvoluntary nerves that stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis are __________ nervessympathetic________itis is an inflammatory disease of the nervous system involving the roots of the spinal nervesradiculThe main sensory relay center of the brain is the:thalamusA _____________ scan, which is abbreviated ___ scan, is a computerized imaging technique that shows chemical activity of the brain and gives information about brain function.positron emission tomography (PET)_____________ is the radiographic imaging of the blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast mediumcerebral angiography__________ are the grooves or fissures that separate the sheets of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex.sulciTIA is the abbreviation fortransient ischemic attackThe microscopic space through which an impulse is transmitted is a(n):synapseA ________cele is the hernial protrusion of the meninges through a defect in the spinal columnmeningoCVA is the abbreviation forcerebrovascular accidentWhich of the following nervous system cells do not transmit impulses throughout the body?glialTreatment of hydrocephalus involves the use of a __________ to drain the excess cerebrospinal fluid.shuntALS is the abbreviation for:amyotrophic lateral sclerosis_____ nerves carry impulses to the brain and spinal cordafferent________ palsy is a disorder of the facial nerve that results in unilateral facial paralysisbellThe imaging modality that generates multiple computerized images of the brain and spinal cord using a contrast material is:computed tomographyA tube that is meshlike or slotted and used to prevent vessel obstruction is a(n):stentDuplex ultrasound is:A combination of Doppler and conventional ultrasoundAn ICD is aDevice implanted in the chest that can sense and correct arrhythmiasA disease condition in which the heart is unable to pump the necessary amount of blood to meet the body's metabolic requirements is called _____________, which is abbreviated ___.Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)The area of specialized cardiac tissue that receives the cardiac impulse from the sinoatrial node is the:atrioventricular nodeTAVR stands fortranscatheter aortic valve replacementRadiographic imaging of the large blood vessels after the injection of radiopaque dye is called:angiographyBlood vessels that permit oxygen and nutrients to exchange with carbon dioxide and waste materials are called:capillariesA(n) __________ is the widening of a weakened portion of an arterial wallaneurysmBlockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs isperipheral arterial disease (PAD)Bacterial endocarditis produces lesions resembling cauliflower called __________ that break off into the bloodstream as __________.vegetations, emboliAll of the following measures help establish a diagnosis of CAD exceptPCIA congenital defect characterized by a narrowing of the aorta is called:Coarctation of the aortaSystole is the rhythmic ________ phase of the cardiac cycle.contractionCatheter delivery of a high-frequency current to damage a small part of the heart muscle to reverse an abnormal heart rhythm is:RFAAs blood enters the right atrium from the venae cavae, it flows next through the __________, __________, and __________.tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valveA small hole in the wall between the atria is called a(n) _____________, which is abbreviated ___.Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)A congenital heart disease in which the blood flows from the aorta into the pulmonary artery through a small opening is calledpatent ductus arteriosusACS is the abbreviation foracute coronary syndromeA blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lung to the left atrium is called thepulmonary veinA(n) ___________ pacemaker enables ventricles to beat together in synchrony so that more blood is pumped out of the heartbiventricularA nuclear imaging test done to assess the function of the heart and cardiac output is a(n)Technetium-99m sestamibi scanExtremely rapid and irregular contractions of the heart muscle are called _______fibrillationThe application of brief electrical discharges across the chest to stop ventricular fibrillation isdefibrillationA chronic, intermittent bronchial inflammatory disorder, also known as reactive airway disease, is:asthmaA tracheostomy is thesurgical creation of an opening into the tracheaThe opening between the vocal cords is theglottisBroncho________ is the visual examination of the bronchi-scopyEmphysema primarily affects which lung structure?alveoliFailure of the right side of the heart to pump sufficiently to the lungs, causing enlargement of the right ventricle, is known as ___________________.Cor pulmonaleListening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope is called:auscultationMr. Matthew's surgeon had to perform a ___________ in order to do a lung biopsy.thoracotomyAir-containing cavity in the bones near the nose is the:paranasal sinusThe midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs is called the:hilumCrackling sounds heard during inspiration when the alveoli are filled with secretions are calledralesCTPA is a combination of computed tomography scanning and:angiographyCystic fibrosis isA disorder that affects the mucous membranes of the respiratory system as well as the pancreas and the sweat glandsDOE stands for _____ on exertiondyspneaCXR is the abbreviation forchest x-rayA spirometer is used for these respiratory testsPFTAn alveolus is a(nair sacThe entrances to the respiratory passageway are the:naresAsbestosis is a form ofpneumoconiosisCOPD is the abbreviation for:chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseAll of the following are functions of the cilia except:oxygenatingAn acute bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes a leathery false membrane to form in the throat and the tonsils is:diphtheriaAn instrument that measures and records the volume of inhaled and exhaled air is aspirometerA high-pitched sound produced by the larynx or pharynx on inspiration is _______.stridorEndo________ intubation is the insertion and placement of a tube into the trachea through the nose or mouth.trachealThe double-folded membrane surrounding each lung is called thepleuraA(n) _______phil is a white blood cell that does not stain