ANT 185 Final Exam

What are some popular approaches to defining globalization?
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Global Ethnography Migration (Fieldwork on the move)
Seth Holmes (student of Phillipe Bourgois)
Washington State (The Camp, a micro-universe), California, Oaxaca, San Miguel Mexico, US Mexican Border
"Follow the people"
Travelling the Border/Suffering the Border
Very reflexive, very personal
Embodied anthropology of Migration (at times, "out of place")
His body changed due to his fieldwork critically embodied anthropology: Focus not only on the suffering bodies of people but also the body of anthropologist
Samuel Huntington, clash of civilization/culture clash model

culture is the source of conflict in a globalized future

the conflict will be at the level of culturally defined civilization, especially between Muslim world and the West (which Huntington says is the biggest cultural conflict)local identities become weaker when religion steps in

he identifies 9 civilizations in the world and his argument gives culture a central place in political analysis (sometimes global elites refuse to acknowledge the power of culture)
Tipson: culture clash-ificiation

1) Empirical grounds: clash of civilizations is a distorted reality bc some of the bloodiest clashes take places within civilizations, not between them

2) Globalization and history
-global processes and technologies cut across civilizations
-past civilizations are not the ones of today
-global-local conflict is more important than horizontal ones between them-fallacy of historical determinism: we shouldn't assume history determines the future

3) Misunderstanding of culture:
-Huntington gives culture a physical reality which it does not have
-converting complex cultures into unitary actors
-culture "moves" it is not stuck in territories/units of civilization

4) Not all Arabs are Islamic
-at very most 1 out of 5 Muslims is an Arab
-mistake a scholar (Huntington) shouldn't make

Gusterson- The 7 Deadly Sins of Samuel Huntington
1) gives a basic definition of civilizations
2) stereotypes cultures
3) ignores change
4) denies multiculturalism
5) maligns Islam
6) phony scientific methods
7) depicts the West as the best, assumption that Islam has "bloody borders"

