Criminalistics 12th Edition ENTIRE BOOK--Intro to Forensic Science FINAL EXAM

1: The application of science to law describes forensic ____
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1: The state of ___ is an excellent example of a geographical area in the United States that has created a system of integrated regional and satellite laboratories.California1: In contrast to the United States, Britain's Crime laboratory system is characterized by a national system of ___ laboratories.regional1: The increasing demand for ____ analyses has been the single most important factor in the recent expansion of crime laboratory services in the United States.drug1: Four important agencies offering forensic service at the federal level are ____, ___, ____ and ____.FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration Laboratories, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms & Explosives, and US Postal Inspection Service1: A decentralized system of crime laboratories currently exists in the United States under the auspices of various governmental agencies at the ___, ___, ____ and ___ levels of government.federal, county, state and municipal1: The application of chemistry, physics and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the ____ unite of a crime laboratory.physical science1: The examination of blood, hairs, fibers and vegetative materials is conducted in the ___ unit of a crime laboratory.biology1: The examination bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the ___ unit.firearms1: The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is a function belonging to the ___ unit.toxicology1: The ___ unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of a crime to retrieve evidence for laboratory examination.evidence-collection1: The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of ___.Frye v United States1: In the case of ____, the Supreme Court ruled that in assessing the admissibility of new and unique scientific tests that the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of "general acceptance."Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical Inc1: The U.S. Supreme court decision in Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael restricted the "gatekeeping role of a trial judge only to scientific testimony. TRUE OR FALSEFalse1: At a Florida case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide discretion that the trial judge has in matters of scientific inquiry is ____.Coppolino v State1: An ___ is one who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will assist the court in determining the truth of the matter at witness1: The expert witness's courtroom demeanor may play an important role in deciding what weight the court will assign to his or her testimony. TRUE OR FALSETrue1: The testimony of an expert witness incorporates his or her personal opinion relating to a matter he or she has either studied or examined. TRUE OR FALSEtrue1: The ability of the investigator to recognize and collect crime-scene evidence properly is dependent on the amount of ___ received from the crime laboratory.training1: When ____ sets in after death, the skin will appear as a dark blue or purple color in those areas closest to the ground.livor mortis1: One method for approximating the time of death is to determine body temperature. TRUE OR FALSETrue2: The term {blank} encompasses all objects that can establish or disprove whether a crime has been committed or can link a crime and its victims or its perpetrator.physical evidence2: T/F : Scientific evaluation of crime-scene evidence can usually overcome the results of a poorly conducted criminal investigation.False2: T/F : The techniques of physical evidence collection require a highly skilled individual who must specialize in this area of investigation.False2: All unauthorized personnel must be {blank} from crime scenes.excluded2: T/F : Failure to protect a crime scene properly, may result in the destruction of evidence.True2: The {blank} arriving on the scene of a crime is responsible for taking steps to preserve and protect the area to the greatest extent possible, and this person must rely on his or her training to deal with any violent or hazardous circumstances.first officer2: At a crime scene, first priority should be given to obtaining {blank} for individuals in need of it and attempting to minimize disturbances of evidence.medical assistance2: T/F : The boundaries of the crime scene, denoted by crime-scene tape, rope, or traffic cones, should encompass only the center of the scene where the crime occurred.False2: Even though no unauthorized personnel are admitted to the scene, an accurate {blank} must be kept of those who do enter and exit and the time that they do so.log2: T/F : The lead investigator will immediately proceed to gain an overview of the situation and develop a strategy for the systematic examination of the crime scene during the final survey.False2: Three methods for recording the crime scene are {blank}, {blank}, and {blank}.notes, photography, and sketches2: T/F : The note taking process begins with the call to a crime to report to a scene.True2: The crime scene notes should include a precise record of personnel movements in and out of the scene starting with the {blank}.interviewing2: T/F : Crime scene notes should be written from memory back at the lab.False2: Before located evidence is collected, it must be fully described in the investigator's {blank}.notes2: T/F : When an injured or deceased victim is present at the scene, the state of the body before being moved should be observed but not recorded.False2: The most important prerequisite for photography at a crime scene is to have it in an {blank} condition.unaltered2: Photographs of physical evidence must include overviews as well as {blank} to record the details of objects.close ups2: T/F : The value of a crime-scene photographs lies in their ability to show the layout of the scene, position of witnesses,True2: The most commonly used camera for crime-scene photography is the {blank} camera, which can be film or single lens reflex2: A digital camera captures light on a light-sensitive {blank}.microchip2: T/F : Each crime scene should be photographed as completely as possible in a logical succession, and the photographs should include the area in which the crime actually took place and all the adjacent area where important acts occurred.True2: The success of photographs taken at a crime scene is {blank} photographs first and {blank} photographs lastoverview; close up2: T/F : Overview photographs should include only points of entry and points of exit.False2: To ensure that their digital images will be admissible, many jurisdictions have developed or are developing {blank} for the use of digital photography to avoid the possibility of enhancement or doctoring of crime scene photographs.strict protocol2: The process of {blank} the crime scene essentially combines notes and photography.videotaping2: Unlike the rough sketch, the {blank} is constructed with care and concern for aesthetic appearance and must be drawn to sketch2: {Blank} programs provide an extensive symbol library and may create a 3D sketch .Computer aid drafting2: An investigator need only draw a {blank} sketch at the crime scene to show its dimensions and pertinent objects.rough2: A detailed search of the crime scene for physical evidence must be conducted in a {blank} manner.systematic2: The crime scene search is undertaken to locate {blank}.evidence2: T/F : The search patterns that may be used tot search a crime scene for evidence include the line pattern, grid pattern, polar coordinate pattern, and spiral pattern.True2: T/F : if the investigator does not recognize physical evidence or does not properly preserve it for laboratory examination, sophisticated laboratory instruments or technical expertise can salvage the situation and attain the desired results.False2: Besides the more obvious items of physical evidence, possible {blank} of trace evidence must be collected for detailed examination in the lab.carriers2: Whenever possible, trace evidence {is, is not} to be removed from the object that bears not2: Each item collected at the crime scene must placed in a {blank} container.different2: T/F : An ordinary mailing envelop is considered a good general-purpose evidence container.False2: An airtight container {is, is not} recommended packaging material for bloodstained not2: As a matter of routine, all items of clothing are to be {blank} before packaging.air dried2: T/F : Charred debris recovered from the scene of an arson is best placed in a porous container.False2: The possibility of future legal proceedings requires that a {blank} be established with respect to the possession and location of physical evidence.chain of custody2: Most physical evidence collected at the crime scene will require the accompanying submission of {blank} material for comparison purposes.reference sample2: In the case of Mincey v. Arizona, the Supreme Court restricted the practice of conducting a {blank} search at a homicide scene.warrantless2: In the case of Michigan v. Tyler, the Supreme Court dealt with the search and seizure procedures at an {blank} scene.arson3: The process of ___ determines a substance's physical or chemical identity with as near absolute certainty as existing analytical techniques will permit.Identification3: The number and type of tests needed to identify a substance must be sufficient to ___ all other substances from consideration.exclude3: A ___ analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a standard/reference specimen to the same tests and examination in order to determine whether they have a common origin.comparison3: ___ is the frequency of occurrence of an event.probability3: Evidence that can be traced to a common source with an extremely high degree of probability is said to possess __ characteristics.individual3: Evidence associated with a group and not with a single source is said to possess ___ characteristics.class3: True or false: On of the major deficiencies of forensic science is the inability of the examiner to assign exact or approximate probability values to the comparison of most class physical evidence. ___true3: The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to ___ events with data in a menner that is, as nearly as possible, free of human error and bias.corroborate3: The ___ accorded physical evidence during a trial is left entirely to the trier of fact.significance3: Although databases are consistently updated so that scientist can assign probabilities to class evidence, for the most part, forensic scientists, must rely on ___ when interpreting the significance of class physical evidence.personal experience3: The believability of___ accounts, confessions, and informant testimony can all be disputed, maligned, and subjected to severe attack and skepticism in the courtroom.eyewitness3: True or false: Physical evidence cannot be used to exclude or exonerate a person from suspicion of committing a crime.