PR is a process the result of which is positive relationships that lead to positive behavior
PR works to build and maintain positive relationships between an organization and its publics
Resource Dependency Theory
we enter into relationships with people because they have things we need
PR is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics.
What does PR do?
Manage perceptions, create images, sell ideas, helps organizations adjust to their social environment
- delivers one thing in exchange for something else - deals only with the organization/customer relationship - PR contributes to this effort by maintaining a hospitable environment
- good PR beings at home - employees are the #1 public in PR
information provided by an outside source that is used by the media because it has news value
- information placed in the media by an identified sponsor who paid for the time or space - PR can use advertising as a tool - to merge or change brand identity (AT&T/Cingular) - to build good will (Target helps community) - to address criticism in the media
- creating the perception that something is newsworthy to get the publics attention - good media coverage = high perception of importance
- builds and maintains relationships with governmental agencies and stakeholders to influence public policy - strengthen by poli sci/pre law experience
- highly specialized - works to persuade legislators to propose, pass or defeat legislation or to change existing law - requires poli sci/pre law experience
anticipating, identifying, evaluating and responding to issues that impact our organization
- part of corporate PR that focuses on the relationship with shareholders and the financial community - goal: enhance the value of the stock - NEED: finance/business/law/economics/international politics/MBA a plus
- works to build relationship between nonprofit organizations and donor, members and volunteers - main tools: fundraising campaigns, events, members services
1. Is a management function 2. Involves two-way communication 3. Is a research-based social science 4. Is socially responsible
What's more important, perception or reality?
The public's perception is your reality
To create positive relationship
- know the perceptions - address the perceptions - support image with actions
Effective Public Relations (text) introduces the management function dealing with
relationships between organizations and stakeholders
The contemporary concept of public relations is based on which of the following key words?
Reciprocal, mutual and between
When Harwood L. Childs wrote that the basic function of public relations "is to reconcile or adjust in the public interest," to what was he referring?
Helping organizations change
Public relations typically does not have responsibility for which one of the following?
Public relations typically does not have responsibility for which one of the following?
The management function most often confused with public relations is:
Which of the following identifies needs and wants, provides products to meet them and deals with customers?
When a practitioner attempts to make a product newsworthy in order to get media and public attention, it is called:
Which specialized part of the practice deals with an organization's "number one public" and its "most important asset"?
Information from external sources used by news media based on its news value is
According to the text, what is the major difference between publicity and advertising
The practitioner controls advertising but not publicity
The method that provides the practitioner with the greatest control of content and placement in media is:
When is it appropriate for practitioners to use an advertorial?
- When they are not satisfied with what is being said in the media - When they feel that their publics do not understand an issue - When they want to add their voices to a cause - When they want control over message content, placement and timing
When one author wrote, "Very simply, my job was to get the client's name in the paper," he was describing the role of:
Which of the following is practiced more to attract public attention than to build understanding?
The armed forces and many government agencies typically use which one of the following to designate the public relations function?
Which of the following casts corporate practitioners in the role of serving as liaisons between their corporations and governmental units?
The specialized part of corporate public relations designed to build and maintain community and governmental relations is:
Which of the following is devoted to directly influencing government legislation and regulations?
Which of the following present(s) a more accurate description of lobbying than do the images of cigar-chomping, well-connected insiders handing out stacks of cash in the halls of government?
- Researching legislators' positions on issues - Creating information to educate and persuade related to these issues - Studying government, legislative process, public policy and public opinion - Mobilizing like-minded folks "back home," referred to as "grassroots lobbying"
Introduced in the mid-1970s, ________ is the term used to describe the practice of identifying emerging trends, setting priorities, and implementing strategies to respond to environmental changes.
Which part of public relations deals with emerging trends and their potential impact on an organization?
Issues management is NOT part of strategic planning and management when it
uses only persuasive communication to influence public policy
The specialized part of corporate public relations that interacts with shareholders and the financial community is which of the following?
Practitioners working for nonprofit organizations to increase contributions and membership are the specialized part of public relations known as
The Tylenol crisis demonstrated that public relations is:
closely linked to sound business practices and corporate social responsibility.
In the final analysis, an organization's relationships with its publics is the responsibility of which one of the following?
