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58 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 21

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mechanical barriers
intact skin and mucous membranes
chemical barriers
mucous membranes that use secretions as defensive functions
lysozyme
discourages the growth of pathogens on the surface of the eye
reflexes
removal of pathogens
reflexes
sneezing, coughing, vomiting and diarrhea
motile
wander around the body through the blood and tissue fluid
diapedesis
process of squeezing through tiny gaps
chemotaxis
signaling to attract phagocytes
inflammation
responses the body make when confronted by an irritant
infection
an irritant that is caused by a pathogen and becomes inflammed
histamine
horomone that is released that causes the blood vessels in an injured tissue to dilate
pyrexia
fever
fever
abnormal elevation in the body temperature
pyrogens
fever-producing subtances
pus
thick, yellowish accumulation of dead material
febrile seizures
seizures resulting from an elevated body temperature
interferons
group of proteins secreted by cells infected by a virus
complement proteins
circulate in the blood in their inactive form; attaches to the bacterium's outer membrane and punches holes in it;
complement proteins
holes in the membrane allow fluid and electrolytes to flow into the bacterium, causing it to burst and die
natural killer cells
special type of lymphocyte that acts nonspecifically to kill a variety of cells
antigen
substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies
antigen
found on the surface of many substances such as pathogens, red blood cells, pollens, etc
antigenic
substances that display antigens
antigen
substances are attacked by lymphocytes
specific immunity
provides protection against one specfic substance but not others
immunotolerance
recognition of self
autoimmune disease
immune system attacks it own cells
t cells
attack antigens directly through cell-to-cell contact
b cells
interact with the antigen indirectly through the secretion of anitbodies
humoral immunity
antibodies are carried by the blood and other tissue fluid
antigen presentation
macrophage's ability to push the antigen to its surface
clone
group of identical cells formed from the same parent cell
killer t cells
destroy the antigen(pathogen) through the use of punching holes in the pathogen's cell membrane and secreting substances
helper t cells
secrete a lymphokine that stimulates T cells and B cells and in general enhances the immune response
memory t cells
quickly reproduce thus allowing a faster immune response to occur
immunoglobins
antibodies secreted by the B cells are proteins; found primarily in the plasma
immunoglobin G
antibody found in plasma and body fluids; particularly effective against certain bacteria, viruses and toxins
immunoglobin A
antibody found in secretions of exocrine glands
immunoglobin A
breastmilk, tears and gastric juice helps protect against infection
immunoglobin M
antibody found in blood plasma; anit-A and anti-B antibodies associated with red blood cells
agglutinate
clumping together
antibody titer
level of antibodies in the blood
genetic immunity
genetic information that provides immunity to certain diseases
vaccine
antigen-bearing subtance such as a pathogen, injected into a person in an attempt to stimulate antibody production
naturally acquired immunity
long acting; body produces antibodies against an invader once it is exposed to it
passive acquired immunity
short acting; happens when a person is given an antitoxin or antiserum containing antibodies or antitoxins
naturally acquired passive immunity
temporary, last until infant's immune system matures
naturally acquired passive immunity
fetus receive antibodies from mother thru placenta or breast feeding
artificially acquired immunity
long acting
artificially acquired immunity
immunizations or vaccines
artificially acquired immunity
introduction of killed or live pathogens that have reduced virulence that is recognized as antigens by the immune system but are not able to cause disease
artificially acquired immunity
antigens stimulates the formation of antibodies
vaccine
solution of dead or attenuated pathogens
toxoid
altered toxin
immune globulin
obtained from a donor(human or animale) and contains antibodies
immune globulin
antibodies are formed in the donor in response to a specific antigen
antitoxins
antibodies that neutralize the toxins secreted by the pathogens but have no effect on the pathogens themselves
antivenoms
antibodies that combat the effects of the poisonous venom of snakes