___False3: True or false: The distinction between individual and class evidence is always easy to make. ___(not answered)3: True or false: Given the potential weight of scientific evidence is a trial setting, failure to take proper safeguards may unfairly prejudice a case against the suspect. ___True3: Students studying forensic science must be cautioned that merely reading relevant textbooks and journals is no substitute for ___ in this most practical of sciences.experience3: Modern analytical techniques have become so sensitive that the forensic examiner must be aware of the ___ among materials when interpreting the significance of comparative data.variation3: True or false: A fingerprint can be positively identified through the IAFIS database. ___false3: A database applicable to DNA profiling is ____.(not answered)3: The ____ database allows firearm analysts to compare markings made by firearms on bullets that have been recovered from crime scenes.NIBIN3: The ___ database contains chemicals and color information pertaining to original automotive paints.PDQ4: [Blank] is the method used to support a likely sequence of events at a crime scene by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence and statements made by individuals involved with the incident.Crime Scene Reconstruction4: Reconstructing the circumstances of a crime scene is a team effort that may include the help of law enforcement personnel, medical examiners, and [blank].criminalists4: Violent contact between individuals at a crime scene frequently produce bleeding and results in the formation of [blank].blood stain patterns4: The proper interpretation of bloodstain patterns necessitates carefully planned [blank] using surface materials comparable to those found at the crime scene.control experiment4: Bloodstain patterns may convey to the analyst the location and movements of [blank] or [blank] during the commission of a crime.victims/suspects4: T/F : Harder and less porous surfaces result in less spatter, whereas rough surfaces result in stains with more spatter and serrated edges.True4: Generally, bloodstain diameter (increases, decreases) with height.increases4: The [blank] and [blank] of blood striking an object my be discerned by the stain's shape.direction of travel/angle of impact4: A drop of blood that strikes a surface at an angle of impact of approximately 90 degrees will be close to (elliptical, circular) in shape.circular4: The angle of impact of an individual bloodstain can be estimated using the ratio of [blank] divided by [blank].width of bloodstain/length of bloodstain4: [Blank} is the most common type of blood spatter found at a crime scene and is produced when an object forcefully contacts a source of blood,Impact spatter4: T/F : Forward spatter consists of the blood projected backward from the source, the back spatter is projected outward and away from the source.False4: The classification system of impact spatter is based on the size of drops resulting from the velocity of the blood drops produced, and patterns can be classified as [blank], [blank], or [blank] impact spatter.low, medium, or high velocity4: T/F : The velocity classification system is a good way to classify impact patterns and to determine the kind of force that produced them.False4: The [blank] is the point on a two-dimensional plane from which the drops originated.area of convergence4: The [blank] of a bloodstain pattern in a 3D space illustrates the position of the victim or suspect when the stain-producing event took place.area of origin4: The [blank] method is used at the crime scene to determine the area of origin.string4: A [blank] is created by contact between a bloody object and a surface.transfer of pattern4: Movement of a bloody object across a surface (lightens/darkens) as a pattern moves away from the point.lightens4: T/F : Footwear transfer patterns created by an individual who was running typically show imprints with more space between them compared to those of an individual who was walking.True4: T/F : The direction of a flow pattern may show movements of objects of bodies while the flow was still in process or after blood had dried.True4: The approximate drying time of a [blank] of blood determined by experimentation is related to the environment condition of the scene and may suggest how much time has elapsed since its deposition.pool4: The edges of a bloodstain generally [blank] within 50 seconds of deposition and are left intact even if the central area of a bloodstain is altered by a swiping motion.skeletonize4: A [blank] pattern commonly originates from repeated strikes from weapons or fists and is characterized by an arc pattern of separate drops showing directionality.cast off4: T/F : Characteristics of a cast-off pattern arc cannot give clues as to the kind of object that was used to produce the pattern.False4: When an injury is suffered to an artery, the pressure of the continuing pumping of blood projects blood out of the injured area in spurts creating a pattern known as [blank].arterial spray4: If a [blank] pattern is found at a scene, it may show movement, lead to a discarded weapon, or provide identification of the suspect by his or her own blood.drip tail4: A bloodstain pattern created by [blank] features bubbles of oxygen in the drying drops and may be lighter in color when compared to impact spatter.expirated blood4: The shape and size of the blank space, or [blank] created when an object blocks the deposition of spatter onto a surface and is then removed may give a clue as to the size and shape of the missing object or person.void4: T/F : Each bloodstain pattern found at a crime scene should be noted, studied, and photographed.True4: When documenting bloodstain patterns, the [blank] involves setting up a grid of squares of known dimensions over the entire pattern and taking overview, medium-range, and close up photographs with and without the grid.grid method4: T/F : The pointed end of a bloodstain always faced toward its direction of travel.True5: The titles of [blank] and [blank] are often used interchangeably, but there are significant differences in their job descriptions.coroner; medical examiner5: True or False: The medical examiner is an elected official and is not required to possess a medical degree.False5: Although both a coroner and a forensic pathologist are charged with investigating a suspicious death, only the [blank] is trained to perform an autopsy.Pathologist5: True or False: If it appears that a victim did not shoot himself or herself or anyone else, the victim's hands should not be swabbed.False5: The primary objective of the autopsy is to determine the [blank]Cause of Death5: True or False: The manner of death is defined as that which initiates the series of events ending in death.True5: A(n) [blank]-force injury can abrade and crush tissue.Blunt5: True or False: The outward appearance of the injuries will always match the injuries sustained inside the body.False5: Wounds on a victim's forearm may be [blank] wounds.Defensive5: True or False: A lack of any defense wounds can lead a pathologist to believe that the victim was either unconscious or somehow tied up during the assault.True5: Asphyxia encompasses a variety of conditions that involve interference with the intake of [blank]Oxygen5: True or False: Death at a fire scene is primarily caused by the extremely toxic gas carbon monoxide.True5: The protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen is known as [blank]Hemoglobin5: True or False: High levels of carbon monoxide must be present for a victim to become disoriented and lose consciousness.False5: True or False: Carbon monoxide will continue to build up in the body after death.False5: Carbon monoxide levels and the presence of soot can be used to determine whether the individual was [blank] at the tie of the fire.Breathing5: Victims of hangings often show signs of [blank] on the eyelids, cheeks, and forehead.Petechiae5: Petechiae are caused by the escaping of blood into the tissue as a result of [blank] bursting.Capillaries5: True or False: Petechiae are more common in hangings than strangulation deaths.False5: True or False: Typically the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage are not fractured in hanging cases.True5: True or False: For gunshot victims, the cause of death can be listed as a gunshot wound.True5: True or False: Because drug abuse is so common, the forensic pathologist will routinely test for the presence of drugs in nearly all investigations.True5: A(n) [blank] in its broadest definition is simply the examination of a body after death.Manner of Death5: True or False: There are two types of autopsies: a forensic/medicolegal autopsy and a clinical/hospital autopsy.True5: The autopsy consists of a(n) [blank] examination and a (n) [blank] examination.External; internal5: The discharge from a firearm will produce characteristic markings on the skin known as [blank].wound tracks5: True or False: X-ray examinations are most commonly performed in gunshot wound cases and stab wound cases.True5: Pulmonary [blank], or fluid accumulation in the lungs, is frequently found in victims of chronic cocaine and amphetamine abuse.Edema5: True or False: The liver can contain partially digested or dissolved pills.False5: True or False: The ideal location to take a blood sample is from the heart.False5: [blank] is the redistribution of drugs after death.Postmortem Redistribution5: True or False: General testing for poisons is not a routine procedure carried out by the pathologist.True5: A body that displays a cherry-red discoloration often leads a pathologist to suspect poisoning by [blank].Carbon Monoxide5: True or False: A pathologist can often give an exact time of death.False5: The process of the body's continually decreasing in temperature after death until it reaches the environmental temperature is known as [blank].Algor Mortis5: The process of the blood settling in parts of the body closest to the ground after death is known as [blank].Livor Mortis5: True or False: Different lividity patterns on a body may indicate that the body was moved after death but before livor mortis had fully fixed.True5: Levels of [blank] in the ocular fluid can help indicate the time of death.Potassium5: After death, two decomposition processes take place: [blank] and [blank].Autolysis; putrefaction5: The female bone structure differs from the male structure within the [blank] area because of a woman's child-bearing capabilities.Pelvis5: True or False: A definite identification of remains cannot be made through the analysis of the decedent's DNA profile, fingerprints, or medical records.True5: True or False: A site where human remains are found must be treated as a crime scene, and the site and surrounding area should be secured, searched, and carefully processed.True5: The field of [blank] takes advantage of the durable nature of bones over a long period of time to examine and identify human skeletal remains through a multitude of individual characteristics.Forensic Anthropology5: The study of insects and their relation to a criminal investigation, known as [blank], is commonly used to estimate the time of death when the circumstances surrounding the crime are unknown.Forensic Entomology5: By determining the oldest stage of fly found on the body and taking environmental factors into consideration, entomologists can approximate the [blank] interval.Postmortem5: True or False: Another method to determine PMI is by observing the schedule of arrival of