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Terms in this set (75)
nondisjunctionError in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.HaploidnDiploid2nTriploid3nallopolyploidypolyploidy resulting from contribution of chromosomes from two or more speciesAutopolyploidyan individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single speciesdiscontinuous traitscontrolled by variation in one genecontinuous traitstraits that can exist in a range (height, age, skin color, etc.)Quantative Characterscharacters that vary in population among a continuum (ex. height, human skin color, etc)meristic characteristicscan be counted and expressed in whole numbersthreshold characteristicCharacteristic that has only two phenotypes (presence and absence) but whose expression depends on an underlying susceptibility that varies continuouslypolygenic inheritanceAn additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.meanaverageVariancevariability of a group of measurementsphenotypic varianceMeasures the degree of phenotypic differences among a group of individuals; composed of genetic, environmental, and genetic-environmental interaction variances.natural selectionA process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.artifical selectionthe selective breeding of organisms by humans for specific characteristicsPopulationgroup of individuals of the same species that live in the same area that have the potential to matepfrequency of A allelesqfrequency of a allelesp^2frequency of AA genotype2pqfrequency of Aa genotypeq^2frequency of aa genotypep+q=1alleles in a populationp^2+2pq+q^2=1genotypes in a populationHardy-Weinberg equilibriumcondition in which a population's allele frequencies for a given trait do not change from generation to generationrandom matingno selective mating in which animals chose mate depending on phenotypeno mutationno new alleles introduced into gene poolinfinitely large populationpopulation is the size it wants to beno migrationno movement in or out of the populationequal rate of survival/reproductionno allele or phenotype creates preference in survival or matingbottleneck effecta reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its sizefounder effectchange in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a populationgenetic driftA change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.gene flowmovement of alleles from one population to anothermutationcreates new allelesdirectional selectionoccurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a traitstabalizing selectionnatural selection that favors average individuals in a population; results in a decline in population variationdisruptive selectionnatural selection in which individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curveassortative matingtheory stating that people find partners based on their similarity to each otherpositive assortative matingtendency for like individuals to matenegative assortative matingtendency for unlike individuals to mateinbreedingContinued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics, increases recessive allelesreproductive isolating mechanismsmechanisms that prevent interbreeding between different speciesprezygotic barriersBarriers that impede mating or hinder fertilization.postzygotic barriersreduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdownspeciesA group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.allopatric speciationThe formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.sympatric speciationThe formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic areaecosystemA biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.genetic diversityThe range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of a species.interspecific diversitydiversity reflected in the number of different plant and animal species present in an ecosystemintraspecific diversitydiversity within a speciesintrapopulation diversitygenetic variation occurring in individuals within a single populationinterpopulation diversityvariation occurring between different populations of the same speciesloss of genetic diversitydecrease in frequency of alleles within a speciesnaturally rare speciesspecies that are naturally small in numbers, especially those adapted to survive in unusual habitatsnewly rare speciesspecies whose numbers decline because of pressures such as habitat lossCaptive breeding programsRaising and breeding organisms in controlled conditions, such as zoos or aquariumsinbreeding depressionwhen individuals with similar genotypes - typically relatives - breed with each other and produce offspring that have an impaired ability to survive and reproduceGenetic erosionThe loss of genetic variation due to (artificial) selection.ex situ conservationconservation methods out of the natural situ conservationconservation methods within the natural habitat.population augmentationboost numbers of a declining population by transplanting and releasing individuals of the same species captured and collected from more numerous populations elsewheregene banksstore genetic material of plants and animals