intensely with either alkaline or acidic dyeneutro (neutrophil)During ___________ transplantation, peripheral stem cells from a donor are administered to a recipienthematopoietic stem cellThe percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood is thehematocritPMN is the abbreviation forpolymorphonuclearThis test determines the number of leukocytes per cubic millimeter or microliter of bloodWBCThis test is used to evaluate patients taking anticoagulant medications.Prothrombin time (PT)CML is the abbreviation forchronic myelogenous leukemiaFor which of the following procedures does the patient serve as his or her own stem cell donorABMTPTT stands forpartial thromboplastin timeThe abbreviation for hematocrit is:HctEpstein-Barr is the virus that causesmononucleosisMultiple pinpoint hemorrhages and accumulation of blood under the skin ispurpuraThe time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube is called:coagulation timeThe name for the test that measures the time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound isBleeding time testRed blood cell morphology looks at the _________ of individual red blood cells.shapeRBC is the number of __________ per cubic millimeter or microliter of blood.erythrocytesThe suffix in the term anemia means:blood conditionThis test determines the number of clotting cells per cubic millimeter of blood.platelet countWhen whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient, the procedure is calledblood transfusionA laboratory test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes is a(n):antiglobulin testALL is the abbreviation foracute lymphocytic leukemiaWith spherocytosis, cells areroundedAntibodies that bind to and sometimes destroy antigens are:immunoglobulinsThe separation of blood into its component parts by spinning a blood sample at high speeds in a centrifuge is called:apheresisThe percentage of different types of leukocytes in the blood is the:white blood cell differentialBlood screening that includes an RBC count, a WBC count with differential, a platelet count, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and red blood cell indices is called a(n) ______________, which is abbreviated ___.complete blood count (CBC)A person with Type A blood will have type __ red cell antigensType AProtein substances stimulated by the presence of antigens are calledantibodiesSpecial proteins called _____________, abbreviated ____, trigger the production, maturation, and activation of granulocytesColony-stimulating factors (CSFs)Persons with ________ blood are referred to as universal recipientsType AB____________ refers to the deficient production of all cellular elements of the blood.pancytopeniaThe administration of packed cells is a treatment foranemiaGranulocytes are formed in red bone marrow, or ________oid tissuemyelThe microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle is a:bone marrow biopsyThe laboratory test that detects neutropenia isANC_____________ is the reduction in red blood cells due to excessive destruction.hemolytic anemiaProteins that destroy antigens areantibodiesA retroviral disease caused by infection with HIV, its manifestation is associated with suppression of the immune system and is called ________________, which is abbreviated ____.acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)Antigen-presenting cells that show T and B cells what to attack are:dendritic cells______electrophoresis is a test that detects and differentiates abnormal levels of specific antibodiesimmunoA malignant tumor of the thymus gland is calledthymomaWhich test measures the amount of AIDS virus (HIV) in the bloodstreamviral load testClusters of small oval-shaped tissue along the path of lymph vessels arelymph nodesA ___________ is a large phagocyte found in lymph nodes and other tissues of the bodymacrophageAn inflammatory skin reaction due to sensitivity to an environmental allergen is _______________________.atopic dermatitisLymphocytes that act directly on antigens to destroy them or produce chemicals toxic to them are:T cellsIntroduction of a modified toxin to produce an immune response and protection against disease isvaccinationA lymphocyte that originates in the bone marrow and secretes antibodies is a:B cellWhich of the following is a treatment for AIDS?all of the above a. Highly activated antiretroviral therapy b. RTIs c. Protease inhibitorsA malignant tumor of lymph tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes is called __________ disease, or lymphomaHodgkinMary is diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, and her physician recommends _____________ for treatment. This treatment consists of lab-produced antibodies linked to a specific toxin being delivered directly to the tumor cellsmonoclonal antibodiesDiagnosis of ____________ is often made by identifying the Reed Sternberg cell in the lymph nodes.Hodgkin diseaseIgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM are collectively known asimmunoglobinsThe use of immune cells, antibodies, or vaccines to treat disease is called:immunotherapyAn abnormal increase in lymphocytes is calledlymphocytosisT cells that serve a regulatory function for specific immune responses by stopping the immune response when an antigen has been destroyed are:Suppressor T cellsA term that describes any of a group of diseases caused by a defect in the immune system, characterized by susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases is _______________________________.immunodeficiencyHIV binds to ___________ and infects and kills T cells bearing this proteinCD4+ cellsInterferon and interleukins are examples ofcytokinesTwo viral load tests that measure the amount of AIDS virus in the bloodstream are _____ and _______.PCR; NASBAAsthma, hives, and atopic dermatitis are examples of a(n) ______________, which occurs when a sensitized person reacts violently to a subsequent exposureallergic reactionA substance capable of causing a specific hypersensitivity reaction in the body is a(n):allergenFormation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen is:adaptive immunityFluid in the spaces between the cells is:interstitial fluidGenetic ability to fight off disease isnatural immunityA group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue isnon-Hodgkin lymphomaA(n) ____________ infection is