different insects species on the body.True6: The first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by [blank].Alphonse Bertillon6: A system of identification relying on precise body measurements is known as [blank].anthropometry6: The fingerprint classification system used in most English-speaking countries was devised by [blank].Richard Henry6: True or False: The first systematic and official use of fingerprints for personal identification in the US was adopted by the New York City Civil Service Commission.True6: The individuality of a fingerprint (is, is not) determined by its not6: A point-by-point comparison of a fingerprint's [blank] must be demonstrated in order to prove identity.ridge characteristics/minutiae6: [Blank] are a reproduction of friction skin ridges.fingerprints6: The form and pattern of skin ridges are determined by the [epidermis, dermal papillae].dermal papillae6: A permanent scar forms in the skin only when an injury damages the [blank].dermal papillae6: Fingerprints [can, cannot] be changed during a person's lifetime.cannot6: The three general patterns into which fingerprints are divided are [blank], [blank], and [blank].loops, whorls, arches6: The most common fingerprint pattern is the [blank].loop6: Approximately 5% of the population has the [blank] fingerprint pattern.arch6: A loop pattern that opens toward the thumb is known as a(n) [radial, ulnar] loop.radial6: The pattern area of the loop is enclosed by two diverging ridges known as [blank].type lines6: The ridge point nearest the type-line divergence is known as the [blank].delta6: All loops must have [one, two] delta(s).one6: The approximate center of a loop pattern is called the [blank].core6: If an imaginary line drawn between the two deltas of a whorl pattern touches any of the spiral ridges, the pattern is classified as a [plain whorl, central pocket loop].plain whorl6: The simplest of all fingerprint patterns is the [blank].plain arch6: Arches [have, do not have] type lines, deltas, and not have6: ACE-V is an acronym for a four step process: [blank], [blank], [blank], and [blank].analysis, comparison, evaluate, verification6: True or False: Level 2 details cannot individualize a fingerprint.false6: The presence or absence of the [blank] pattern is used as a basis for determining the primary classification in the Henry system.whorl6: The largest category (25%) in the primary classification system is [1/1, 1/2]1/16: A fingerprint classification system [can, cannot] unequivocally identify an individual.cannot6: True or False: Computerized fingerprint search systems match prints by comparing the position of bifurcations and ridge endings.True6: A fingerprint left by a person with soiled or stained fingerprints is called a(n) [blank].visible fingerprints6: [Blank] fingerprints are impressions left on a soft material.plastic6: Fingerprint impressions that are not readily visible are called [blank].latent fingerprints6: Fingerprints on hard and nonabsorbent surfaces are best developed by the application of a(n) [blank].powder6: Fingerprints on porous surfaces are best developed with [blank] treatment.chemical6: [Blank] vapors chemically combine with fatty oils or residual water to visualize a fingerprint.iodine6: The chemical [blank] visualizes fingerprints by its reaction with amino acids.ninhydrin6: Chemical treatment with [blank] visualizes fingerprints on porous articles that may have been wet at one time.physical developer6: True or False: A latent fingerprint is first treated with Physical Developer followed by ninhydrin.false6: A chemical technique known as [blank] is used to develop latent prints on nonporous surfaces such as metal and plastic.super glue fuming6: [Blank] occurs when a substance absorbs light and reemits the light in wavelengths longer than the illuminating source.flourescence6: High-intensity light sources known as [blank] are effective in developing latent fingerprints.alternate light sources6: Once a fingerprint has been visualized, it must be preserved by [blank].photography6: The image produced from a digital file is composed of numerous square electronic dots called [blank].pixels6: A [high-pass filter, frequency Fourier transform analysis] is used to identify repetitive patterns such as lines or dots that interfere with the interpretation of a digitized fingerprint image.frequency Fourier transform analysis7: ____ is a cutting edge type of access control that accurately and efficiently identifies humans.biometrics7: The two main functions of biometrics are _____ and _____matching; identification7: One of the main causes of stolen accounts and information in computer systems is the use of weak ____passwords7: Many forms of biometric technology are avaialble today, but the majority of them can be split into two different groups. The first group is ______ biometrics, which contains fingerprints, hand, iris, retina and facial scans. The second group is _____ biometrics, which is much less stable and includes handwriting, voice, keystroke and gait recognition.physiological; behavioral7: _____ is the most commonly used type of physiological biometricfingerprints7: True or False: the manner in which an individual types on a keyboard is unique.true7: Which biometric refers to an individual's different posture, step length, speed and foot positioning in regards to the way they walk from one place to another?gait recognition7: 7: ______ is the most commonly used type of behavioral biometrics.handwriting7: _____ have been widely used to ID people for a centuryfingerprints7: True or False: A data preprocessing module is where extraction begins for a biometric systemFalse7: A second process known as the ____ module compares all collected files to the system's databasematching7: The first process that each biometric system must perform is _____enrollment7: True or False: the human iris will undergo significant changes during one's lifetimefalse7: True or False: due to the complicated nature of obtaining and analyzing retina scans, this technology is not easy to implement in the field.true7: the acronym NGI stands forNext generation identification7: the NGI system has replaced the _____ fingerprint systemIAFIS7: The NGI's _______ service sends notifications to agencies throughout the United States pertaining to criminal activity of individuals that have already been processed through the system at one point.RapBack7: Facial scans are (more, less) accurate than iris scansless7: Which government agency created and maintains the NGI system?FBI7: The _____ is the colored section in the eye around the pupiliris7: The iris begins to form at the ____ stage of pregnancy, where muscle fibers start to take shape and construct tight patterns.prenatal7: The ____ is composed of neural cells in the back of the eyeball that provide a "screen" for the cornea and lens to display an image on. The ___ is responsible for obtaining a clear picture of what a person is actually seeing.retina7: The near infrared wavelength band is located within the _____ nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum700-9007: Iris images are taken with normal visible wavelength pictures, as well as pictures in the ____ band.NIR7: The _____ program was developed by Dr. John Daugman for the analysis and verification of the human iris.IrisCode7: Currently, the number of IrisCodes being shared by law enforcement institutions with the FBI is ______?12,0007: The first documented attempt to identify someone using the iris was performed in the 1950s by British ophthalmologist _____J.H. Doggart7: A 2D Gabor wavelet filters the iris into multiple partitions known as _____phasors7: The United States Marine and Army use _____ iris biometric system to ID friend or foe on the battlefieldportable7: Matthew Turk and Alex Pentland used _____ to automate facial recognition in attempts to ID and authenticate individuals from a series of facesEigenfaces7: A significant advantage of automated facial recognition, as compared to the other different forms of biometrics, is that it does not require subjects to participate. Millions of people can be walking by a ____ each day without realizing that they are being scanned and identified.CCTV camera7: Hats, glasses, and facial hair can obstruct a _____ biometrics scanfacial recognition7: A facial recognition scan be tricked by a simple2D picture7: With the _______ method, an individual would be asked to stand a set distance from a normal digital camera and a high-definition photo is taken of the facefacial recognition7: To combat the obstacles that conflict with facial recognition software, various techniques have been developed to create an accurate verification/matching and ID process. All of these techniques can be placed under two categories: _______ and ______appearance-based; model-based7: Elastic Bunch Graph Matching is a _____ facial recognition programmodel-based7: True or False: Over 16 states are participating in the FBI's facial recognition programTrue7: The ____ system was implemented in 2014 to replace the existing fingerprint IAFIS databaseNGI7: The _____ is a NGI database containing 30 million front-facing photos of individuals with tenprints on fileInterstate Photo System (IPS)7: The _____ contains a NGI database of millions of palm prints to be used in criminal investigations and processesNational Palm Print System (NPPS)7: The NGI system utilized complex mathing algorithms that changed the fingerprint accuracy rating from ___ to ____ percent.90-92%7: The FBI has implemented the _______ system to quickly search a fingerprint database containing terrorists and other high-risk individualsRISC (Repository of Individuals of Special Concern)18: Any object that contains handwriting or typescript and whose source or authenticity is in doubt is referred to as a(n) ___.Questioned document18: Variations in mechanical, physical, and mental functions make it (likely, unlikely) that the writing of two different individuals can be distinguished.Likely18: In a problem involving the authorship of handwriting, all characteristics of both the ___ and ___ documents must be considered and compared.Known; questioned18: True or False: A single handwriting characteristic by itself can be taken as a basis for a positive comparison.False18: True or False: Normally, known writings need not contain words and combinations of letters present in the questioned document.False18: As the age difference between genuine and unknown specimens becomes greater, the standard tends to become (more, less) representative of the unknown.Less18: In the case of _________, the Supreme Court held handwriting to be nontestimonial evidence not protected by Fifth Amendment privileges.Gilbert v California18: When requested writing is being given by a suspect, care must be taken to minimize a(n) ___ writing effort.Concentrated18: Examination of a document under ___ or ___ lighting may reveal chemical erasures of words or numbers.UV; IR18: Some inks, when exposed to blue-green light, absorb ___ radiation and emit light.IR18: Handwriting containing inks of different chemical compositions may be distinguished by photography with ___ film.IR18: ___writings are partially visible impressions appearing on a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing was done.Indented18: Many