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Unit 2: Research Methods Vocabulary
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Terms in this set (34)
hindsight bias
tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I-knew-it-all-along)
critical thining
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
theory
explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
definitions that describes concepts with procedures or measures
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
survey
technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
population
all the cases in a group behind studied, form which samples be drawn
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of participating
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation
measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient
statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
scatterplot
graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
illusory correlation
perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
double-blind procedure
experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent
experimental group
in experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control group
in experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
independent variable
the experiment factor that is manipulated; the variable that whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect is being studied
confounding group
outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
mode
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing b the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a compound measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
normal curve
a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes
statistical significance
statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas,attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
debriefing
the postexperiemntal explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants
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