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Patient Care Final Review
Terms in this set (217)
This is a people oriented, hands on profession and requires numerous communication skills
This is exhibited by technologists' patients as well as how the technologist understands their own
While communicating with your patient you should use,
Care and empathy
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs has how many levels?
The highest level of Maslow's pyramid is titled,
Patient dignity can be described as,
-The patient feeling a loss of power over their outcome
-Patient feels embarrassed over something that they feel isolates them from others
-The patient feels a loss of privacy and access to their loved ones
-Patients have feelings of guilt
This is someone who has been admitted to the hospital and occupies abed for more than 24 hours.
Patients and family are always doing this when coming to your department for exams.
Watching and listening
As a technologist you will be asked if you "see anything" on the films that does not look right or if they "look ok". You tell them that "I am not a Radiologist, but it looks like something might be there". What isthis called?
Verbal communication should always occur,
Face to face
Paralanguage, Body language, touch, professional appearance, physical appearance and visual contact are all examples of,
The application of light pressure with fingers to areas of the body is called?
Using what part of your body could give a patient the impression you are being in-appropriate or making them feel uneasy during an exam?
Palm of Hand
At what grade level does the average American read?
Many smells such as body odor, cigarette odor, perfume, cologne, wrinkled or dirty clothing are all part of this,
Posture is important because it is perceived as relating to confidence and,
Which of the following would be the best practice when imaging a patient who is deaf and uses sign language?
Speak slowly with good eye contact so the patient can read your lips.
What nonverbal skill could be used to assist with communications with a patient who is blind?
Which of the following scenarios would present a language barrier to communications?
An upper GI series on a 21 year old male who is deaf
What does the following statement mean " To stand tall in pediatrics, you have to get down on your knees"
Getting down to a child's level
Speak to the child at their level
Talk in child terms appropriate for their age
What is the pneumonic that Elisabeth Kubler-Ross set for an acceptable sequence of events?
When communicating with the patient and /or family which answer(s) is/are correct?
Introduce yourself, explain the procedure, explain to family and/or friends why they must wait in the radiology waiting area.
Good communication skills are,
Objective Data is,
Perceptible to the senses, able to be measured Signs that can be seen, heard or felt
What do Radiologists want to know about patient History?
Subjective data pertains to
Data that pertains to or is perceived by the affected Individual only
While palpating a patient to ascertain where exactly there pain is located, choose the best answer that would describe how to do this.
Use one or two fingers and palpate the areas of least pain first then palpate the worst area of pain last
Before the patient enters the changing room, you instruct her/him to wear two gowns, one with the opening in the front, the other with the opening in the back, this action describes
A Tech that cares for the dignity of their patient
An underage female comes to the department with her mother who does not want to leave her daughter alone, you need to ask your patient If she could be pregnant and need and honest answer. What can you do to get the mother to leave the room?
Ask the mother to step out while the daughter is changing then quickly ask the patient if she could be pregnant
Patients receive signals about your attitude toward them from the pitch, stress, tone, pauses, speech rate, volume, accent and the quality of your voice. This is called what
Posture is important because it is perceived as relating to confidence and self esteem, this is also known as
A mature adults age is considered to be what age, which is something I(your instructor) am not considered to be!
65 years or older
Patients exhibit a wide range of emotions, and the way the technologists handle those emotions, relies on how well they understand not only the emotions exhibited by their patients, but also how well they understand their own. This is called what?
Whether the patient is an inpatient or an outpatient, one of the initial patient communication skills is called this.
Whenever possible, verbal communication with a patient should occur In this manner.
Face to Face
This is called the "Music of language"
These questions let the patient tell a story.
The use of this should be avoided whenever possible because it introduces biases into the history.
The proper way to carry a heavy object is to
Hold the object as close to the center of gravity as possible
This is a branch of physics that applies the laws of mechanics to living creatures
This is the foundation on which a body rests
Base of support
What is the hypothetical point at which all the mass appears to be Concentrated?
Center of gravity
Where are mobility muscles found?
Stability muscles are found in the,
A 70 year old patient is insisting that she can transfer herself from The wheelchair to the table by herself, what would you do?
-Check the patients chart for restricted weight bearing status
-Check the chart for Pelvic girdle fracture
-Check the chart for Cognitive impairments
-Check the chart for Lower extremity fracture
Which type of transfer requires a primary, stronger person to lift the Patients torso while the other person lifts the patients lower limbs
Two person lift
What are the four types of wheelchair transfers?