Nordstrom's critique
- author of Shadows of War
-no local war
-local is part of transnational, global network/flow that cuts across civilizations
-war is in the shadows (political, economic, and cultural)
-no clear
-cut, homogenous cultural or economic units-dichotomies are inaccurate:the idea of enemy vs. friend, licit vs. illicit, moral vs. immoral, rational/liberal/Christian vs. irrational/passionate/subordinate/under-developed
Be able to explain Mexico-U.S. migration in relation to: scapes and intimacyBe able to explain Mexico-U.S. migration in relation to: violence continuum: physical, structural, symbolicPhysical Violence Border patrol violence Rape and abuse during the crossing Abuse from employers on the farm Jason De Leon founded the Undocumented Migration Project, a program to "collect, catalogue, and interpret nearly 10,000 objects left in the desert by migrants making the treacherous, undocumented bodies Structural Violence: "Conjugated oppression" Ethnicity and class work together (the camp ethnic and labor hierarchies map onto one another) Proposition 187 in CA: 1994 ballot inittive to establish a state run citizenship screening system and prohibit undocumented immigrants from using non-emergency health care, public education, and other services in the State of California The Bank- "spatial governmentality" migrants have to wait longer, white customers are escorted to the top of the line. Symbolic Violence (pg 156-158) Naturalization and internalization of social asymmetries. Interrelations of social structures and inequalities and perceptions. Our lenses of perception match the social world from which they are produced. Thus we came to misrecognized the social structures and inequalities in the world as natural Acts within the process of perception, hidden from the conscious mind. Each group understands itself and other groups as belonging naturally in their positions in social hierarchy. The perception of inequalities as normal, deserved, natural, permits the reproduction of such destructive social formations as well as indifference with them. The structural violence inherent to segregated labor on the farms is so effectively erased precisely because its disappearance takes place at the level of the body and is thus understood to be natural.Be able to explain Mexico-U.S migration in relation to: Border Crossing RitualWhat is liminality? How does it help us understand the border crossing as a "ritual" at the U.S.-Mexico border?Liminality is a period of transition where normal lines of thought, self-understanding, and behavior are relaxed- a situation which can lead to new perspectives. (a threshold, a passage) Ritual: separation-liminality-integrationBe familiar with the main themes, arguments and examples in Fresh Fruit Broken Bodies.How do international surrogacy and medical tourism fit into neoliberal development in India? How does this affect India's production of an image of itself for the global tourist market?Know the main definition of globalization (provided by your professor)the continually increasing ratio of the # of "social interactions" to the # of people. world is more connected but not homogenousEthnography: What is Appadurai's notion of local? What does he replace it with?he says there is still local but it doesn't capture people's capacity for community and solidarity-buildingreplace local with intimacyWhat is a scape? Be able to define and provide examples of Ethnoscapes, Financescapes, Mediascapes, Ideoscapes and Technoscapes, especially in the context of class readings.intimacy takes the form of scapes: imaginary worlds created via globalization ethnoscapes: aka peoplescapes, more mobility produced by flows of businesses, personnel, guestworkers, tourists, immigrants, refugees technoscapes: produced by flows of machinery. tech, software, transactional and government agencies financescapes: produced by flows of capital, currencies, securities (tradable assets of any kind: notes, stock, debt, derivatives) mediascape: produced by flows of images and information through print media, TV/film ideoscape: produced by flows of idealogical (western) world views like democracy, capitalism, etc.Who is Marc Auge? Why is he significant? What is a non-place (name a few examples of it). What are "contact zones" as defined by James Clifford?French anthropologist, created the term "non-place" non-place: places that do not hold enough of a significance to be regarded as places, hold generic memories with no history, offer escape and solitude examples: airports, hotel rooms, shopping centers contact zones: where the exchange of culture happensPolitics: Understand the difference between Hyperglobalists and Transformationists.1) hyperglobalists: believe nation-states are becoming weak and are on their way out 2) transformationists: believe globalization changes the nation-state, but state still persists and is strongCulture: Understand the notion of Time-Space Compression developed by David Harvey.he says time abolishes space and the change in sensibility is a change in the sense of reality itself, which changes how we view, experience, and express the World Annihilation of space through time via capital accumulation and technological inventionWhat effect does globalization have on world cultures (define McDonaldization, Hybridization and Localization, and Clash of Civilizations)?1) McDonaldization: world is becoming culturally homogeneous due to US-dominated corporate culture 2) Hybridization: aspects of two or more cultures mixed to form a blend (this is never complete, it's always a process), also called creolization or cultural crossover 3) Localization: culture change is received and transformed through interaction with existing culture 4) Clash of Civilizations: the source of conflict in a globalized world is culture, the conflict will be at the level of culturally defined civilizationsEconomics: Neoliberalismaka cultural capitalism, a form of political economy and a world view FREE-MARKET CAPITALISMWhat is the difference between neoliberalism and late capitalism, as explained by Ortner?Ortner says neoliberalism is late capitalism carried to extremes, there's a lack of utopian vision which doesn't allow for thinking beyond itselfKnow the 2 economic/political shifts (Fordism to Post-Fordism, Keynesian to post-Keynesian) that symbolize the transition from capitalism to neoliberalism (late capitalism)?1) Fordism to Post-Fordism-relationship of labor and capital (shrinking labor unions) -uncertainty, unpredictability about unemployment (contracts became a thing for employment in the post-fordism world) -small-batch production -specialized products and jobs -new information technologies -emphasis on consumers in contrast to previous emphasized social class-service vs. white-collar world-women in the workforce 2) Keynesian to Post-Keynesian-transfer of control of economy from public to private, free market -widening gap between rich and poor -Naomi Klein invented the term "disaster capitalism," exploit crises by profiting from people sufferingKnow the main points about neoliberalism explained by your professorcommoditization, privatization, de-regulation assault on the notion of public goods, corporate culture saturates civil society, views citizens as consumers, inequalities are enhancedKnow the main critiques of neoliberal processes.assaults all things public (like citizenship) weakens political agencies civic discourse transformed into the language of commercialism, privatization, de-regulation corporate culture becomes a model for good life, it seeps into public spheres (Ex. education, politics, charity, philanthropy, and family)Know the type of personhood that neoliberalisms favor and generate.1) individual agency: -defined through market -driven notions of individualism, competition, and consumption 2) performance self:-displayed "on stage" -views self as a project, a bundle of skills and alliances that needs to be managed and enhanced -fluidity, malleability, fragmentation, continuous real vs. performed self -improvement and investment in selfBe familiar with how youth become productive sites to study and understand the workings of neoliberal intervention and personhood (from the Facebook reading).