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Terms in this set (138)
The collective opinions of large segments of the population on an issue, candidate, or public policy on which the public might be much divided and lack consensus is referred to as
The difference between men and women on such crucial issues as partisan identification and voting for certain candidates is known as the
The process through which a person gains political understanding and forms a set of political beliefs is known as
The attitudes, beliefs, and values that undergird or are at the foundation of a political system are known as
Which of the following is a part of political culture in America?
representative government, freedom, and equality
Partisan identification is specific to
the political party an individual most identifies with
An increase in gender consciousness and in the number of women in the male-biased workforce has contributed to
the gender gap
Social, economic, and/or political demonstrations are an example of
expression of public opinion
Voting in elections provides an example of
expression of public opinion
The administration of questionnaires to a sample of respondents selected from a particular population to measure opinion is known as
A sample is
A small set of people carefully drawn from a larger population to reflect its overall characteristics.
Quota sampling is
A type of sampling in which individuals to be interviewed are selected based on their proportion or quota in the general population being polled.
A general term for a sample selected in accordance with probability theory, which ensures that every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
refers to the degree of expected error in sampling results that comes from estimating the responses of the population from a sample.
The difference between how Black candidates poll and how they perform at the ballot box is known as the
bradley and wilder effect
The application of the Bill of Rights to state and local governments is called
The process by which the Supreme Court has gradually applied specific liberties deemed absolutely necessary in a free society to all state action is called
The publication of written material that damages a person's reputation is called
fighting words are
Derisive, insulting, or offensive words that inflict damage on other people and are therefore not protected by the First Amendment.
A form of expression that is hostile toward those of a particular race, ethnicity, gender, religion, nationality, or sexual orientation.
A usually impermissible government regulation that prevents the publication of printed material.
The ___________ prevents the government from endorsing religion.
Which of the following prevents the government from prohibiting people from practicing their religion?
free exercise clause
The ______ amendment is not related to the criminal justice process?
A judicially created civil liberties protection that prohibits the use of evidence gathered in violation of the Fourth Amendment.
A view that evaluates other cultures according to the preconceived notions of one's own culture.
A legal document that allows law enforcement to search someone's person, home, or business.
A legal requirement that there be more evidence indicating guilt than indicating innocence before a law enforcement officer can act.
The Employment Division v. Smith (1990) case exemplifies
Which of the following is least related to Miranda rights?
Most districts have a representative that matches the race of the majority of the district partially because of
Racially polarized voting
The extent to which constituents trust and accept their representative and the legislative institution as a whole is known as
The extent to which the characteristics of a representative correspond with the general characteristics of his or her own constituency is known as
The extent to which representatives advocate policies that benefit their constituents is known as
Informal organizations within Congress that focus on cultural, economic, or geographic concerns.
A parliamentary technique in the Senate that allows senators to delay or block votes by talking endlessly.
A procedure in the Senate to stop a filibuster that requires three-fifths of the senators (60) agreeing to end debate.
The process by which the House of Representatives charges a president, vice president, or federal judge with a high crime or misdemeanor, and then the Senate decides whether to remove that official from office with a two-thirds vote.
Congressional oversight is
The nonlegislative power to investigate glaring problems in the executive branch and in bureaucratic agencies created by Congress.
Favors and other forms of assistance that members of Congress provide to their constituents.
Pork barrel spending
Federal money spent on projects that benefit only a specific member's district or state.
The practice by members of Congress of trading votes or other favors to enhance members' mutual interests
The ability of members of Congress to send noncampaign material to their constituents free of charge.
The infamous "Bridge to Nowhere" is an example of
pork barrel spending
Mass organizations that seek to elect candidates to public office and influence policy making are known as
the Electoral College is
The entity that selects the president and vice president, consisting of 538 electors chosen from the states and Washington, DC
A general election is
A method for a constituency to select an office holder from the options given by political parties.
A method for political parties to select their candidates for office whereby people vote in an election is called a
A method for political parties to select their candidates for office whereby party members convene at local meetings is called a
A SuperPAC is allowed to raise an unlimited amount of money from any source, including individuals, corporations, labor unions, and interest groups, and then
Is allowed to spend this money in support of or opposition to any political candidate so long as their activities are not directly coordinated with a campaign.