- Freedom to discuss and debate for the first time - rhetoric - sophists
the voice of the people is the voice of god
- movable type printing press - interest in literacy - first step toward mass communication
- Boston Tea Party - was a patriot that called for public support to get all of the public opinion on the same page - the idea of using events to communicate ideas to make it known and influence public opinion
- Common Sense (which told the people why we should separate from the crown - Knew that we needed to have more people to support the effort if we wanted results - a large % of the audience likes to have something to hold; pamphlet; collateral
Hamilton, Madison, John Jay
- wrote a series of letters to local newspapers to the editor - The Federalist Letters (papers) - addressed concerns to the certain area - made an argument about why we should be unified - swayed public opinion dramatically
Sons of Liberty
need for an organization to implement
easily identifiable symbol to arouse emotion
Taxation without representation
slogans as a way to compress complex issues
Boston Tea Party
Staged events to attract and form public opinion
Tell your side first
- former Kentucky journalist - first "press secretary" Jackson hired him - father of the press release
- father of press-agentry - pulic wants to be entertained - circus - showman era
- first agency specializing in political campaigns
1. Seedbed Era
- 1900-1916 - power of the mass media was growing - height of industrialization - muckrakers: journalists speaking out against corruption of business - Big = Bad
Ivy ledbetter lee
- considered the founder of modern public relations - cannot hide from the press - first to use news releases
2. World War I Period
- 1917-1918 - PR begins to take an offensive role- proactive took - Woodrow Wilson: committee on Public Info (Creel Committee) - 4-minute men: a network of public figures who shared information from the war - Public felt they were a part of the war effort
3. Booming Twenties Era
- 1919-1929 - PR spreads rapidly to other industries due to war time success - Scholarly interest in the field is born - In-house PR comes on the scene
Edward L. Bernays
- worked on the Creel Committee - first to apply psychology & social science to business - 1919: made up the term PR - 1923: wrote scholarly work on the theory of PR called Crystalizing Public Opinion - taught the 1st PR college class
- Bernays wife and business partner - early feminist
- AT&T's first VP of PR - beginning of "in house" PR at management level - included an ethical mandate - birth of corporate PR
4. The Roosevelt Era and WWII
- 1930-1945 - PR used to support and fight radical legislative reform - growth of PR as a continuous program administered by PR departments - birth of the public opinion pole
FDR & Louis McHenry Howe
- learned from WWI success - office of war info -fireside chats
5. The Post War Boom Era
- 1946-1964 - adjusting back to peacetime - moving from industrialization to service-oriented economy - PR associations are born - beginnings of PR education - TV - powerhouse PR firms created (Edelman largest private PR in world) (Burson-Marsteller largest public PR in world)
6. Period of Protest and Empowerment
- 1965-1985 - time of social unrest ruled by "isms" - corporate campaigns - increasing emphasis on PR research
7. Digital Age and Globalization
- 1986 - Present - rapidly advancing technology - increasing global society
PR is tied to:
1. Power struggles 2. political reform movements 3. attempts to gain public acceptance of innovation
The most popular PR field today
growing by 12%
Which one of the following best accounts for the development of public relations?
Power conflicts and the recurring crises of change
What organization in 1641 conducted the first fund-raising effort documented in the U.S., including the first of countless public relations pamphlets and brochures?
Which of the following was been called by some historians as "the best job of public relations known to history," because "ignorance was supplied with information and illustration"?
The Federalist letters
Amos Kendall, an unsung pioneer of public relations, was a key member of which president's "Kitchen Cabinet" during the late 1820s and early 1830s —working as pollster, counselor, ghostwriter, and publicist?
Which one of the following was the product of ghost writers and press agents during a political campaign to defeat President Andrew Jackson—"Old Hickory"—but whom Scott Cutlip reported to be a "boorish, backwoods boob" who spent his years as Tennessee Congressman "loafing and boasting at the Congressional bar"?
Beginning in 1897, the term "public relations" appeared with increasing frequency in literature and executives' speeches in which industry?
The first corporate public relations ("press agent") department was established in 1889 in what company?
In which of the following eras did muckraking journalism lead to widespread introduction of public relations in business?
1. Seedbed Era
The Publicity Bureau opened for business in 1900 "to do a general press agent business for as many clients as possible for as good pay as the traffic would bear." What organization was the Publicity Bureau's first client?
The forerunner of today's public relations firms—The Publicity Bureau, founded in Boston in 1900—gained national prominence in 1906 when it was employed by which one of the following?
The nation's railroads
The first full-time public relations practitioners were drawn from the ranks of which one of the following?
Which practitioner is credited as being the first to realize the fallacy of publicity unsupported by good deeds, was among the first to use the "handout" (press release) on a large scale, and had great impact on the practice by issuing his "Declaration of Principles" in 1906?
Who changed the scope of his practice from publicity to counseling clients and said, "If you issue an untruth in a public statement, it is going to be challenged just as soon as it sees the light"?
In the Seedbed Era, the Committee on Public Information demonstrated the power of publicity to mobilize public opinion. Who did President Wilson appoint to head the effort to gain public support for U.S. entry into World War I?
Which practitioner is credited with coining the term "public relations counsel" in the 1923 book, Crystallizing Public Opinion?
Who struggled for professional equality because of her gender, worked as a partner with her husband in their firm, was an early feminist who kept her maiden name after marriage, and had to stay in the background while her husband gave advice to business leaders?
Who was the first corporate vice president of public relations, insisting that he have a voice in policy and that the company's performance would be the determinant of its reputation?
Arthur W. Page
Which era brought the formation of public relations professional associations?
5. Post war era
Public relations textbooks written in the _________ era reflect the change from the "journalist-in-residence, telling-our-story" model of public relations to the "adjustment and adaptation" approach.
6. Protest and Empowerment Era
Defining target publics
geographics, demographics, psychographics, covert power, position, reputation, membership, role in the decision process
any group with common interests in a situation
a public with something to gain or lose
Resource dependency theory
- this can help us prioritize publics - we enter relationships with other groups of people because they have what we need
6 categories of publics
1. Traditional and nontraditional publics 2. latent, aware, and active publics 3. intervening publics 4. primary and secondary publics 5. Internal and external publics 6. Domestic and International publics
What do we need to know about each public?
1. how much can they influence our success? 2. what is their stake in our organization of issue? 3. who are their opinion leaders and decision makers? 4. what is the demographic profile? 5. what is the psychographic profile? 6. what is their opinion of your organization? 7. what is their opinion (if any) of the issue in question?