-college as a means to produce more surplus -value -language, ideology, vision of a profit-making institution -fiscal austerity measures (public universities and colleges) -shrinking of tenure track university professors-pedagogical changes (distance learning and disinvestment in social sciences) -tuition hikes and student debt -creation of 2 educational systems (public vs. private)What is global tourism?Global tourism: largest industry in the world, about movement and mobility (temporary, between 24 hours and 12 months) began with the industrial revolution and the creation of elite classes France and Bangkok most visited cities in 2018How is global tourism generating new forms of social inequality?Global tourism creates ethnocentrism, cultural shock, acculturation through contact zones, scapes, and non-places acculturation- assimilation also creates neoliberalism by reinventing the self and ideas of freedom, allows commoditization and consumption of culture/natureWhat are some of the new forms of global inequality that tourism makes especially visible?"Global" and "local" are not in a binary opposition Global tourism creates new consumer traditions, new categories of people (global tourists vs. local guides/cultural brokers) AND new cultures (these are often considered primitive, exotic, authentic, and ethnic to global tourists)How do anthropologists think about tourism? [Ethnocentrism, Cultural Shock, Acculturation ("Glocal"), Authenticity, Identity construction/industry, Political economy ("sign" of global citizenship, freedom)]Ethnocentrism: believing your culture (practices, traditions, beliefs, etc.) are better and more just than those of other cultures Cultural Shock: deep feelings of uneasiness when shifting from one culture to another. Acculturation: process of social influence by which a person partially or fully acquires a new cultural outlook by living in a culture different to itself Authenticity: quality or state of information characterized by genuine or original, West sees "the rest" as "authentic" cultureIdentity Construction: created & reinforced through communication, relevant when challenged, predicts and guides behaviorWhat is Branding of Culture in the context of Global Tourism?"local responses," individuals tailor their practices to satisfy tourists Packaging: manufacturing and selling images of "local" places to make them seem more exotic, authentic in order to respond to the white man's image of these local villagesBe familiar with main attributes of sex tourism.Sex Tourism: the organization of vacations with the purpose of taking advantage of the lack of restrictions imposed on prostitution and other sexual activities by some foreign countries Sex tourism is the exploitation of gender, age, social, and economic inequalities in these destinations North/West to South/East -Adult sex tourism -Child sex tourism -Female sex tourismCoordinates of sex tourismGrowing phenomenon, stems from women's increased economic power and sexual fantasy as a racist discourse and ideology The idea of the hypersexualized black male, sex tourism feeds the myth of this sexuality (Big Bamboo) "Packaging" identity for market purposesWhat are some New Tourisms emerging?Sustainable tourism: management of resources (low impact on environment and culture). Ecotourism: Responsible travel to pristine areas, benefiting local areas Pro-poor tourism: Tourism to help the poorest in the developing world Recession tourism: generic retreats, low-cost Medical tourism: travel for cheaper medical services Educational tourism: learning about other cultures Creative tourism: active participation in the tourist community, craftsthemes of Cannibal tourstakes place in New Guinea, male enthnographer based on historical fact, highlighting the Europeans who "consume" village culture and view village and people as commodities natives = purists, people who do the visiting, that's who he is interested in studying village people use English when singing religious songs, talking about economy (money) and goods- this shows where European influence comes into play ex: camera incorporated into native language bc that's what tourists bring and what the village people see, guns replaced by cameras!!How do these practices fit into our framework of globalization:Doing ethnography in the Era of Globalization (explain)1) Doing ethnography in the Era of Globalization: -Nancy Scheper -Hughes article; created Organ Watch group, when studying something illicit (like medical tourism industry) use these practices -multi-sited ethnography -undercover ethnography -ethics come into play when doing ethnographic studies -activism committed militant anthropologyHow do these practices fit into our framework of globalization: New forms of "Intimacy"—interconnectedness (explain)-interconnectedness produced bc of medical tourism, cultures blending -sharing of organs and fluids with living strangers makes you connected to one another -the process of bringing together strangers from different races, genders, class -but there is a gap on a social level between those who can afford these services and those who cannotHow do these practices fit into our framework of globalization: Construction of Non-places (explain, provide examples)non-places to support illicit practices ex. kidney motels, rogue "hospitals," black markets, bus stations where people can meet, internet sitesHow do these practices fit into our framework of globalization: Understand the role of cultural brokers ("hybrid" individuals)-hired individuals who make the illicit transfer possible -they mediate the transfer/transport between different types of people who have culture, language barriersWhat is Transplant tourism?part of medical tourism, patient (usually rich) receives a human organ from a (generally) poverty -stricken donor in a foreign country, donor is willing to give up organ because they need the moneyWhat are the economic and legal factors leading to surrogacy in India, and what are some of the reasons, economic and legal, that limit surrogacy in other countries? So, more briefly, why India?-India has good medical programs and schools -no real laws re: surrogacy -India is a global political economy people in India are willing to be surrogates: Indian surrogates mainly want the money to provide daughter's endowments, and to provide for their existing childrenHow do the language and ideas of liberal democracy and citizenship create space for the construction of more free individuals living longer at the expense of the world's second class citizenry?First-world citizens can afford medical surgeries, buying organs from second class citizens who need the money bc of large gap between rich and poor that neoliberalism creates New forms of structural & symbolic violence created by neoliberalism in connection to underprivileged individualsWhat marks the experience of surrogates, doctors/managers, as well as adoptive parents? How do their interests, desires, and situations interact in this transaction?Surrogates: under contract, live pregnancy in hostel under strict watch and guidelines by doctors/managers (Ex. eating schedule, must stay in bed or laying down, limited walking allowed) Adoptive parents get what they cannot have themselves: a child In return, surrogates get money needed to support their own family