Standby Assist, Assisted Standing Pivot, Two Person Lift, Hydraulic Lift
When lifting a patient, the technologist should,
Stand with feet apart to increase the base of Support
Always position a wheelchair patient so that they transfer towards the Weaker side (true or false)
When performing all wheelchair transfers what must you make sure you do before you perform the transfer?
Remove the Chair arm if it is removable, on the side transferring to, assure that both footrests are removed or folded away, lock both wheels
For a standby assist wheelchair transfer, how should you position the wheelchair?
45° angle to the table
What should you use to help pivot transfer the patient to or from the radiology table
Use a transfer belt
When performing a transfer that involves two or more technologists, someone has to be in charge of the move to assure a smooth transition of the patient to the table, cart, bed etc. Who is in charge of that movement?
The person at the head of the patient
How would you move a supine patient that must be placed in a left Lateral position?
Roll the patient toward you to the patients left and place sponges behind the Patient to help keep them in place
Mrs. Eye wonder, age 37, was thrown from her horse yesterday and underwent surgery last night to repair her badly fractured ankle. Today she is brought to radiology on a stretcher for an abdominal CT to investigate a cause for her LUQ pain. Which of the following would be the safest transfer method to move her from her stretcher onto the CT table?
Which answer below is the best answer pertaining to the various transfer tools we learned in class to move a patient?
Slide board, linen bag, draw sheet
What is orthostatic hypotension?
A drop in blood pressure when a person stands up
Which patient transfer would be best for a patient that cannot transfer independently but can bear weight on their legs?
Assisted Standing Pivot Transfer
Stability muscles are found in the torso and are large expanses of red muscle and provide postural support (true or false)
What can the radiologic technologist use to position a patient, as well as minimize the possibility of motion?
A relation of harmony between two persons
Accord between two persons
Various physical tools can be used to reduce the possibility of Motion, but one of the most effective means of reducing motion is?
A patient is lying on his right side with his shoulders and knees Superimposed. Which term describes this position?
Cervical collars cannot be removed until a physician says it is ok and only by a nurse or Doctor
A patient is lying on the table and his head is elevated, lying supine What position is this called?
All of the following are reasons to use immobilization except:
Reduce the risk of imaging voluntary motion
Increase patient comfort
Improve image quality
Increase patient intimidation
Increase patient intimidation
Which of the following immobilization devices could be used for a chest x-ray of a 2 year old patient?
When imaging children, it best to gain their trust before the exam. This can be done by?
Which restraint device is the most effective and reliable method of immobilizing a child?
The Mummy Wrap
When having to radiograph a geriatric person what is one of the patients greatest Concerns?
Fear of falling
There are other considerations of geriatric radiography patients. Your radiographic examination will go smoother if you,
-Keep your patient warm
-Offer extra blankets for longer procedures
-Place sponges under the knees
Your patient needs to be positioned lying on their left side with the Right knee flexed and resting on the table in front of the left leg. What Is this position called?
Which type of transfer is used for patients that are Immobile, and not enough staff are available?
Where is the center of gravity located in an adult?
Approximately Sacral level 2
This positioning tool is used on children to keep their arms still while you obtain their chest x-ray
Moving a patient quickly decreases the chance of dizziness or falling (true or false)
This is the clinical name for the direction of the x-ray beam from front to back
Lifting should be done by doing this
Keeping the back straight, and bending and straightening the knees
The major muscle of ventilation is the
What is it called when the respiratory rate is greater than 20 breaths per minute in an adult?
What is Orthopnea?
Difficulty breathing except when sitting up or standing erect
This is the absence of spontaneous ventilation and can result in ..Death!
This is a relative constancy in the internal environment of the body that is naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote health survival
These can be assessed quickly and serve as objective, noninvasive evidence of the patients immediate condition
The approximate normal body temperature of an adult is what?
This is the term used to describe the body's maintenance of heat production and heat loss
What does diaphoresis do?
Dissipates body heat by sweating
If you are shivering, what are you doing?
-Vasoconstriction to conserve heat
-Trying to warm your core temperature
If your patient has a fever above 99.5 they are said to have a fever or this?
What is the other name for a patient with a fever?
