GEOL 109 Final

The banding of Jupiter's atmosphere is probably related to which of the following?
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The age of the surface of Europa is like which of the satellites of Jupiter?D. IoWhich of the following statements is true about Europa?A. It has crisscrossing stripes and fractures.The most volcanically active body in the solar system isA. IoWhich of these close up views is an image of part of Europa? Click on your answer.A. gray fractured surfaceThis set of photographs shows various landscapes on Io and Europa. Which image likely provides evidence that Io is still volcanically active?A. colorful organic flows emanating from one pointThis set of photographs shows various landscapes on Io and Europa. Which image shows that the surface of Europa has been tectonically deformed?D. blue-orange linear linesWhich of the following is true about the subdued crater palimpsests on Ganymede?D. They were produced as the icy lithosphere flowed to fill in an impact crater.The grooved terrain of GanymedeA. is younger than its cratered terrainOn Ganymede, grooved terrain formed by which process?A. Tectonic disruption of heavily cratered terrain.How did the multiple rings of Valhalla on Callisto form?C. Crustal breakage as impact shock waves traveled through the surface.Differences in the appearance of multiring basins on the Moon with those developed on Callisto are thought to be a result of which of the following?B. The difference in the behavior of ice and silicates when impacted.What is the evidence that Ganymede and Callisto have more ice in their interiors than Io and Europa do?A. Ganymede and Callisto have lower densities.Which letter in this image of Ganymede labels an area of grooved terrain?C. not crateredThe composition of the surface of Ganymede is most like which of the other satellites of Jupiter?C. EuropaThe icy layers of Jupiter's satellites increase in thickness as one moves from Europa to Callisto becauseB. they accreted in a thermal gradient centered around Jupiter.Which of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter has the most heavily cratered surface?B. CallistoIf you were a solar system explorer in search of liquid water at or near the surface, which of the satellites of Jupiter would be most likely to have it today?D. EuropaWhy isn't Earth's Moon heated by tidal flexing?D. The orbit of the Moon is nearly circular. E. Earth only has one large moon, unlike Jupiter, whose moons affect each other.Would you expect to find young basaltic lavas at the surface of Callisto? Why?A. No, because it is too cold inside Callisto. B. No, because it does not have silicates near the surface.Arrange these images of Jupiter's satellites by their distance from Jupiter as they orbit. Place the closest satellite on the top and the farthest one on the bottom.A. multi-colored oranges, whites, yellows, reds B. Red streaks C. Large swathes of dark.light material w/craters D. White specklesSaturn is the most similar in composition and internal structure to which of the planets below.C. JupiterWhen comparing Jupiter and Saturn, which of the following is correct?B. Jupiter is denser D. Jupiter has more satellites (those larger than the Moon)Compared to Jupiter, Saturn has a yellowish tint. What gives it this color?E. Crystals of ammonia ice and hydrocarbons in the atmosphereWhat is the most likely explanation for Saturn's magnetic field?A. The magnetic field forms by convection in a shell of metallic hydrogen.What is the most abundant of the gases comprising Saturn?C. hydrogenWhat is the most important source of energy that drives the circulation of Saturn's atmosphere?C. heat released from the interiorWhich of the following is true about Saturn's rings?B. The rings are composed of many small particles of water ice in orbit around Saturn.Where is Saturn's Roche limit for small icy bodies in orbit around it?C. Near the outer edge of the rings.What causes the Cassini Division, the 400 km wide break in the rings of Saturn?C. Orbital resonance of the ring particles with the satellitesWhat is the evidence that the moons of Saturn are generally icy?C. They have densities less than 2.0 g/cm3.The Roche limitA. is produced by tidal interaction between two planetary bodies B. is the distance inside which orbiting materials will not accrete togetherEnceladus (500 km across) and Mimas (400 km across) are both small, icy moons with about the same diameter. Enceladus is shown here. Which letter labels a feature that makes Enceladus so different from Mimas? Click on your answer.C. blue stripes, no cratersWhat is the origin of the features identified in question 2?A. icy volcanism and tectonism and tidal heatingWhy was it surprising to discover that Enceladus had the features you just identified?B. Because it is so small, young surfaces were not expected. It should have cooled long ago.Complete this sentence. Some of the satellites of SaturnB. orbit closer to the planet than its famous rings D. Have equatorial ridges formed by accumulation of ring materialsWhich of the following are common features on the icy satellites of Saturn?D. Global rifts apparently caused by expansion.What is evidence that many of the outer moons of Saturn are captured rather than formed in orbit around Saturn? (Choose all that apply.)A. Selected Answer,Many of them have highly inclined orbits. D. Many have retrograde orbits around Saturn.Why are many of Saturn's moons shaped like this one (Phoebe), instead of being essentially spherical?D. The size and hence the gravity field are not large enough to deform the irregular bodies into near spherical shapes.The only satellite of Jupiter or Saturn known to have a substantial atmosphere isE. TitanWhat are the principal differences between Titan and the other satellites of Saturn?A. Titan is the the biggest moon of Saturn. C. Titan has liquids that flow and pond on its surface. D. Titan is the only moon with dunesTitan's atmosphere is rich in nitrogen (N2) andA. Methane (CH4)Why does Titan have an atmosphere rich in nitrogen and methane while the Galilean satellites of Jupiter lack atmospheres?A. Titan formed farther from the Sun where ammonia and methane ice were stable in the ancient accretion disk.Which of the letters on this image of Titan's dunes labels a feature that is the strongest evidence for the movement of sand in the dunes?C. dark patchWhat do the features in this image imply about the geologic history of Titan?E. Rivers of liquid flow across the surface and