a disease caused by lowered body resistance, which allows infection by bacteria and parasites that are normally easily containedopportunistic________________, which is abbreviated _____, is a test to screen blood for antibodies to the AIDS virusEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)Substances capable of inducing an immune response are:antigensDrugs that treat AIDS by blocking the production of the enzyme that creates new viral pieces for HIV are called:protease inhibitorsA malignant tumor of bone marrow cells associated with high levels of one of the immunoglobulins, usually IgG, is calledMultiple myelomaWhich test measures the number of helper T cells in the bloodstream of patients with AIDSCD4 lymphocyte countA condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system islymphedemaA person who is prone to allergies can be described as being:atopicMasses of lymph tissue in the nasopharynx are calledadenoidsA general term for the condition of having excessive reactions to allergens is called ____________.hypersensitivityBending a limb isflexionCircular movement around an axis is:rotationHard, dense bone tissue is:compact boneMovement away from the midline of the body isabductionA chronic autoimmune condition in which joints become inflamed and painful isrheumatoid arthritisA chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving the joints, skin, kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs is called:systemic lupus erythematosusA ganglion is a:Fluid-filled cyst that arises from the joint capsule or a tendonA pathologic fracturefracture caused by diseased or weakened boneAbnormal protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal isherniated diskAn inherited disease marked by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers ismuscular dystrophyFibromy______ is a condition characterized by chronic pain and stiffness in muscles, joints, and fibrous tissue.-algiaInflammation of the bone and bone marrow is called:osteomyelitisSoftening of the bones is called osteo________.-malaciaSpinal stenosis is a _________ of the lumbar spinal canal.narrowingTenosynovitis is inflammation of thetendon and synovial membraneThe disorder caused by a bacterium carried by a tick is called:Lyme diseaseThe general term for a broken bone isfractureThe medical condition caused by the median nerve being compressed by a wrist ligament as it passes between that ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist is:carpal tunnel syndromeThe medical term that means inflammation of the bursa isbursitisA(n) ___________ is a procedure in which a radioactive substance is placed within the body to enable visualization of a bone via the image produced by the emission of radioactive particlesbone scanArthrocentesis is the:surgical puncture of a joint to remove fluidArthro________ is the surgical reconstruction or prosthetic replacement of the end of a joint-plastyBone densitometry determines bone mass with a machine that measures how well x-rays __________ boneto penetrateDiagnostic testing for Tony included a muscle biopsy and an EMG. An EMG recordsstrength of muscle contractionElevated serum levels of ____________ can indicate muscular dystrophies, polymyositis, or myopathy.creatine kinaseIn diagnosing osteoporosis, physicians may recommend a specific bone density test called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which is abbreviated ____.DEXAIn this procedure, the femoral head and acetabulum are replaced with prostheses that are fastened into the bone.ThrRemoval of muscle tissue for microscopic examination is a:muscle biopsyRheumatoid arthritis can be detected by a laboratory test called ______________, abbreviated ___, which is the rate at which erythrocytes settle at the bottom of a test tube.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)The abbreviation for the medical term for the procedure that assesses thyroid function by testing the ability of the thyroid gland to trap and retain radioactive iodine following oral ingestion of the iodine is:RAIULH is the abbreviation for:luteinizing hormoneAbnormal albumin concentrations would be detected with a:urine testFSH is the abbreviation for:follicle-stimulating hormoneExophthalmometry is the measurement of ____________ with an exophthalmometereyeball protrusionFBS abbreviates the medical term for aBlood test to determine the amount of glucose in the bloodDiabetes insipidus results fromInsufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary glandRupture of the ovarian follicle with subsequent release of the ovum from the ovary is calledovulationA human organism, from about 8 weeks to birth, is called a(n):fetusAdvanced hypothyroidism in adulthood is called:MyxedemaA fasting plasma glucose test can diagnose both diabetes and ________, a condition in which blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.prediabetesDiagnosis of adenomas, gigantism, and acromegaly can be aided by imaging studies such as ____________ and ____________ to evaluate the tumor.computed tomography, magnetic resonance imagingAfter testing, Mrs. Whitney was told by her physician that she had ______________, the most common form of hyperthyroidism due to excessive secretion of the thyroid hormones. One of her symptoms was protrusion of the eyeballs, or ____________.Graves' disease, exophthalmosThe amnion is the:Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetusBrenda's doctor ordered a ____________ to measure her blood levels of T3, T4, and TSH.thyroid function testAs a result of hormonal changes, Mrs. Augustina developed _____________ diabetes during the third trimester of her pregnancy. Her blood sugar returned to normal after delivery.gestationalMs. Kazie, who has never been pregnant, or is nulli _________, was diagnosed with fibrocystic diseasegravidaHyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland before puberty that leads to abnormal overgrowth of the body is called:gigantismEnlargement of facial, jaw, and extremity bones during adulthood as a result of excess growth hormone is calledacromegalyKetone levels would be checked with a:urine testMs. Carson was found to be infertile because she was anovulatory. In other words, her ovaries were unable to produce and mature eggs, or ______.ovaA(n) ____________ is used in blood glucose monitoring.glucometer