AP European History Chapter 13- Reformation ID's
Chapter 13- "Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century" Spielvogel Western Civilization
Terms in this set (49)
Outside of Italy, Renaissance focused on religious matters through the study of writings of the early Christian church, rather than through those of secular authors of Rome and Greece. Centered in the North Christian Humanism impacted the Low Countries, Germany and England. Concerned more with providing guidance on personal behavior rather than liberating the individual. Emphasis on education and need for church reform. Many Christian humanists were not clergymen but--> Most early reformers of the church had been trained as Christian Humanists. Christian Humanism, with its emphasis on toleration and education, faded due to increasing passions of the Reformation after 1530. (Examples of Christian Humanists were Erasmus and Thomas More.)
The Praise of Folly
(1509) This was a work of Desiderius Erasmus, it was one of the first best sellers. Suggest that a little folly is essential to human existence. Had gay, light hearted banter as well as sharp satirical attacks against the monks, the pope, meaningless ceremonies, and the lapses from the true Christian spirit.
Thomas More's Utopia
He was an English humanist who wrote about the perfect society whith christian principals (ex of nothern renaissance)
pluralism and absenteeism
many clerics held several benefices (offices) simultaneously but seldom visited their benefices, let alone performed the spiritual responsibilities those offices entailed
Imitation of Christ
Book by Thomas a Kempis. In it, he summarized the philosophy of the Brothers. It was also a semimystical guide to the inner life intended for monks and nuns but it was also read by laity who wanted to pursue the life of a faithful Christian, not ritualistic salvation.
The Council of Trent in the 1500s; essential to the Roman Catholic faith. They are: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance (Reconciliation), Anointing of the Sick ("Extreme Unction" or "Last Rites"), Holy Orders, and Matrimony. point of argument between Catholic and Protestant faiths
German theologian and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Luther confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church. He wrote 95 Theses
salvation by faith
Primary doctrine of the Protestant Reformation. Luther believed that humans were not saved by their good works but through faith
preisthood of all believers
all members of the Protestant faith were considered priests. This belief came from the Bible, which states that all who spread the word of God are priests. Common to many forms of Protestantism, especially Zwinglianism. (Often times women were excluded from this, but not always)
Johann Tetzel and indulgences
Hawked the indulgences in Germany-slogan "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs"- enemy of Luther
The Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, known as the 95 Theses, (from 31 October 1517) challenged the teachings of the Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. They sparked a theological debate that would result in the Reformation and the birth of the Lutheran, Reformed, and Anabaptist traditions within Christianity. Largely focused on indulgences, written from Luthor's law pov.
the Edict of Worms
Luther didn't recant his doctrines before the Reichstag. Charles V made this proclamation that outlawed, burned his works, & ordered his capture. Luther escaped with the help of his local prince
the Peasant's War, 1524
Causes: Peasant's hadn't been helped by the economic improvement, and Lord's continued to suppress them. Also, they began to look toward Luther for help.
Results: Princes in Germany ruthlessly suppress the rebels, and Luther's movement is dependent on the state., A rebellion against the German Princes of the 1500's, the peasants claimed that the German Nobles had levied unfair taxes and duties on them. They cited Luther and his burgeoning movement as backing. Luther didn't agree, he was adverse to anything that disrupted the order of law.
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist, disputed by Protestants
the Protestant minister and family
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents (Habsburgs), he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He was preocuppied with struggles with France (Habsburg-Valois War over territorry) and Pope Clement VII, fearful of Charles' power, allied with France. Charles V's forces went crazy and sacked Rome, making Pope Clement submit to Charles. Ottoman Turks were advancing east, and established control over much of the Balkans under Suleiman the Magnificent. They advanced as far as Vienna, but were finally turned back. Charles demanded German states return to Catholicism, and to prevent this, Lutheran states formed Schmalkaldic League. These distractions meant Charles could not solely focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany. By the time he got around to that problem, Protestantism was organized, and the Schmalkaldic Wars began, where the Lutheran states allied with the French King and ultimately exhausted Charles. Peace of Augsburg ended German religious warfare in 1555.