ink dyes can be separated by the technique of ___ chromatography.Thin-layer19: Computer forensics involves the [blank], [blank], [blank], [blank], and [blank] of computer data.preservation, identification, extraction, acquiring, and interpreting19: T/F: Hardware comprises the physical components of the computer.True19: [Blank] is a set of instructions compiled into a program that performs a particular task.Software19: (ROM,RAM) chips store programs used to start the boot process.ROM19: The term used to describe the chassis, including the motherboard and any other internal components of a personal computer is, [blank].system unit19: T/F: The motherboard is a complex network of wires that carry data from one hardware device to another.True19: T/F: The first thing you should do when you encounter a computer system in a forensic investigation is to connect the power supply and boot the power system.False19: RAM is referred to as volatile memory because it is not [blank].permanent19: The brain of the computer is referred to as the [blank].central processing unit19: The [blank] is the primary component of storage in a personal computer.hard disk drive19: Personal computers typically communicate with each other through a [blank].network interface card19: The computer's [blank] permits the user to manage files and applications.operating system19: A hard drive's partitions are typically divided into [blank], [blank], [blank], and [blank].sectors, clusters, tracks, and cylinders19: A [blank] is a single one or zero in the binary system and the smallest term in the language of computers.bit19: A [blank] is a group of eight bits.byte19: A group of sectors, always units in multiples of two, is called a [blank].cluster19: An exact duplicate of the entire contents of a hard disk drive is known as a [blank].forensic image19: All data readily available to a computer user is known as [blank] data.visible19: A [blank] file is created when data is moved from RAM to the hard disk drive to conserve space,swap19: Most programs automatically save a copy of a file being worked on into a [blank] file.temporary19: The existence of [blank] data is why a forensic image of media is created.latent19: The smallest unit of addressable space on a hard disk drive is the [blank].sector19: The two types of slack space are [blank] slack and [blank] slack.RAM slack and file slack19: [Blank] slack is the area from the end of the data portion of the file to the end of the sector.RAM19: The portion of a disk that does not contain stored data is called [blank].unallocated space19: T/F: Defragmenting a hard disk drive involves moving noncontiguous data back together.True19: T/F: A portion of a "deleted" file may be found in a computer's unallocated space.True19: An [blank] takes the form of a series of numbers to route data to an appropriate location on the internet.IP address19: A user's hard disk drive will [blank] portions of web pages that have been visited.cache19: A [blank] is placed on a hard disk drive by a website to track certain information about its visitors.cookie19: E-mails have the [blank] address of the sender in the header portion of the mail.IP19: T/F: Chat and instant messages conducted over the internet are typically stored in RAM storage.True19: When investigating a hacking incident, investigators concentrate their efforts on three locations. What are they?log files, volatile memory, and network traffic19: Devices that permit only requested traffic to enter a computer system are known as [blank].firewalls19: A [blank] is a device that can prevent a mobile phone from communicating with a service provider.faraday shield19: T/F: Extracting and analyzing data from mobile devices is complicated because manufacturers of these devices store and manage data in a variety of ways.True20: Early mobile phone systems were followed by [blank] networks.digital20: T/F: The architectural functionality that distinguishes 2G from 3G is that 2G systems were circuit switched and 3G systems are packet switched.True20: T/F: One of the benefits of packet switching is the ability to connect more readily to the internet.True20: It's (easy, difficult) to stay current with the available mobile device models.difficult20: Apple has taken major steps to standardize the development of apps for its [blank] and [blank].iPad and iPhone20: Some devices and many apps report the [blank] of the device that can make it much easier to track the owner's movements.geograpahical location20: When working on a mobile device, the investigator has several sources of information available. Probably the most useful source of information available to an investigator is [blank].web searching20: An examiner should decide whether or not to obtain a [blank] extraction or [blank] extraction or both of a mobile device.physical or logical20: T/F: If the examiner has a device that supports physical extraction, that is the way to image the device. Logical extractions are useful only when the physical option is not available because of the device itself.True20: T/F: Logical extractions are bit-by-bit copies of the file system, including deleted data.False20: Examiners make it a practice to run an extracted image (once, twice).twice20: The [blank] extraction is fairly fast, and one may want to examine it for obvious evidence while a tool is making a physical image of the target.logical20: Just like computers, the [blank] defines the basic components of the mobile device.architecture20: [Blank] are storage expansion cards that many mobile devices can accept.Secure Digital Cards20: T/F: SD cards are nonvolatile, meaning that even if the power is turned off the device, you won't lose your music or photos.True20: In many cases a user can keep his or her subscriber information when changing mobile phones by simply switching the [blank] card to the new phone.SIM20: It is often desirable to [blank] the SIM in much the same way as one would take a physical image of the mobile device to a computer in order to retain a copt for evidentiary purposes.clone20: T/F: It's always possible to recover deleted file items such as e-mails, texts, and photos from a mobile device.False20: [Blank] describes the events and concomitant evidence that makeup the events of the crime.Chain of evidence20: [Blank] of evidence show events in the order in the time in which they occurred.Temporal20: [Blank] chains of evidence describe the events of a crime in terms of cause and effect.Causal20: [Blank] crime assessment attempts to tie elements of a crime together into a single crime scene and use the timelines to build a picture and describe the events and supporting evidence of the crime.Hybrid20: It is likely that the mobile device is extremely accurate as a yardstick for measuring when events happen, as the device may be synchronized to a [blank] clock.network20: When a mobile device is set to use [blank], it will recognize any [blank] network in its range.WiFi / WiFi20: T/F: Mobile device forensic analysis can provide an overlay to physical evidence and timelines, as well as computer forensic timelines, to give a clearer picture of the events preceding and following a crime event.TrueThe [blank] is the original part of the bore left after rifling grooves are formed.landsThe diameter of the gun barrel is know as its [blank].caliberT/F : The number of lands and grooves is a class characteristic of a barrel.TrueThe [blank] characteristics of a rifled barrel are formed by striations impressed into the barrel's surface.individualThe most important instrument for comparing bullets is the [blank].comparison microscopeTo make a match between a test bullet and a recovered bullet, the land and grooves of the test and evidence bullet must have identical widths, and the longitudinal [blank] on each must coincide.striationsT/F : It is always possible determine the make of a weapon by examining a bullet it fired.FalseA shotgun has a [blank] barrel.smoothThe diameter of a shotgun barrel is expressed by the term [blank].guageT/F : Shotgun pellets can be individualized to a single weapon.FalseT/F : A cartridge case can be individualized to a single weapon.TrueThe automated firearms search system developed by the FBI and ATF as a unified system of incorporating both drugfire and IBIS technologies available in prior years is known as [blank].NIBINT/F : The distribution of gunpowder particles and other discharge resides around a bullet hole permits an approximate determination of the distance from which the gun was fired.TrueT/F : Without the benefit of a weapon, an examiner can make an exact determination of firing distance.FalseA halo of vaporous lead (smoke) deposited around a bullet hole normally indicates a discharge [blank] to [blank] inches from the target.12/18If a firearm has been fired more than 3 feet from a target, usually no residue is deposited but a dark ring, know as a [blank], is observed.bullet wipeAs a rule of thumb, the spread in the pattern made by a 12-gauge shotgun increases 1in for every [blank] of distance from the target.yardA [blank] photograph may help visualize gunpowder deposits around a target.infraredT/F : One test method for locating powder residues involves transferring particles embedded on the target surface to chemically treated photographic paper.TrueCurrent methods for identifying a shooter rely on the detection of [blank] residues on the hands.gunpowder primerDetermining whether an individual has fired a weapon is done by measuring the elements [blank] and [blank] present on the hands.barium/antimonyT/F : Fringes with all types of ammunition can be detected by hand swabbings with nitric acid.FalseMicroscopic primer and gunpowder particles on the adhesives applied to a suspected shooter's hand can be found with a [blank].scanning detectionT/F : Restoration of serial numbers is possible because in the stamped zone the metal is placed under a permanent strain that extends beneath the original numbers.TrueT/F : It is proper to insert a pencil into the barrel when picking up a crime-scene gun.FalseRecovered bullets are initially on either the [blank] or [blank] of the bullet.base/noseT/F : Because minute traces of evidence such as paint and fibers may be adhering to a recovered bullet, the investigator must take care to remove these trace materials immediately.FalseT/F : Cartridge cases are best marked at the base of the shell.FalseThe clothing of the victim of a shooting must be handled so as to prevent disruption of [blank] around bullet holes.gunpowder residueA [blank] is any impression caused by a tool coming into contact with another object.tool markTool marks compare only when a sufficient number of [blank] match between the evidence and test markings.striationsObjects bearing tool marks should be submitted intact to the crime lab or a [blank] should be taken of the tool mark.castAn imprint may be lifted using lifting sheets or a [blank].electrostatic lifting deviceShoe and tire marks impressed into soft earth at a crime scene are best preserved by [blank] and [blank].photography/castingA wear pattern, cut, gouge, or other damage pattern can impart [blank] characteristics to a shoe.individualThe [blank] is the original part of the bore left after rifling grooves are formedLandsThe diameter of the gun barrel is known as itscaliberT/F : The number of lands and grooves is a class characteristic of a barrel.TrueThe [blank] characteristics of a rifled barrel are formed by striations impressed into the barrel's surfaceIdenticalThe most important instrument for comparing bullets is the [blank]Comparison MicroscopeTo make a match between a test bullet and a recovered bullet, the lands and grooves of the test and evidence bullet must have identical width and the longitudinal [blank] on each must collidestriationsT/F: It is always possible to determine the make of a weapon by examining a bullet it firedFalseA shot gun has a(n) [blank] barrelSmoothThe diameter of a shotgun barrel is expressed by the term_______GuageT/F: Shotgun pellets can be individualized to a single weapon.FalseT/F - A cartridge case can be individualized to a single weapon.TrueThe automated firearms search system developed by the FBI and ATF as a unified system incorporating both DRUGFIRE and IBIS technologies available in prior years is known as ___.NIBINT/F: The distribution of gunpowder particles and other discharge residues around a bullet hole permits an approximate determination of the distance from which the gun was fired.TrueT/F: Without the benefit of a weapon, an examiner can make an exact determination of firing distance.FalseA halo of vaporous lead (smoke) deposited around a bullet hole normally indicates a discharge ___ to ___ inches from the target.12 / 18If a firearm has been fired more than 3 feet from a target, usually no residue is deposited but a dark ring, known as ___, is observed.bullet-wipeAs a rule of thumb, the spread in the pattern made by a 12-gauge shotgun increases 1 inch for every _____ of distance from the target.yardA(n) ________ photograph may help visualize gun powder deposits around a targetInfraredT/F: One test method for locating powder residues involves transferring particles embedded on the target surface to chemically treated photographic paper.TrueCurrent methods for identifying a shooter rely on the detection of ______________ residues on the hands.Gun-powder residueIn determining whether an individual has fired a weapon is done by measuring the elements _______ and _______ present on their handsbarium / antimonyT/F: Firings with all types of ammunition can be detected by hand swabbings with nitric acid.FalseT/F: Restoration of serial numbers is possible because in the stamped zone the metal is placed under a permanent strain that extends beneath the original numbers.TrueT/F : It is proper to insert a pencil into the barrel when picking up a crime-scene gun.FalseRecovered bullets are initialed either on the ___________ or ___________ of the bullet.base / noseT/F : Because minute traces of evidence such as paint and fibers may be adhering to a recovered bullet, the investigator must take care to remove these trace materials immediately.FalseT/F: Cartridge cases are best marked at the base of the shell.FalseThe clothing of the victim of a shooting must be handled so as to prevent disruption of ____ around bullet holes.GSR: Gun shot residueA(n) ________ is any impressions cause by a tool coming into contact with another objecttool markTool marks compare only when a sufficient number of ____________ match between the evidence and test markings.StriationsObjects bearing tool marks should be submitted intact to the crime lab or a ____ should be taken of the tool mark.CastAn imprint may be lifted using lifting sheets or a(n) ____.Electrostatic lifting deviceShow and tire marks impressed into soft earth at a crime scene are best preserved by _______ and ________Photograph and castingA wear patter, cut, gouge, or other damage patter can impart _____ characteristics to a shoeIndividualType of Firearmshandguns and long gunsthree most common types of handgunssingleshot handguns, revolvers, and semiautomaticsborethe interior of a firearm barrelriflingThe spiral pattern of lands and grooves in the barrel of a firearmgroovesthe cut or low-lying portions between the lands in a rifled boreSacco and VanzettiIn 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairlyextractorthe mechanism in a firearm by which a cartridge of a fired case is withdrawn from the chamberejectorthe mechanism in a firearm that throws the cartridge or fired case from the firearmdistance determinationthe process of determining the distance between the firearm and a target, usually based on the distribution of powder patterns or the spread of a shot patternGreiss testA color test for the presence of nitrite in gunpowder residueAn interior constriction placed at or near the muzzle end of a shotgun's barrel to control shot dispersion.chokeIn areas where a bloody footwear impression is very faint or where the subject has tracked through blood and left a trail of bloody impressionschemical enhancement can visualize latent or nearly invisible blood impressionsWhen a weapon is recovered from an underwater location, no effort should be made to dry or clean it. Instead, the firearm should be transported to the laboratory in a receptacle containing enough of the same water to keep it submergedprocedure prevents rust from developing during transport.The most important consideration in handling a weapon is safety.first a record should be made of the weapon's hammer and safety position; likewise, the location of all fired and unfired ammunition in the weapon must be recorded.Serial numbers can be restored becausethe metal crystals in the stamped zone are placed under a permanent strain that extends a bit beneath the original numbersExaminers measure the amount of barium and antimony on the relevant portion of the suspect's handsdetermine whether a person has fired or handled a weapon or was near a discharged firearm.SEM testingAdhesive containing stubs is applied against the surface to be sampled by repeatedly dabbingRifling Methodsbutton striation mandrelbuttonimpressed with the desired number of grooves is forced under extremely high pressure through the barrel.mandrelis a rod of hardened steel machined so its form is the reverse impression of the rifling it is intended to produce.stirationrunning the length of the barrel's lands and grooves.matterAnything that has mass and occupies space is defined as ______.elementsThe basic building blocks of all substances are the _____.118The number of elements known today is ______.periodicAn arrangement of elements by similar chemical properties is accomplished in the _____ table.atomA(n) _____ is the smallest particle of an element that can exist.compoundsSubstances composed of two or more elements are called ______.moleculeA(n) ______ is the smallest unit of a compound formed by the union of two or more atoms.solidThe physical state that retains a definite shape and volume is a(n) ______.has noA gas (has, has no) definite shape or volume.sublimationDuring the process of _____, solids go directly to the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state.lessThe attraction forces between the molecules of a liquid are (greater, less) than those in a solid.phasesDifferent ______ are separated by definite visible boundaries.densityMass per unit volume defines the property of _____.floatIf an object is immersed in a liquid of greater density, it will (sink, float).refractionThe bending of a light wave because of a change in velocity is called _____.refractive indexThe physical property of _____ is determined by the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to light's velocity in a substance.trueTrue or false: Solids having an orderly arrangement of their constituent atoms are crystalline.amorphousSolids that have their atoms randomly arranged are said to be _____.BifringenceThe crystal calcite has 2 indices of refraction. The difference between these 2 values is known as ____.dispersionThe process of separating light into its component colors or frequencies is known as _____.trueTrue or false: Color is a usual indication that substances selectively absorb light.WavelengthThe distance between 2 successive identical points on a wave is known as _____.falseTrue or false: Frequency and wavelength are directly proportional to one another.electromagnetic spectrumLight, X-rays, and radio waves are all members of the ____ spectrum.lowerRed light is (higher, lower) in frequency than violet light.laserA beam of light that has all of its waves pulsating in unison is called a(n) _____.photonsOne model of light depicts it as consisting of energy particles known as _____.trueTrue or false: The energy of a light particle (photon) is directly proportional to its frequency.lessRed light is (more, less) energetic than violet light.glassA hard, brittle, amorphous substance composed mainly of silicon dioxide is ______.individualGlass that can be physically pieced together has _____ characteristics.density and refractive indexThe 2 most useful physical properties of glass for forensic comparisons are _____ and _____.false - it's boron oxideTrue or false: Automobile headlights and heat-resistant glass, such as Pyrex, are manufactured with lime oxide added to the oxide mix.tempered____ glass fragments into small squares or "dices" with little splintering when broken.laminated_____ glass gains added strength from a layer of plastic inserted between 2 pieces of ordinary window glass; it is used in automobile windshields.flotationComparing the relative densities of glass fragments is readily accomplished by a method known as _____.Becke lineWhen glass is immersed in a liquid of similar refractive index, its _____ disappears and minimum contrast between the glass and liquid is observed.frequency of occurrenceThe exact numerical density and refractive indices of glass can be correlated to ____ in order to assess the evidential value of the comparison.radialThe fracture lines radiating outward from a crack in glass are known as _____ fractures.narrowerA crater-shaped hole in glass is (narrower, wider) on the side where the projectile entered the glass.falseTrue or false: it is easy to determine from the size and shape of a hole in glass whether it was made by a bullet or some other projectile.falseTrue or false: stress marks on the edge of a radial crack are always perpendicular to the edge of the surface on which the impact force originated.willA fracture line (will, will not) terminate at an existing line fracture.concentricGlass fracture lines that encircle the hole in the glass are known as ____ fractures.oppositeWhen glass's elastic limit is exceeded, the first fractures develop into radial lines on the surface of the (same, opposite) side to that of the penetrating force.solidCollected glass fragment evidence should be packaged in _____ containers to avoid further breakage.paperGlass-containing shoes and/or clothing should be individually wrapped in _____ and transmitted to the laboratory.physicalA(n) _____ property describes the behavior of a substance without reference to any other substance.chemicalA(n) _____ property describes the behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance.metricThe _____ system of measurement was devised by the French Academy of Science in 1791.meter, gram, literThe basic units of measurement for length, mass and volume in the metric system are the _____, _______ and ______, respectively.1/100A centigram is equivalent to _____ gram(s).1/1000A