erode it.In what way is Uranus considered so odd compared to other planets?C. Its spin axis is tipped from vertical by over 90 degrees.In what way is the magnetic field of Uranus distinctive? Choose all that apply.A. It has an unexpected orientation. B. It is tilted compared to the spin axis of the planet. C. It is irregular and may be experiencing a reversal.Why is Uranus so much smaller than Saturn and Jupiter?D. There was not enough nebular gas and dust near the region where Uranus formed.The particles in the rings of Uranus areA. dark and probably composed of darkened methane iceIn what way are the icy moons of Uranus different from those of Saturn?B. They have slightly higher densities.Which of the following is a common process that occurred during the evolution of the satellites of Uranus?C. cracking as they expanded late in their historiesThe last 2 or 3 billion years of the histories of the small inner planets (like the Moon and Mercury) are dominated by contraction, whereas the late histories of the small icy satellites of Saturn and Uranus are dominated by expansion like that evidenced in Ariel. Why?B. The outer planet satellites have a lot of water ice that expands as it freezes.Which letter on this image of Ariel's surface labels an area that has evidence for late expansion and possible volcanism? Click on your answer.B.Why is Neptune blue?C. Because its atmosphere contains a significant proportion of methane.Both Neptune and Uranus have magnetic fields thatA. are tilted with respect to the axis of rotationIn contrast to Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune are thought toB. have relatively abundant water in their interiors.In the early 1980's, some planetary scientists suggested that Triton has a sea of liquid nitrogen. Voyager 2 showed thatB. Triton is too cold for liquid nitrogenIn what way is the orbit of Triton distinctive?A. It is retrograde.Triton, because of its small size and frigid surface, was thought to be an unlikely spot for recent geologic activity. What did Voyager 2 reveal?B. Triton has many young surfaces and active plume vents.\ D. Triton was probably heated by tidal activity.Which letter on this image of Triton labels the youngest area of icy volcanism? Click on your answer.B. green tintWhich letter on this image of Triton marks an area that has a composition like Earth's atmosphere? Click on your answer.D. white patchesPluto is considered to be a dwarf planet by many astronomers. WhyD. Because it has not cleared its orbital path of debris.Which statements are true for the Kuiper belt?A. It contains many small icy objects in orbit around the Sun. C. The orbits formed a flattened disk in the outer solar system. D. Pluto is one of the bodies in the Kuiper belt.Based on what we know today, which of the following is most like Pluto in its size, composition, and density?D. TritonPluto's atmosphere is tenuous and temporary, but what are its major constituents?C. Nitrogen and methane that sublime from the most volatile ices on its surface.How did the polygonal shapes on Pluto's Sputnik Planitia form?A. By convection within the glacial ice.The tall mountains on Pluto are composed of what kind of ice?C. WaterHow did Pluto's Sputnik Planitia form?B. A large impact basin was filled with weak nitrogen ice.What do the arrows in this image show?B. Glacial flow directionsThe dark reddish regions on Charon's north pole result from what process?C. Methane and organic molecular deposits from Pluto that condense at Charon's poles.Why are comets thought to have originated in a different part of the solar nebula than asteroids?B. Because they are composed mostly of ices.Which of the following are important components of a comet?A. Water ice B. Silicate materials like olivine C. Methane D. Ammonia E. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxideThe nucleus of a cometC. is small and darkComets glow in the night sky becauseC. their gases and dust reflect the light from the SunThe tail of a cometB. develops temporarily when the comet enters the inner solar systemIs this comet near the Sun (within the orbit of Jupiter)?A. Yes.What is the origin of the light-colored streaks extending from the surface of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko?D. The streaks are plumes of dust and gas ejected from the interior as the Sun heats it.Which is true of comet Churyumov Gerasimenko (67P - see image above)?C. It is very dark because of the presence of organics. D. It is extremely low in density, suggesting pore space inside.The Oort cloudB. contains the orbits of comets in the outer part of the solar systemIn which ways is the Oort cloud different than the Kuiper belt?B. The Oort cloud is spherical, not disk-shaped. D. Most long period comets come from the Oort cloud.Which of the following is most important in keeping water a liquid on Earth?D. the distance from the SunWhy are the planetary bodies of the inner solar system different in composition from those of the outer solar system?A. The planets formed in a thermal gradient around the ancient Sun. B. High-temperature solids could form near the ancient Sun. D. Large icy cores attracted hydrogen and helium from the nebula.Which statement is an accurate general history of cratering on a planet?A. early heavy cratering with declining intensity, then intense bombardment, then declining intensity to the presentAs a dense particle in a planet moves toward the core, the loss of gravitational potential energy is converted to _________ energy.B. thermal (heat)In what way is Earth's atmosphere unique among the moons and planets?B. It is rich in oxygen (O2).The absence of large folded mountain systems on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury is evidence that the lithospheres of these planetsE. thickened rapidly as these worlds cooled.Why aren't running water and erosion important geologic agents on all planets?A. Some planets lack solid surfaces. B. Some planets are too cold. C. Some planets have the wrong composition for water to exist. D. Some planets are too hot.Suppose that a new planet has been discovered between Venus and Earth. It is about the size of Earth's Moon. Which of the following statements about it is probably true?D. It should be intensely cratered and lack a thick atmosphere.Which of the following planetary bodies has the oldest surface?E. MoonWhat is the most important control on a planet's present level of geologic activity (especially volcanism and tectonism)?C. The thickness of its lithosphere.