A patient presents to the Emergency room and you record their temperature as 98.8, does this patient have a
If a patient's temperature falls below the normal range, this is said to be present
During inspiration, the diaphragm moves which direction in the abdominal cavity?
Approximate respiratory rate for an adult is this
This is the term used to describe respiratory rates greater than 20 breaths per min in an adult
If a person presents to the radiology department and says they are having difficulty breathing, what is the medical term for that?
This is an ominous sign if there is a absence of spontaneous ventilation
The cardiovascular system is composed of a pump and many blood vessels, and is called what kind of a system?
The cardiovascular system delivers this to the body, any impairment of it could result in death
Listening to the chest with a stethoscope placed over the heart is called this?
You are measuring the patient's heartrate using a stethoscope, what is the name of the area called where you have placed the stethoscope?
While performing CPR, you are told you have great peripheral pulses, what is the approximate rate they are feeling?
What is the approximate normal resting pulse rate in an adult?
An approximate normal pulse rate for children younger than 10 years old should be what?
What does a pulse oximeter measure?
Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of arterial blood circulating in the body and pulse rate
What is an approximate normal pulse oximeter reading for a healthy adult?
95-100% on room air
If your patient is experiencing tachycardia, what do you think the minimum heartrate might be?
Greater than 100 bpm resting
What is a measure of the force exerted by blood on the atrial walls called during contraction and relaxation of the heart?
What is the constant pressure is exerted on the arterial vessels by the blood when the heart is relaxed called?
What is name of the peak pressure present during contraction of the heart?
The persistent elevation of blood pressure greater 140/90 mm Hg, is known as what?
This is defined as low blood pressure and may be identified by a blood pressure less than 95/60
This substance is so important that its absence in the environment causes irreversible damage to the brain in how many minutes?
In the absence of this substance, production of cellular metabolism is grossly inadequate, and death ultimately occurs
What is the oxygen device that has prongs that go into the nose?
What is the amount of oxygen that can be placed on a nasal cannula that we discussed in class?
What is the name of the oxygen device that has a mask and an inflatable bag that must be filled before use?
Where are Endotracheal tubes placed?
You have a patient in your radiology suite that is intubated, you notice that the little external bulb on the ET tube is deflated, what does that mean?
The bulb is not inflated at the distal tip of the ET tube
What is a thoracostomy tube used for?
What are the five routes to measure temperature?
Rectal, temporal, tympanic, oral, axillary
A patient is said to have this if they are: Hot, dry, excessive thirst, rapid deep breathing
A person having a hypoglycemic event will show some of the following signs
-Appear intoxicated, stumble, excessive sweating
-Hungry, Weak, Shaky
During a nosebleed, what position should you guide the patient to be in?
Sitting up with the head slightly forward pinching the nose
How long can the brain be without oxygen before brain impairment could happen?
Hyperglycemia is a condition where there is too much of this in the blood
If a patient is said to be alert and conscious, what can this patient do?
Can speak, open eyes and can respond to questions appropriately
Many times a patient may become anxiolytic or experience an asthma attack while in the radiology department, what is a simple way to possibly calm a patient without the use of medication or cancelling the test?
Talk calm to the patient in a reassuring voice
Name 4 signs and/or symptoms of shock
Decreasing blood pressure
Syncope is a self-correcting, temporary state of shock which is the result of lack of blood flow to the brain (true or false)
This condition is called bleeding outside of a vessel, what is its official name?
This is a condition where excessive insulin is present
This type of shock is caused by sepsis, deep anesthesia or anaphylaxis
What does the acronym LOC stand for?
Level of Consciousness
What is a crash cart?
A crash cart with emergency medication for emergencies
What is a situation called where the condition of a patient changes suddenly or their medical condition or status requires immediate action?
What is another name for a nosebleed?
What is found in the radiology department that can cause Anaphylactic shock?
Iodinated contrast media
What is the name of the condition when patients sutures separate, allowing abdominal contents to spill out of the peritoneal cavity?
What is the universal sign of choking
Holding your throat with one or both hands
What is vertigo?
What type of shock is Anaphylactic shock
Your patients come to you in various states of stability or instability, what should you keep in mind when working with patients in emergency situations?
Which of the following is NOT an indicator for a patient having a barium enema?
rule out perforation of the bowel
What is a Stoma?