milliliter is equivalent to _____ liter(s).2000.2 gram is equivalent to _____ milligram(s).milliliterOne cubic centimeter (cc) is equivalent to one _____.trueTrue or false: One meter is slightly longer than a yard.453.6The equivalent of 1 pound in grams is ____.trueTrue or false: A liter is slightly larger than a quart.temperature______ is a measure of a substance's heat intensity.180There are ______ degrees Farenheit between the freezing and boiling points of water.100There are _____ degrees Celsius between the freezing and boiling points of water.massThe amount of matter an object contains determines its _____.equal-arm balanceThe simplest type of balance for weighing is the _____.Windows on U.S. vehicles use laminated glass in the windshield and tempered glass for all other windows. The investigator knows the glass came from the rear or side windows.An accident investigator arrives at the scene of a hit and run collision. The driver who remained at the scene reports that the windshield or a side window of the car that struck him shattered on impact. The investigator searches the accident site and collects a large number of fragments of tempered glass. This is the only type of glass recovered from the scene. How can the glass evidence help the investigator locate the vehicle that fled the scene?B, A, CIndicate the order in which the bullet holes were made in the glass depicted in the accompanying figure. Explain the reason for your answer. (a) (b) (c)Radial: right Concentric: left 3R rule is used---radial cracks form first on side opposite to penetrating force (where bend shows) -concentric cracks form as force continues to place tension in front of surfaceThe accompanying figure depicts stress marks on the edge of a glass fracture caused by the application of force. If this is a radial fracture, from which side of the glass (left or right) was the force applied? From which side was force applied if it is a concentric fracture? Explain the reason for your answers.Refraction: bending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another Refractive index: ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to its speed in a given substanceDefine the terms refraction and refractive index.Crystalline solid: solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement -have 2 refractive indices: parallel and perpendicular polarized light Amorphous solid: solid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in random or disordered positions; there is no regular order -no birefringenceWhat is the difference between a crystalline solid and an amorphous solid? How does this difference affect the refractive index of each of these types of solid?Each color component of light, on passing thru the glass, is slowed to a speed slightly different from those of the others, causing each component to bend at a different angle as it emerges from the prismExplain how a prism disperses white light into its constituent colors.Intensive property: property that is not dependent on the size of an object 1) density 2) colorDefine intensive property and name 2 intensive properties of matter.Color is a visual indication that objects absorb certain portions of visible light and transmit or reflect others. Color of an opaque object can be determined by observing its ability to absorb some of the component colors of light while reflecting others back to the eye.What is color? What determines the color of an opaque object?1) describes light as a continuous wave 2) depicts light as a stream of discrete energy particles Together these two very different descriptions explain all of the observed properties of light.What 2 models do scientists use to explain the nature of light? Under what conditions does each model best describe the behavior of light?1) usually fragments are too minute 2) too fragmentaryList 2 factors that make it difficult for criminalists to compare glass samples.-Precise rapid method for comparing densities Standard reference sample is immersed in liquid composition is adjusted until glass chip remains suspended now they have the same densityDescribe the process of flotation and explain what it is used for.-A bright halo near the border of a particle that is immersed in a liquid with a different refractive index When the refractive index of the liquid is altered so it is the same as the glass sample immersed in it- becke line dissappearsWhat is the Becke line and how is it used to determine the refractive index of a glass sample?Fracture always terminates at existing line of fractureHow can an investigator determine the order in which several successive penetrations of a glass occurred?Hair is an appendage of the skin, growing out of an organ known as the follicleThe three layers of hair shaft are the __________, the __________, and the __________.cuticle, cortex, medullaThe main body of the hair shaft.cortexThe scale structure covering the exterior of the hair.cuticleThere are three basic patterns that describe the appearance of the cuticle: __________, __________, and __________.coronal, spinous, and imbricateThe coronal scale pattern resembles what?a stack of paper cupsThe spinous scale pattern are ________ in shape and protrude from the hair shaft.triangularThe imbricate scale pattern consists of overlapping scales with narrow margins and it resembles ___________.a crownAlthough the scale pattern is not a useful characteristic for individualizing human hair, the variety of patterns formed by animal hair makes it an important feature for __________ __________.species identificationThe scales of most animal hairs can be described as looking like shingles on a roof. T/FTrueThe scale pattern of hair's __________ can be observed by making a cast of its surface in clear nail polish or softened vinyl.surfaceThe __________ contains the pigment granules that impart color to hair.cortexThe central canal running through many hairs is known as the __________.medullaThe diameter of the medulla relative to the diameter of the hair shaft is the __________.medullary indexHuman hair generally has a medullary index of less than __________; the hair of most animals has an index of __________ or greater.1/3, 1/2Medullae may be classified as being __________, __________, __________, or __________.continuous, interrupted, fragmented, absentTrue or False: Human head hairs generally exhibit no medullae.TrueTrue or False: If a medulla exhibits a pattern, the hair is animal in origin.FalseMost animals have medullae that are either ____________ or ___________.continuous, interruptedTrue or False: Much of a hair's resistance and stability is attributed to the cuticle.TrueThe three stages of hair growth are the [blank], [blank], and [blank] phases.anagen, catagen, telogenTrue or False: Individual hairs can show variable morphological characteristics within a single individual.TrueIn making hair comparisons, it is best to view the hairs side by side under a(n) [blank] microscope.comparison[blank] hairs are short and curly, with wide variation in shaft diameter.pubicTrue or False: It is possible to estimate when hair was last bleached or dyed by microscopic examination.trueTrue or False: The age and sex of the individual from whom a hair sample has been taken can be determined through an examination of the hair's morphological features.falseThe __________ and other surrounding cells in the hair follicle provide the tools necessary to produce hair and continue its growth.rootTrue or false: The most common request is to determine whether or not hair recovered at the crime scene compares to hair removed from the suspect.trueOften, when hair is forcibly removed, a ___________ ________ may be present.follicular tagThis has proven to be a rich source of nuclear DNA associated with hair.a follicular tagMicroscopic hair comparisons must be regarded by police and courts as presumptive in nature, and all positive microscopic hair comparisons must be confirmed by [blank] typing.DNATrue or False: Currently, DNA typing can individualize a single hair.trueA(n) [blank] hair root is a likely candidate for DNA typing.anagenTrue or False: The onset of postmortem changes to the root portion of hair is only observed in anagenic and catagenic hairs.trueA minimum collection of [blank] full-length hairs normally ensures a representative sampling of head hair.25A minimum collection of [blank] full-length pubic hairs is recommended to cover the range of characteristics present in this region of the body.25The ultimate value of fibers as forensic evidence depends on the ability to narrow their [blank] to a limited number of sources or even to a single source.origin[blank] fibers are derived totally from animal or plant sources.naturalThe most prevalent natural plant fiber is [blank].cottonTrue or False: Regenerated fibers, such as rayon and acetate, are manufactured by chemically treating cellulose and passing it through a spinneret.trueFibers manufactured solely from synthetic chemicals are classified as [blank].synthetic fibersTrue or False: Polyester was the first synthetic fiber.False (Nylon was the first synthetic fiber.)True or False: A first step in the forensic examination of fibers is to compare color and diameter.trueThe microspectrophotometer employing [blank] light is a convenient way for analysts to compare the colors to fibers through spectral patterns.visibleThe microspectrophotometer employing [blank] light provides a rapid and reliable method for identifying the generic class of a single fiber.infraredNormally, fibers possess (individual, class) characteristics.classTrue or False: Statistical databases are available for determining the probability of a fiber's origin.falseA most useful physical property of fibers is that many ________ fibers exhibit double refraction or birefringence when viewed under a polarizing microscope.synthetic________ are composed of a large number of atoms arranged in repeating units.PolymersThe basic unit of the polymer is called the ________monomer__________ are polymers composed of thousands of amino acids linked in a highly organized arrangement and sequenceproteinsSynthetic fibers process the physical property of __________ because they are crystalline.birefringencePigment granules that impart hair with color are found in the:cortexHuman head hair usually exhibits no medulla or have fragmented ones. T/FTrueThe Visible-Light Microspectrophotometer provides a rapid and reliable method for identifying the generic class, and in some cases the generic sub-classes, of fibers. This basically produces or creates a "Fingerprint" of the fiber and results in the rapid determination of the generic class or sub-class. T/FFalseThe scale pattern of human hair is a useful characteristic to individualize human hair. T/FFalseWhich step in the examination of fibers would logically be taken first? A. Examination of dye composition using visible light microspectrophotometer B. Infrared spectrophotometry C. Make a cross sectional view of the fibers D. Microscopic examination for color and diameter of fibersD.At this point it is not yet possible to individualize a human hair to any single head or body through its morphology (color and structure), but partial success has been achieved by isolation and characterizing the DNA present in hair. T/FTrueThe most common