42 terms

Air Navigation

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pilotage
navigation using only reference to landmarks
dead reckoning
nav by use of predetermined vectors of wind and true airspeeed and precalculated headin, groundspeed and estimated time of arrival
inertial navigation
nav by self contained airborne gyroscopic equipment, or electric computers that provide continuous display of position
graticule
lines all over the globe
meridians of longitude
lines running north and south, degrees, minutes and seconds
parrallels of latitude
lines running east to west, 0-90 N or S of the equator, degrees, minutes and seconds
prime meridian
meridian running through greenwich england
international dateline
on the 180th meridian, time changes here
great circle
circle on the surface of the sphere which cuts the sphere in 2 equal parts
great circle route
shortest distance between 2 points on the surface of the earth
rhumb line
curved line on the surface of the earth, cutting all the meridians it meets at the same angle
magnetic variation
angle between true north and magnetic north
isogonic lines
lines drawn on the chart joining places of the same variation
agonic lines
lines drawn through places of no variation
deviation
angle at which the compass needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian
what does swinging the compass do?
neutralizes deviation
northernly turning error
on turns to north it leads, on turn to south it lags
neumonic for acceleration errors
acceleration north, deceleration south
statute mile
distance on all curvature of the earth, 5,280ft
nautical mile
average length of one minute per latitude, 6,080 ft
opening and closing method
used to calculate the write track at any point of the flight. consists if adding closing and opening angles
knot
speed of 1nm/h
2 types of charts
mercator projection, lambert conformal conic projection
vfr nav charts scaling
1:500000 = 1" to 8 miles
world aeronautical charts scaling
1:10000000 = 1" to 16 miles
vfr terminal area charts scaling
1:250000 = 1" to 4 miles
enroute charts
provide information for radio nav, over designated air way systems, only radio nav aids
contour lines
joint points of equal elevation ASL
one in sixty rule
over a distance of 60 miles, if you are 1 degree off on track, you are 1 mile away from destination
wind
air in motion, especially a mass of air having a common direction or motion. it moves horizontally
current
vertical motion of air
grounspeed
speed of the plane relative to the ground
track
direction an airplane intends to travel over the ground
track made good
actual path travelled by the plane over the ground
visual alteration method
correcting the track by memory, anytime, of a landmark
density altitude
pressure altitude corrected for temperature
drift
plane being blown of track from wind (crab)
azimuth
direction measured as an angle clockwise from a meridian (same as a bearing)
knots to mph
x 1.15
mph to knots
divide 1.15
km to knots
x 0.54
km to mph
x o.62