56 terms

Ch. 4 Body Basics, part 1

study of composition & characteristics of matter
human physiology
study of how the human body functions
chemistry & human physiology
form the foundation for the scientific study of nutrition
make up food & other aspects of the environment
- is made of atoms that contains protons & electrons
-100 types & each is an element
- cannot be separated into simpler substances
- are the building blocks of matter
matter that forms when 2 or more atoms interact & are held together
chemical bond
attraction that hold atoms together to form a molecule
molecule that contains 2 or more different elements
evenly distributed mixture of 2 or more compounds
the primary component (thing that is doing the dissolving)
-water is the solvent for many solutions
lesser component that is dissolved in the solvent
how easily a substance (solute) dissolves in liquid
Electrically-charged atom or group of atoms
Form when the atom or group of atoms gains or loses 1 or more electrons
donate hydrogen ions
accept hydrogen ions
Measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Chemical reaction
Chemical Reaction
Process that changes atomic arrangement of molecules
Process by which molecules in food are mechanically and chemically broken down
chemical reactions occurring in living cells
what is a salt?
-A salt forms when an acid reacts with a base.
• Many salts dissociate in water into their component ions.
breakdown molecules
build up molecules
-Enzyme - Protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process
-Names of most enzymes end in "ase" sucrase lactase lipase protease
study of cell & other body structures
study of how cells & body structures function
hierarchy of life
atom, molecules, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system & organism
- Smallest functional structure in a living organism
• A human has ~ 100 trillion cells.
A cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life.
- The smallest unit that is considered alive
Structures within cells that perform specialized functions
- Organelles include: nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes
the body's cells
-cells work in cooperation to support the whole body
Cells need:
- Energy
- Oxygen
- Nutrients (essential) - Water
Cell theory states all organisms are composed of cells and that cells come only from preexisting cells.
- One of the unifying concepts of biology.
cell size
most cells are smaller than one millimeter.
some as small as one micrometer
Group of similar cells performing a similar function.
Group of tissues performing a specialized function.
organ system
Collection of several organs functioning together to perform a major function
contains a collection of organ systems.
epithelial tissue
Cells that form linings and coverings (skin)
connective tissue
Cells that hold together, protect, and support organs (e.g., bone, fat, and blood)
muscular tissue
cells that can contract, allowing movement of body parts
nervous tissue
cells that receive sensory information and conduct responses (neurons), nervous impulses are electrochemical
cardiovascular/circulatory system
Main function is to circulate blood throughout the body
-Main function =Transport substances (blood) throughout body
• In the human cardiovascular system
- The central pump is your heart
- The vascular system is your blood vessels - The circulating fluid is your blood
respiratory system
lungs enable body to exchange gases mainly oxygen & carbon dioxide
lymphatic system
Helps maintain fluid balance, absorb many fat-soluble nutrients, and defend the body against diseases (immune function)
connections to lymphatic system
• Not all of the tissue fluids delivered from the blood return to the blood directly
• Vessels of the lymphatic system pick up this fluid, filter it, and return it to the circulatory system
-Lymphatic System also acts as part of the Immune System Defending against disease
lymph vascular system
• Fluid enters lymph capillaries
• Capillaries merge into lymph vessels
• Lymph vessels converge into ducts that funnel fluid into veins in the lower neck
•Lymph re- enters the circulatory system through connections to the subclavian veins
urinary system
-Kidneys filter unneeded substances from blood and help maintain proper fluid & salt balance.
-Bladder stores urine until elimination.
excretory system: wastes
-cells generate a number of wastes (that are dissolved-breakdown products of proteins) that need to be eliminated. (water soluble vitamins, excess minerals)
-other wastes eliminated thru lungs (CO2), processed by the liver & eliminated thru feces or sent to kidneys thru urine
excretory system: general (3)
-main processing center is kidneys. they filter the blood (metabolic wastes)
-intricate network of capillaries = nephrons
-connection to circulatory system --> thus to all other organs
muscular system (3)
- enable movement to occur
- provide support & protection
- help maintain body temp
skeletal system (2)
-bones provide support, movement & protection
- also store certain minerals & produce RBC
nervous system (2)
- nervous system cells (neurons) in the brain, spinal cord & throughout the body transmit information & responses by electrical & chemical signals
-also controls many body functions (hunger, muscle contractions, physical responses to danger
endocrine system
organs & tissues that produce hormones
hormonal & nervous systems (4)
-control the body
- blood carries chemical messengers, hormones, from one system of cells to another.
- chemical secreted by glands of endocrine system into blood help maintain homeostasis
-hormones communicate changing conditions that demand responses from the body organs
Hormones & nutrition (3)
- regulating hunger & affecting appetite
-carrying messages to digestive system
-regulating blood glucose levels (insulin = take up glucose or glucagon = liver & muscle release glucose from glycogen)
nervous system & nutrition
- cortex senses hunger & appetite
- hypothalamus monitors many body conditions including nutrients & water availability
Nervous system:
- receives & integrates info from sensory receptors
-role in hunger regulation
integumentary system
comprised of skin, hair & nails
reproductive system
main function = producing children