request when hair is used as forensic evidence is to determine whether hair recovered at a crime scene compares to hair removed from the victim. T/FFalseWhich was the first man-made fiber? A. Nylon B. Rayon C. Polyester D. AcetateB. RayonNuclear DNA typing can be most successfully accomplished on hairs that have been removed during which stage of growth?Anagen phaseMicroscopic hair comparisons must be regarded by police and courts as: A. individualizing B. conclusive C. presumptive D. uselessPresumptive_______ _______, _______ _______, and _______ _______ are particularly important in hair identification.scale structure, medullary index, medullary shapeTrue or False: Underlying emotional factors are the primary motives leading to the repeated use of a drug.TrueDrugs such as alcohol, heroin, amphetamines, barbiturates and cocaine can lead to a (high, low) degree of psychological dependence with repeated use.HighThe development of (psychological, physical) dependence on a drug is shown by withdrawal symptoms such as convulsions when the user stops taking the drug.PhysicalTrue or false: Abuse of barbiturates can lead to a physical dependency.TrueTrue or false: Repeated use of LSD leads to physical dependency.FalsePhysical dependency develops only when the drug user adheres to a(n) _______ schedule of the drug intake.regularNarcotic drugs are _______ that ______ the central nervous system.Pain killers/analgesics, depress______ is a gummy, milky juice exuded through a cut made in the unripe pod of the opium poppy.OpiumThe primary constituent of opium is ________.morphine_______ is a chemical derivative of morphine made by reacting morphine with acetic anhydride.HeroinA legally manufactured drug that is chemically related to heroin and heavily abused is ______.OxyContin_______ is prescribed to a million patients for treatment of chronic pain.OxyContinTrue or false: Methadone is classified as a narcotic drug, even though it is not derived from opium or morphine.TrueDrugs that cause marked alterations in mood, attitude, thought processes, and perceptions, are called _______.hallucinogens__ is the sticky resin extracted from the marijuana plant.HanishThe active ingredient of marijuana largely responsible for its hallucinogenic properties is __.Tetrahydrocannabinol or THCTrue or false: The potency of a marijuana preparation depends on the proportion of the various plant parts in the mixture.TrueThe marijuana preparation with the highest THC content is ______liquid hanishLSD is a chemical derivative of _______, a chemical obtained from the ergot fungus that grows on certain grasses and grains.lysergic acidThe drug phencyclidine is often manufactured for the illicit-drug market in ________ laboratoriesclandestineAlcohol (stimulates, depresses) the central nervous systemdepresses_______ are called "downers" because they depress the central nervous system.barbituratesPhenobarbital is an example of a (short,long) acting barbiturate.shortT/F: Glue sniffing stimulates the central nervous system.True________ are a group of synthetic drugs that stimulate the central nervous system.AmphetaminesT/F: Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system depressant.False (It is actually a stimulant)_________ steroids are designed to promote muscle growth but have harmful side effects.AnabolicThe federal drug-control law is known asthe controlled substances actFederal law establishes _________ schedules of classification for the control of dangerous drugs.FiveDrugs that have no accepted medical use are placed in schedule ___.ISchedule ___ drugs have a high potential for abuse (and have no currently accepted medical use).IHeroin, marijuana, methaqualone, and LSD are all in Schedule ___.IDrugs that have medical use with severe restrictions are placed in schedule ___.IISchedule ___ drugs have a high potential for abuse (and have medical use with severe restrictions).IICocaine, PCP, and most amphetamine and barbiturate prescriptions are all in Schedule ___.IISchedule ___ drugs have less potential for abuse (and a currently accepted medical use).IIIAll barbiturate prescriptions not covered under Schedule II, such as codeine and anabolic steroids are placed in schedule ___.IIISchedule ____ drugs have a low potential for abuse and have a current medical use. (Librium and Valium)IVLibrium and Valium are listed in schedule ____.IVDarvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers such as diazepam (valium) and chlordiazepoxide (librium) are placed in schedule ____.IVSchedule ___ drugs must show low abuse potential and have medical use. (Opiate drug mixtures)VOpiate drug mixtures that contain nonnarcotic medicinal ingredients are listed in schedule ____.VA(n) _________ analysis describes the identity of a material, and a(n) ________ analysis relates to a determination of the quantity of a substance.qualitative, quantitativeT/F: Color tests are used to identify drugs conclusively.FalseThe _______ color test reagent turns _______ in the presence of heroin.Marquis, purpleThe ________ color test reagent turns ________ in the presence of amphetamines.Marquis, orange-brownThe __________ test is a valuable color test for marijuana.Duquenois-LevineThe ___________ color test reagent turns __________ in the presence of marijuana.Duquenois-Levine, purpleThe _______ test is a widely used color test for cocaine.ScottThe Scott color test reagent turns __________ in the presence of Dillie-Koppanyi test is a widely used color test for ___________.barbituratesThe ____________ color test reagent turns __________ in the presence of barbiturates.Dillie-Koppanyi, violet-blueThe Van Urk test is a widely used color test for ___________.LSDThe Van Urk color test reagent turns __________ in the presence of tests tentatively identify drugs by the size and shape of crystals formed when the drug is mixed with specific reagents.MicrocrystallineTypically ________ __________ or __________ __________ is used to specifically identify a drug substance.infrared spectrophotometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometryA mixture's components can be separated by the technique ofchromatographyA technique that uses a moving liquid phase and a stationary solid phase to separate mixtures isthin-layer chromatographyT/F: Thin-Layer chromatography yields the positive identification of a material.FalseBecause most chemical compounds are colorless, the final step of the thin-layer development usually requires that they be __________ by spraying with a chemical reagent.developedT/F: Color is a usual indication that substances selectively absorb light.TrueThe study of absorption of light by chemical substances is known as ________.spectrophotometryAn (ultraviolet, infared) absorption spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of a chemical substance.infaredThe gas chromatograph in combination with the _________ _______, can separate the components of a drug mixture and then unequivocally identify each substance present in the mixturemass spectrometerThe selective absorption of electromagnetic radiation by materials (can, cannot) be used as an aid for identification.canThe pattern of a(n) _________ absorption spectrum is unique for each drug and thus is a specific test for identification.infraredThe technique of ________ exposes molecules to a beam of high energy electrons in order to fragment them.mass spectrometryT/F: A mass spectrum is normally considered a specific means for identifying a chemical substance.TrueAll packages containing drugs must be marked for identification by the police officer before being sent to the laboratory in order to maintain the ________.chain of custodyThe spectrophotometer is the instrument used to measure and record the _______ spectrum of a ______ substance.absorption, chemicalThe (UV, IR) spectrum is more specific but not as simple.IRThe (UV, IR) spectrum is simpler but not always correct.UVT/F: Henry's law describes the distribution of a volatile chemical compound between its liquid and gas phasesTrueThe (higher, lower) a solubility of gas in a liquid, the greater its tendency to remain dissolved in that liquidhigherT/F: In order for chromatography to occur, one phase must move continuously in one direction over a stationary phase.TrueA technique that separates mixtures on the basis of their distribution between a stationary liquid phase and a moving gas phase is __________.Gas chromatographyThe distance a spot has traveled up a thin-layer plate can be assigned a numerical value known as the _______ valueRfThe _______ is the instrument used to measure and record the absorption spectrum of a chemical substancespectrophotometerDrugs deemed to have the highest potential for abuse and having a current medical use are listed in which schedule of the Controlled Substances Act?II (two)Heroin is a chemical derivative of:Morphine***Which is the most widely and abused drug? A. Marijuana B. Alcohol C. Cocaine D. HeroinB. AlcoholT/F: Anabolic Steroids are an example of a Schedule IV drug per the Controlled Substances Act.False (It is a Schedule III drug)Barbiturates are considered to be a: A. Stimulant B. Hallucinogen C. Narcotic D. DepressantD. DepressantT/F: Psychological dependence is defined as the need for a drug that has been brought by its regular use. Dependence is characterized by withdrawal sickness when administration of the drug is abruptly stopped.FalseT/F: Drugs deemed to show low abuse potential, have medical use in the US, and has less potential for producing dependence than Schedule IV drugs are listed in the Schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act.TrueWhich drugs accelerate muscle growth and promotes the development of secondary male characteristics? A. Club Drugs B. Analog Substances C. Anabolic Steroids D. Narcotic DrugsC. Anabolic steroidsWhich is the most widely used illicit drug in the US today?MarijuanaThe administration of which drug eliminates an addict's desire for heroin?MethadoneWhat is the percentage of evidence evaluated in the crime lab that is drug-related? A. 60% B. 25% C. 35% D. 75%D. 75%The most heavily abused drug in the Western world is [blank].ethyl alcohol (About 17,500 traffic deaths each year are attributed to alcohol intoxication.)T/F : Toxicologists are employed only by crime labs.False (They may also reach into hospital laboratories and health facilities to identify a drug overdoes or monitor the intake of drugs.)The amount of alcohol in the blood is (variable/indirectly/directly) proportional to concentration of alcohol in the brain.DirectlyAlcohol is a(n) (depressant/stimulant).DepressantAlcohol principally affects the ________ _______ ______, particularly the brain.central nervous system (Like any depressant, alcohol principally affects the central nervous system, particularly the brain.)T/F : Blood levels have become the accepted standard for relating alcohol intake to its effect on the body.trueAlcohol consumed on an empty stomach is absorbed (faster, slower) than an equivalent amount of alcohol taken when there is food in the stomach.fasterUnder normal drinking conditions, alcohol concentration in the blood peaks in [blank] to [blank] minutes.30 to 90 (Alcohol Absorption)When drinking on a full stomach the absorption time can be as long as _____ to _____ hours.2 to 4When all the alcohol