Chapter 17: The Structure of Persuasion
Terms in this set (28)
The process of reasoning from evidence to prove a claim.
Supporting material a speaker uses to prove a point.
To dispute; to counter one argument with another.
A pattern of disputing an argument by (1) stating the position you are refuting, (2) stating your position, (3) supporting your position, and (4) showing how your position undermine the opposing argument.
argument by example or inductive argument
Says that what is true of a few instances is true generally.
argument by cause
Says that one action or condition caused or will cause another.
Says that what is true generally is or will be true in a specific instance.
The pattern of a deductive argument, consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
A claim about a general group of people, events, or conditions.
A statement placing a person, an event, or a condition into a general class.
The deductive argument that what is true of the general class is true of the specific instance.
argument by authority
Uses testimony from an expert source to prove a speaker's claim.
A flaw in the logic of an argument.
A fallacy that makes claims from insufficient or unrepresentative examples.
A fallacy that occurs when an argument by analogy compares entities that have critical differences.
A chronological fallacy that says that a prior event caused a subsequent event.
A fallacy of causation that says that one action inevitably sets a chain of events in motion.
A fallacy that introduces irrelevant issues to deflect attention from the subject under discussion.
appeal to tradition
A fallacy that opposes change by arguing that old ways are always superior to new ways.
A fallacy that confronts listeners with two choices when, in reality, more options exist.
A fallacy that uses testimony from sources who have no expertise on the topic in question.
A fallacy that determines truth, goodness, or wisdom by popular opinion.
A fallacy that urges listeners to reject an idea because of the allegedly poor character of the person voicing it; name-calling.
A declarative sentence expressing a judgment a speaker wants listeners to accept.
proposition of fact
An assertion about the truth or falsity of a statement.
proposition of value
An assertion about the relative worth of an idea or action.
proposition of policy
A statement requesting support for a course of action.
Monroe's motivated sequence
A persuasive pattern composed of (1) getting the audience's attention, (2) establishing a need, (3) offering a proposal to satisfy the need, (4) inviting listeners to visualize the results, and (5) requesting action.