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study of composition & characteristics of matter

human physiology

study of how the human body functions

chemistry & human physiology

form the foundation for the scientific study of nutrition


make up food & other aspects of the environment


- is made of atoms that contains protons & electrons


-100 types & each is an element
- cannot be separated into simpler substances
- are the building blocks of matter


matter that forms when 2 or more atoms interact & are held together

chemical bond

attraction that hold atoms together to form a molecule


molecule that contains 2 or more different elements


evenly distributed mixture of 2 or more compounds


the primary component (thing that is doing the dissolving)
-water is the solvent for many solutions


lesser component that is dissolved in the solvent


how easily a substance (solute) dissolves in liquid


Electrically-charged atom or group of atoms
Form when the atom or group of atoms gains or loses 1 or more electrons


donate hydrogen ions


accept hydrogen ions


Measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution

Chemical reaction

Chemical Reaction
Process that changes atomic arrangement of molecules


Process by which molecules in food are mechanically and chemically broken down


chemical reactions occurring in living cells

what is a salt?

-A salt forms when an acid reacts with a base.
• Many salts dissociate in water into their component ions.


breakdown molecules


build up molecules


-Enzyme - Protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process
-Names of most enzymes end in "ase" sucrase lactase lipase protease


study of cell & other body structures


study of how cells & body structures function

hierarchy of life

atom, molecules, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system & organism


- Smallest functional structure in a living organism
• A human has ~ 100 trillion cells.
A cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life.
- The smallest unit that is considered alive


Structures within cells that perform specialized functions
- Organelles include: nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes

the body's cells

-cells work in cooperation to support the whole body
Cells need:
- Energy
- Oxygen
- Nutrients (essential) - Water
Cell theory states all organisms are composed of cells and that cells come only from preexisting cells.
- One of the unifying concepts of biology.

cell size

most cells are smaller than one millimeter.
some as small as one micrometer


Group of similar cells performing a similar function.


Group of tissues performing a specialized function.

organ system

Collection of several organs functioning together to perform a major function


contains a collection of organ systems.

epithelial tissue

Cells that form linings and coverings (skin)

connective tissue

Cells that hold together, protect, and support organs (e.g., bone, fat, and blood)

muscular tissue

cells that can contract, allowing movement of body parts

nervous tissue

cells that receive sensory information and conduct responses (neurons), nervous impulses are electrochemical

cardiovascular/circulatory system

Main function is to circulate blood throughout the body
-Main function =Transport substances (blood) throughout body
• In the human cardiovascular system
- The central pump is your heart
- The vascular system is your blood vessels - The circulating fluid is your blood

respiratory system

lungs enable body to exchange gases mainly oxygen & carbon dioxide

lymphatic system

Helps maintain fluid balance, absorb many fat-soluble nutrients, and defend the body against diseases (immune function)

connections to lymphatic system

• Not all of the tissue fluids delivered from the blood return to the blood directly
• Vessels of the lymphatic system pick up this fluid, filter it, and return it to the circulatory system
-Lymphatic System also acts as part of the Immune System Defending against disease

lymph vascular system

• Fluid enters lymph capillaries
• Capillaries merge into lymph vessels
• Lymph vessels converge into ducts that funnel fluid into veins in the lower neck
•Lymph re- enters the circulatory system through connections to the subclavian veins

urinary system

-Kidneys filter unneeded substances from blood and help maintain proper fluid & salt balance.
-Bladder stores urine until elimination.

excretory system: wastes

-cells generate a number of wastes (that are dissolved-breakdown products of proteins) that need to be eliminated. (water soluble vitamins, excess minerals)
-other wastes eliminated thru lungs (CO2), processed by the liver & eliminated thru feces or sent to kidneys thru urine

excretory system: general (3)

-main processing center is kidneys. they filter the blood (metabolic wastes)
-intricate network of capillaries = nephrons
-connection to circulatory system --> thus to all other organs

muscular system (3)

- enable movement to occur
- provide support & protection
- help maintain body temp

skeletal system (2)

-bones provide support, movement & protection
- also store certain minerals & produce RBC

nervous system (2)

- nervous system cells (neurons) in the brain, spinal cord & throughout the body transmit information & responses by electrical & chemical signals
-also controls many body functions (hunger, muscle contractions, physical responses to danger

endocrine system

organs & tissues that produce hormones

hormonal & nervous systems (4)

-control the body
- blood carries chemical messengers, hormones, from one system of cells to another.
- chemical secreted by glands of endocrine system into blood help maintain homeostasis
-hormones communicate changing conditions that demand responses from the body organs

Hormones & nutrition (3)

- regulating hunger & affecting appetite
-carrying messages to digestive system
-regulating blood glucose levels (insulin = take up glucose or glucagon = liver & muscle release glucose from glycogen)

nervous system & nutrition

- cortex senses hunger & appetite
- hypothalamus monitors many body conditions including nutrients & water availability
Nervous system:
- receives & integrates info from sensory receptors
-role in hunger regulation

integumentary system

comprised of skin, hair & nails

reproductive system

main function = producing children

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