The conception of the presidency, which is characterized by a powerful president who seeks to lead Congress, connects with the American public, and presides over an enormous executive branch is called
an executive agreement
an agreement between the president and foreign nations that, because it is not a treaty, does not need the approval of the Senate.
a signing statement
a declaration issued along with legislative bill signings that expresses reservations about parts of a bill or announces an unwillingness to enforce aspects of the bill.
A presidential veto is
a president's ability to cancel legislation passed by Congress.
an executive order is
a directive that the president issues to subordinates in the executive branch that has the force of law.
The president uses the State of the Union address to
Build public support for his or her policy objectives.
and present his or her policy agenda to Congress.
Which of the following is not a part of the Cabinet?
Director of the Office of Management and Budget.
Which of the following is not a part of the Executive Office of the President?
chief of staff
Which of the following is not a part of the White House staff?
Which of the following was accurate regarding President Obama's connection with the public?
His approval rating was in the 60-percent range at the beginning of his first term, his approval rating dipped into the 40-percent range in the midst of concerns regarding the economy and healthcare reform implementation, his approval rating was above 50 percent by the end of his second term.
Mass organizations that seek to elect candidates to public office and influence policymaking are known as
Nearly all major political parties in the United States have at some point found themselves dangerously divided over
Dealignment is marked by
Relatively balanced competition between two parties.
and decreased allegiances to political parties.
A period when voter allegiances toward the political parties shift for an extended period of time, resulting in one party emerging as dominant, is known as
A period when voters abandon their ties to the political parties, resulting in a balance of power between the two major parties, is known as
An election system or method for political parties to select their candidates for office whereby party members convene at local meetings.
Proportional representation is an election system
In which the entire state, or a region of the state, selects several representatives, and the top vote-getters are awarded seats.
Winner-take-all is an election system
In which each state is divided into geographical regions (districts), and a single representative, who wins by receiving the most votes even if it is not a majority, represents each district.
Primaries are an election system
Or method for political parties to select their candidates for office whereby people vote in an election.
The heavily regulated money that is directly raised by political candidates is referred to as
Unregulated campaign donations that can support party infrastructure but cannot directly support campaigns are referred to as
A practice by Southern state Democratic parties in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries intended to disenfranchise Blacks by preventing them from voting in the crucial Democratic Party primary elections was known as the
the south used to be
Solidly Democratic, but now leans Republican.
Party identification and partisan support often correspond to
Racial group, Religious group, Socioeconomic status.
The organization that determines the national party goals, devises electoral strategies, creates regulations and governing rules for the party, and raises funds for the party and its candidates is known as the
national party committee
A primary election in which a voter does not have to declare a political party affiliation but may participate in the primary election of any party is called a(n)
An election in which voters select the person to represent the party in the general election by voting for the candidates on the ballot is called a(n)
A second election held in some states if no candidate in the primary election receives a majority of the votes is called a(n)
A primary in which only registered party members can vote in their party's election to choose the party's candidate or delegate is called a(n)
If an electoral system is known as a "first past the post" (FPTP) system, then a candidate must get a __________ of the votes to win.
In terms of electoral strategy, an air war is
The part of an election campaign conducted through broadcast media including radio, television, and the Internet.
In terms of electoral strategy, debates are
Important public face-offs between candidates discussing issues in a variety of formats and through a variety of media.
In terms of electoral strategy, a ground war is
The part of election campaigns conducted using "pavement pounding" methods including candidate public appearances, voter registration and mobilization, fundraising, and public opinion polling.
The financing of election campaigns by the American public through tax allocations as distinct from private fundraising by candidates is known as
Campaign activity devoted to undermining the public's confidence in and support for another candidate is known as
The voting-age population (VAP) is
All us residents 18 or older
The voting-eligible population (VEP) is ________ that still have voting rights.
All citizens 18 or older
How does the use of the voting-eligible population (VEP) to calculate voter turnout alter more traditional measures using voting-age population (VAP)?