Pope Clement VII
A Medici pope who refused to grant Henry VIII an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon; his indecisiveness in choosing alliances led to the Sack of Rome by Charles V and made his papacy dependent upon HRE.
Suleiman the Magnificent
Most powerful sultan(of the Ottoman Empire), captured Charles V's attention while Luther gained support. He advanced far into Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Peace of Augsburg
A treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany., 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler between Lutheranism and Catholicism
Overthrows Christian II of Denmark to become king in 1523; establishes Swedish Lutheran
National Church in the 1530s
This man brought religion reform to Zurich, in the Holy Roman Empire. He believed that the Church should try to get back to its early purity. He believed in equality of believers, justification by faith alone, and emphasized the scripture. He attacked indulgences and penance, clerical celibacy, and praying to the Virgin/icons/images/saints., Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war., The Swiss humanist and admirer of Erasmus; Ulrich Zwingli introduced reformation in Switzerland. Zwingli was also convinced that Christian life rested on the scriptures; which were the pure words of God and the sole basis of religious truth. (p.456-457)
Landgrave Philip of Hesse hoped to unite Swiss and German Protestants in a mutual defense pact, a significant political alliance; his efforts were spoiled by Zwingli and Luther's disagreement on Christ's presence within the Eucharist; After both Protestant leaders were brought together at Marburg and disagreed, the Protestant movement splintered theologically and politically
The teachings (adult baptism, seperation of church and state) of the Anabaptists spread into southern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Seen by both Catholics and Lutherans as a threat, the Anabaptists were virtually stamped out in Germany. Some of the survivors went to Münster and proclaimed it the New Jerusalem. As they became radical millenarianist and captured the city (John of Leiden), Lutherans and Catholics increasingly became distrustful and a coalition recaptured the city in 1535. Not only were the Anabaptists exterminated here but also tens of thousands were killed in Germany and the Low Countries.
Belief that end of the world was at hand and Anabaptists would usher in the kingdom of God with Munster as the New Jerusalem
What: Leader who rejuvenated Dutch Anabaptism
Where: Netherlands, Germany
Significance: spread idea of peaceful, evangelical Anabaptism that stressed separation from the world. Mennonites were his followers and spread from Netherlands into America and Canada where they found religious freedom. Best known work was "The foundation of Christian Doctrine" written in 1539.
Henry VIII's Wives
Catherine of Aragon divorced-Mary
Anne Boleyn beheaded-Elizabeth
Jane Seymour died-son Edward VI
Anne of Cleaves divorced
Catherine Howard beheaded
Catherine Parr survived
Act of Supremacy
Proclaimed King Henry VIII the supreme leader of the Church of England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king. Created Church of England, broke with papacy- Practices were at first mainly Catholic
Book of Common Prayer
included order of services for the Church of England, written by Thomas Cranmer, later modified by Elizabeth
Edward VI and Bloody Mary
Edward VI took the throne at the age of nine, so real control passed to a council of regency. During Edward's reign, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer moved the Church of England in a Protestant direction. Bloody Mary fully intended to restore England to Catholicism when she took the throne. She married Philip II of Spain, who was strongly disliked in England. Managed to achieve opposite of what she had intended as a result of her policies. Her death in 1558 ended restoration of Catholicism in England.
This French theologian was the leading French Protestant Reformer and very important to the second generation of the Christian Reformation. He deeply influenced Protestantism elsewhere in Europe and in North America. The Calvinist form of Protestantism is has had a great impact on the development of the modern world, and included the Hugeunots. John Calvin was responsible for founding Calvinism, which was reformed Catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell. Preached in Paris before being driven out, influenced by Luther.
the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved. This made Calvin's followers militant in their faith, because they thought that no matter what they did on earth they were the elect, predestined to be saved.