An opening from the bowel to the outside of the body
What is the name of the position that you must place the patient in for insertion of the enema tip?
Which of the following is NOT used for bowel prep prior to performing a barium enema?
dehydration of the patient
low residue diet
dehydration of the patient
When transferring a patient who has a nasogastric tube in place, what would you do after the nurse removes it from the suction unit?
-Put the plug into the open end of the tube to prevent it from leaking.
-Make sure the tube is pinned to the patient's gown so it does not easily pull out from the nare.
-Assure it is ok to leave the patient off of suction until the procedure is completed.
When viewing an x-ray of a barium, which of the following best describes the appearance?
Barium is positive and white, air is negative and black
Which of the following best describes the imaging of the colon and rectum using a flexible camera; usually performed by a gastroenterologist or surgeon?
When a patients medical history includes "perforation of the bowl is suspected", the technologist should use which type of contrast for the enema?
Another term for hives is ________
_______ is a condition of excessive insulin, whereas ___________ is a condition of excessive sugar in the blood
Loss of blood
fainting, loss of consciousness
Illusion of movement, dizziness
Lyme disease is a condition caused by bacteria carried by deer ticks. The tick bite may cause fever, fatigue, and other associated symptoms. This is an example of transmission of an infection by
Streptococci and bacilli are classified as what type of microorganisms?
The process of establishment and growth of a microorganism on or in a host is referred to as
Any microorganism that causes disease is
All of the following are related EXCEPT
All of the following are viral infections EXCEPT
After an organism is infected and by the time symptoms of the infectious process manifest, several steps have taken place. These steps consist of
multiplication and spread
encounter and entry
A disease spread by kissing is being transmitted by which of the following methods?
Which of the following is the most effective method for achieving medical asepsis?
Frequent hand washing
When a disease is spread by an insect depositing the pathogen on or in a human, it is transmitted by what method?
By what method are pathogens spread when a person coughs or sneezes?
Which of the following is not a method of sterilization?
Chemical substances capable of killing pathologic microbes are termed
The spread of infection via contaminated food referenced is spread by
At the conclusion of an interventional radiographic examination, the examination room is cleaned, and major components are wiped down with chemical disinfectants. By performing this important task, the radiographer is practicing
A nosocomial infection is an
infection acquired in a hospital
The chain of infection consists of
host, infectious microbe, mode of transmission, and reservoir
All of the following are possible sources of nosocomial infection EXCEPT
-transfer of pathogenic microbes from a Foley catheter to a patient.
-contamination of a surgical instrument in the surgical theater.
-transfer of microbes through hand contact with a waitress in the coffee shop adjacent to the hospital.
-placement of an unclean radiographic receptor against a patient wound during a portable examination
transfer of microbes through hand contact with a waitress in the coffee shop adjacent to the hospital
A few days after a stereotactic breast biopsy performed by a radiologist in a breast imaging center, the patient returns to her physician with an obvious infection at the incision site. This is an example of a(n)
Two bloodborne pathogens of particular importance to hospital personnel are
hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV
In a hospital setting, constant awareness is given to the simple fact that patients come to the hospital because they are sick and vulnerable to disease. With the current system of medical care, by the time patients come to the hospital setting for care, they are sicker than ever in the past. The most common nosocomial infection seen in hospital patients is
urinary tract infections from Foley catheter insertions
Biosafety in the medical imaging department includes
-washing hands before and after an interventional procedure.
-wearing gloves while handling an emesis basin with vomitus.
-using a resuscitation mask or bag during CPR
When you and a colleague perform a portable chest radiograph on a patient with contact precautions, it would be appropriate to
-place the cassette in a protective bag before exposure and dispose of the bag properly after exposure
-remove jewelry and place it in a safe place
-greet the patient professionally and explain what you are going to do
The single greatest measure that can be done to prevent the spread of infection is
proper hand washing technique
A pathogen that requires contact precautions is
A person who acts as a reservoir of pathogenic organisms is referred to as a carrier. An example of a carrier is a
friend who appears to be healthy and shows no signs of sickness
All of the following are effective methods of sterilization EXCEPT
moist or dry heat.
Non sterile gloves should be used for all of the following instances EXCEPT
-an arteriogram with angioplastic catheter.
-emptying a patient's emesis basin.
-positioning a patient for a preoperative chest radiograph.