VEP demonstrates that voter turnout is slightly higher than generally thought.
What is the purpose of nomination petitions?
To get an independent or third-party candidate included on a ballot.
How do general elections differ from primary elections?
General elections determine which candidate will obtain office.
The set of issues that government officials recognize require their attention is called a(n)
All possible legitimate issues that could be brought to the attention of the public and possibly policy makers are called a(n)
The set of issues that policymakers perceive as worthy of their attention is called a(n)
The set of issues that a government body formally resolves to address is called a(n)
Agenda setting is
The stage in the policy-making process in which certain issues reach a level of public concern that attracts the attention of government officials.
The stage in the policy-making process in which the policy is actually enacted.
policy implementation is
The stage in the policy-making process in which government actors and even private citizens carry out enacted policies.
The stage in the policy-making process in which government actors draft a solution to a problem that they have recognized merits their attention.
The stage in the policy-making process in which government actors and private citizens determine whether an implemented policy is achieving its intended effect.
Laws, rules, and programs that affect the relationship between the United States and other nations is known as
Laws, rules, and programs that directly affect people living in the United States are known as
Congressional oversight hearings best exemplify
The congressional appropriation of funds for a policy best exemplifies
The work done in congressional committees to amend a bill best exemplifies
Executive enforcement of congressional laws best exemplifies
Why is the House Rules Committee such an important committee?
It decides how a bill will be considered by the full House
What kind of material are members of Congress not allowed to send under the franking privilege?
A member of the president's staff who conducts daily briefings with members of the media is known as the:
What is needed to override a presidential veto?
A two-thirds vote in both chambers of Congress
Which department was largely responsible for discriminating against American Indians, particularly in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
If Congress does not adjourn within ten days of sending a bill to the president to be signed, and the president does not sign or veto the bill, it automatically:
Which president delivered the first televised State of the Union address?
What is the annual occasion in which the president speaks before Congress to suggest laws that Congress should pass?
The State of the Union address
Directives that the president issues to subordinates in the executive branch that have the force of law are known as:
Which of the following is least likely to be involved in deliberative meetings with the president?
Aside from the State of the Union address, what is another way the President attempts to influence legislative policy?
Presentation of the annual budget
In what way are SuperPACs singularly able to be extremely influential in presidential campaigns?
They are legally able to raise and spend unlimited funds, unlike campaigns
The period from 1968 through 2012 is understood as a period of:
A method for political parties to select their candidates for office whereby people vote in an election is referred to as:
An early political party that Thomas Jefferson formed to oppose the nationalist policies of John Adams and Alexander Hamilton was known as the:
Why did many states switch from caucuses to primaries?
To limit the control of party leaders in an election
During which election did many southern states support the Republican presidential candidate for the first time since Reconstruction?
Which political party was most successful for nearly 70 years following the Civil War?
Which president was the first to bring a significant number of African Americans into the Democratic Party?
Franklin D Roosevelt
Women tend to identify as __________ more than men do.
A statement a political party produces at its national convention that summarizes the basic policy principles of the party is known as a:
During the period between 1896 and 1933, Democrats largely supported:
all of the above
An election system in which each state is divided into geographical regions (districts), and each district is represented by a single representative, who wins by receiving the most votes even if it is not a majority is known as:
How many Electoral College votes are needed to secure the presidential office?
Tactics used by governments, groups, or individuals to decrease the likelihood of voter registration and turnout among specific groups are known as:
voter surpression techniques
Which group has seen a steady decrease in its share of the electorate from 2000 to 2012?
Party members elected or chosen on the state and local levels to support a particular candidate at the party's national convention are referred to as:
A law passed in 2002 to reform aspects of the voting process that failed in the 2000 presidential election and to increase voter education and turnout is called the:
Help America Vote Act
What is the most important factor in presidential elections?
Which group has traditionally had the highest registration and turnout rates?
When was the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act passed?
How many states have made Election Day a state holiday?
A law passed in 1993 that provides for voter registration by mail and in departments of motor vehicles (which is also called the "motor voter" act) is called the:
National Voter Registration Act
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