Definition: City where Calvinism was the official religion; government was a theocracy
It became a vibrant center for Protestantism
Significance: great importance was put on religious living; citizens lives were regulated strictly and certain actions could lead to severe punishments by the Consistory
The Protestant educators used humanist methods to teach at Protestant schools; now more for all people, not just the elite, because since their faith is based on the bible they must know how to read it.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Sixteenth-century Catholic attempt to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism; it was inspired by the reforms of the Council of Trent and the actions of the Jesuits., Catholic revival beginning with Council of Trent (1545-1563). Reforms included: foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life by returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movements focusing on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ,
Saint Teresa of Avila
Spanish mystic and nun of Carmelite order who had mystica visions that she claimed resulted in ecstatic union of her should with God, formed new barefoot order
Ignatius of Loyola
principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuits.He was very active in fighting the Protestant Reformation and promoting the subsequent Counter-Reformation, - advocated rigorous self-discipline and complete submision to authority of Catholic Church
-inspired by Christian classics
- creator of "Spiritual Exercises"= believed person create new religious self with discipline and studying and regular practice
- goal: to teach Catholics to refer to higher religous authority and spiritual direction
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped spread Catholicism to non-Christians, they fought Protestantism, pledged total allegience to the Pope, and were organized like a military operation.
Early Jesuit missionary often called the Apostle to the Indies. He was an associate of St Ignatius of Loyola, with whom he took the vow founding the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). From 1541 he traveled through India, Japan, and the East Indies, making many converts.
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent., Most important pope in reforming the Church and challenging Protestantism. He sought to improve church disciple through existing doctrine, rather than making new ones.
Council of Trent
a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers; redefined the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses and strengthened the papacy, paul III catholic bishops and cardinals agreed on: the church's interpretation of the bible is final anything else is a heresy, faith and good works are needed for salvation, the bible and church tradition are equal, indulgences are ok, all sacraments stand
any of the Protestants (French Calvinists) in France in the 16th and 17th centuries, many of whom suffered severe persecution for their faith. The Edict of Nantes (1598) granted them tolerance in France and ended the French civil wars of religion.
Saint Bartholomew's Day
A savage Catholic attack on Huguenots in Paris. August 24, 1572 Huguenot leaders from all over France came to celebrate the wedding of Henry and Margaret, but were instead slaughtered by the Guises and their supporters. Ordered by King Charles IX. Began war of 3 Henrys (Henry of Navarre, Henry Duke of Guise, and King of France Henry III)
The son of CHarles V was born and educated in Spain. He ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He wanted to unify his lands by making them follow strict Catholicism. He lost the Netherlands to rebellion, and sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588, but it ended in disaster. He stopped Turks at Battle of Lepanto.
Battle of Lepanto
Battle where the Catholic fleet under Charles V defeated the Turkish (Muslim) navy, freeing the Mediterranean from Ottoman control in a stunning victory
The New World
North and South America, lands where European kings would draw money in gold and silver, where Philip II held territory.
Netherlands were one of the wealthiest parts of Philip's empire. Collection of 17 unorganized states, some influenced by Germany, some by France. Were influenced by Lutheranism, Anabaptism, and Calvinism. Had no political bond except common ruler Philip, who was foreign and out of touch. Philip II further angered Netherlands by attempting to strengthen his control (opposed by nobles, towns, and provinces), using Netherlands tax money for Spanish causes, and attempting to crush Calvinism. just helped the revolution become more organized under William of Orange. William of Orange wanted to unify the 17 states, and temporarily did so under the Pacification of Ghent (stand united under William, respect religious differences, demand withdrawal of Spanish troops ) William of Orange organized 7 northern provinces into Protestant "Union of Utrecht" who opposed Spanish rule. War dragged on until 1609, when truce ended war and recognized independence of northern "United Provinces", which became the Dutch Republic.
Union of Utrecht
1579 The 7 Northern Dutch provinces allied against Spain & led by William of Orange (the Silent)
Inherited throne from Mary, helped England become Protestant leader of Europe.
Religious policies based on moderation and compromise. Religious settlement between Lutheranism and Calvinism, a moderate Protestantism that avoided extremes. Elizabeth avoided war, but supported French Huguenots and Dutch Protestants to weaken France and Spain. She was drawn into involvement with Netherlands which worsened tension between Spain and England, and helped convince Philip II to invade England.