-palpating a patient's skin for a venipuncture
an arteriogram with angioplastic catheter
All of the following situations would require aseptic techniques EXCEPT
barium enema examination.
insertion of central venous line.
insertion of an indwelling Foley catheter.
insertion of an angiographic catheter.
barium enema examination
The goal of aseptic technique is to
protect the patient from infection and prevent the spread of pathogens and harmful microorganisms
When creating a sterile field, it is important for the imaging professional to
keep sterile gloves in sight and above the waist level
When establishing a sterile field using a sterile drape,
all drape items must be clean and dry
When opening and pouring sterile solutions,
Remove the cap and place it on an unsterile surface with the topside down, hold the bottle with the label facing up to prevent fluids from staining the label
The inflatable balloon portion of the Foley catheter is typically filled with
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
-A sterile person may touch only what is sterile.
-Create sterile fields early in the morning while staff members are fresh and equipment is clean.
-A sterile field must be watched continually to be considered sterile.
-If a solution soaks through a sterile field to a nonsterile field, the wet area must be redraped.
Create sterile fields early in the morning while staff members are fresh and equipment is clean
When opening a sterile tray, your fingers
must never touch the inside of the tray
When opening and pouring sterile solutions,
show the solution name and strength to another person before pouring
You are about to assist with a sterile procedure. In scrubbing for the procedure, it is important to
scrub the fingers completely, as well as the front and back of your hands, for 3 minutes.
use scrub with an antimicrobial agent
When gowning and gloving for a sterile procedure, it is important to remember that
after gowning, the front of the gown down to the waist, and the sleeves are considered sterile
When gowning another person,
a nonsterile circulating person pulls up the gown and fastens the back and waistband
When putting on a pair of sterile gloves using the self-gloving, open technique,
the first glove is picked up by the inside cuff with one hand, being careful not the touch the outside of the glove
When performing dressing changes, it is important to remember that
-working with a team member is beneficial.
-dressing changes must be performed after a physician orders the procedure.
-if the wound is purulent, gowns are recommended.
Which of the following represents good sterile technique?
When using a sterile setup, avoid bending and reaching over it
What should be examined before a sterile package is used?
If the sterility of an object is unknown, which of the following should be done?
Consider the object unsterile and do not use it
Two people in sterile attire should pass each other in which of the following ways?
Back to back
If you suspect the radiologist has contaminated his or her glove, which of the following should you do?
Make the radiologist aware of the possible contamination immediately
When performing radiologic examinations on patients with chest tubes,
-remember that the chest drainage system has three compartments: collection chamber, water seal chamber, and suction control chamber.
-check for the color of the drainage and report any dark red color.
-the exterior chamber of the assembly must remain lower than the patient's chest level.
The purpose of the inflatable balloon portion at the tip of the Foley catheter is to
hold the catheter within the bladder
When handling a patient with a Foley catheter in place,
avoid kinks in the tubing and keep the drainage bag lower than the bladder
When a Foley catheter system is inserted into a patient for an expected period of 4 to 6 weeks,
a polyvinyl chloride catheter is used
You are working as a radiographer in a busy imaging department, late into the evening. You receive a request for a portable chest radiograph on a cardiac patient in the ICU. Your coworker comments that he just did a portable chest procedure on the same patient approximately 15 minutes earlier and questions why they are ordering another one so soon. The rationale for this next chest image would most likely be
the patient has a central venous line, and the physician wants to check the repositioning
The role of the imaging technologist during cardiac pacemaker studies is to
operate fluoroscopy for the physician as he or she guides the pacemaker into position
When using a portable fluoroscopy C-arm in surgery,
the image receptor and C-arm are draped with a snap cover for sterility
During surgical procedures using a portable C-arm, it is important to remember that
-communication with the surgeon is critical to examination success.
-no two cases are ever the same, and routine surgical fluoroscopy is unlikely.
-technologists must be prepared for a stressful environment and using their highest critical thinking skills.
When performing portable radiography on neonatal infants,
aseptic techniques are especially important because of the infant's weak immune system
What is the "Sacred Seven" ?
f. Aggravating or alleviating factors
g. Associated manifestations
If taking a temperature tympanic or rectally , what should be done to the temperature to compare it to an oral temp?
a. Tympanic- add 1 degree
b. Rectally- subtract a degree
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