has been absorbed, a maximum alcohol level is reached in the _______.BloodIn the post-absorption period, alcohol is distributed uniformly amount the [blank] portions of the body.watery (Alcohol Distribution)Alcohol is eliminated from the body by [blank] and [blank].oxidation, excretion95-98% of the alcohol consumed is [blank] to carbon dioxide and water.oxidizedOxidation of alcohol takes place almost entirely in the [blank].liverAbout _____% of the alcohol is excepted unchanged in the breath, urine, and perspiration.5%The amount of alcohol exhaled in the [blank] is directly proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the blood.breathAlcohol is eliminated from the blood at an average rate of [blank] percent w/v..015Alcohol is absorbed into the blood from the [blank] and [blank].stomach, small intestineMost modern breath testers use [blank] radiation to detect and measure alcohol in the breath.infrared (Breath testers that operate on the principle of infrared light absorption are becoming increasingly popular within the law enforcement community.)Who invented the Breathalyzer?R.F. Borkenstein (Robert F. Borkenstein)To avoid the possibility of "mouth alcohol" the operator of a breath tester must not allow the subject to take any foreign materials into the mouth for [blank] minutes before the test.15Alcohol can be separated from other volatiles in blood and quantitated by the technique of [blank].gas chromatography______ offers toxicologists the most widely used approach for determining alcohol levels in blood in forensic labs.Gas chromatographyRoadside breath testers that use a [blank] detector are becoming increasingly popular with the law enforcement community.fuel cell (Some breath testing devices also use FUEL CELLS, which converts alcohol to an electrical current.)T/F : Portable handheld roadside breath testers for alcohol provide evidential test results.false (A portable, handheld, roadside breath tester may be used to determine a preliminary breath-alcohol content. These testers use fuel-cell detectors and are not admissible in court proceedings as proof of intoxication.)Usually, when a person's blood-alcohol concentration is in the range of .10 percent, horizontal gaze nystagmus begins before the eyeball has moved [blank] degrees to the side.45Law enforcement officers typically use _________ to estimate a motorist's degree of physical impairment by alcohol and whether or not an evidential test for alcohol is justified.field sobriety testWhen drawing blood for alcohol testing, the suspect's skin must first be wiped with a [blank] disinfectant.non-alcoholic (It is important that a nonalcoholic disinfectant such as butadiene be applied before the suspect's skin is penetrated with a sterile needle or lancet.)Once blood is removed from an individual, its preservation is best ensured when it is sealed in a(n) ________ after a(n) ________ and a(n) ________ have been added and stored in a refrigerator.airtight container, anticoagulant, preservativeFailure to add a preservative, such as sodium fluoride, to blood removed from a living person may lead to a (decline, increase) in alcohol concentration.declineMost states have established [blank] percent w/v as the impairment limit for blood alcohol concentration..08In the case of [blank], the Supreme Court rules that taking non-testimonial evidence, such as a blood sample, did not violate a suspect's 5th Amendment rights.Schmerber v. CaliforniaIn the case of ________, the Supreme Court ruled that police should obtain a search warrant prior to the drawing of a person's blood for alcohol testing.Missouri v. McNeelyHeroin is changed upon entering the body into [blank].morphineThe body fluids [blank] and [bank] are both desirable for toxicological examination of a living person suspected of being under the influence of a drug.blood and urineA large number of drugs can be classified chemically as [blank] and [blank].acids and basesWater with pH value (less, greater) than 7 is basic.greaterBarbiturates are classified as [blank] drugs.acidDrugs extracted from body fluids and tissues by carefully controlling the [blank] of the medium in which the sample has been dissolved.pHThe technique of [blank] is based on specific drug antibody reactions.immunoassayBoth [blank] and [blank] tests must be be incorporated into the drug-testing protocol of toxicology laboratory to endure the correctness of the laboratories conclusions.screening, confirmationThe gas [blank] combines with hemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin, thus interfering with the transportation of oxygen to the blood.carbon monoxideThe amount of carbon monoxide in blood is usually expressed as [blank].percentage saturationT/F : Blood levels of drugs can be used to draw definitive conclusions about the effects of a drug on an individual.FalseInteraction of alcohol and barbiturates in the body can produce a [blank] effect.synergisticUrine and blood drugs levels are best used by law enforcement authorities and the courts to [blank] other investigative and medical findings pertaining to an individual's condition.corroborateThe [blank] program incorporates standardized methods for examining suspects to determine whether they have taken one or more drugs.DREA(n) ________ carries blood away from the heart: A(n) _________ carries blood back to the heart.artery, veinThe ________ artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungspulmonaryAlcohol passes from the blood capillaries into the _________ sacs in the lungsalveoliOne milliliter of blood contains the same amount of alcohol as approximately _________ milliliters of alveolar breath2,100When alcohol is being absorbed into the blood the alcohol concentration in venous blood is (higher, lower) than in the arterial bloodlowerT/F: Field sobriety or preliminary tests are normally performed to ascertain the degree of the suspect's physical impairment and whether a evidential test is justified. This is referring to the use of alcohol.TrueA substance with a pH of 3 is like to be: A. Water B. Acidic C. Basic D. NeutralB. AcidicT/F: The implied-consent laws have been established to try to prevent a person's refusal to take a test for alcohol intoxication on the constitutional grounds of self-incrimination. These laws carry with it the stipulation that if an individual refuses to submit to a test for alcohol intoxication then their operator's license will be suspended for a period of time established by law.TrueT/F: The most widespread method for rapidly determining alcohol intoxication is breath testing.TrueIn forensic toxicology, all postive drug findings must be confirmed by a specific chemical test. The confirmation test of choice is: A. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry B. Gas Chromatography C. Infrared spectrophotometry D. Ultraviolet spectrophotometryA. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometryT/F: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is generally accepted as the confirmation test of choice.TrueAlcohol is oxidized in the body primarily in:the liverThe metabolism of alcohol consists of three basic steps. Which is not one of those three steps? A. Absorption B. Distribution C. Oxidation D. EliminationC. oxidationT/F: Most alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream via the liver.False (Most alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream via the stomach and the small intestine.)Which is NOT a widely used screening tool or test in the toxicology lab? A. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) B. Immunoassay C. Gas Chromatography (GC) D. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)A. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)The DRE program incorporates standardized methods for examining suspects to determine: A. Whether they are under the influence of one or more drugs. B. Whether they are transporting any illegal substances. C. Whether they are involved in the buying or selling of drugs. D. Whether they have ever taken one or more drugs.A. Whether they are under the influence of one or more drugs.A breath test may be used to analyze: A. Barbiturates B. Ethyl alcohol C. Marijuana D. AmphetaminesB. Ethyl alcoholT/F: A confirmation test gives quick inside into the likelihood that a specimen contains a drug substance while a screening test identifies a specific drug.False (A SCREENING TEST gives quick inside into the likelihood that a specimen contains a drug substance while a CONFIRMATION TEST identifies a specific drug.)The most widely used screening tests are:gas chromatography and immunoassayThe presence of _____ elements in materials provides useful "invisible" markers when comparing physical evidence.traceThe proton and electron (are, are not) of appropriate equal mass.are notA proton imparts the nucleus of an atom with a _____ charge.positiveThe number of protons (is, is not) always equal to the number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus of an notEach atom of the same element always has the same number of _____ in its nucleus.protonsThe number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the ______.Atomic NumberThe knowledge that elements selectively _____ and_____ light provides the basis for important analytical techniques designed to detect the presence of elements in materials.absorb , emitA(n)_____ is a display of colors or frequencies emitted from a light source.emission spectrumTrue or False: A continuous spectrum consists of a blending of colors._______trueA(n) _______ spectrum shows distinct frequencies or wavelengths of light.lineA line spectrum of an element (is, is not) characteristic of the element.isThree important subatomic particles of the atom are the __________, ____________, and_________.protons, neutrons, electronsThe total number of protons and neutrons present in a nucleus is known as the _____.atomic massAtoms differing only in the number of neutrons present in their nuclei are called _____.IsotopesTrue or false: Deuterium has the greatest number of protons of all the isotopes of hydrogen.False (# of protons are the in isotopes)Radioactivity is composed of the following emissions: ______, _____, and _______.alpha particle, beta particle, and gamma raysBeta particles are identical to ______.electronsElectromagnetic waves similar to X-rays but of a higher energy are ______.gamma raysA nuclear reactor is the source of _____.neutronsThe technique of bombarding specimens with neutrons and measuring the resultant gamma rays emission is known as _____.neutron activation analysisThe 2 most important components of dried paint from the criminalist POV are the _______ and the _______.pigments, binderThe most important physical property of paint in a forensic comparison is ______.layer structurePaint can be individualized to a single source only when they can have a sufficiently detailed _____.layer structureThe ______ layer provides corrosion resistant for the automobile.electrocoat"Eye appeal" of the automobile comes from the _____ layer.basecoatPyrolysis gas chromatography is a particularly valuable technique for characterizing paint's (binder, pigments).binderTrue or False: Emission spectroscopy can be used to identify the components of paint pigments.trueTrue or False: Paint samples removed for examination must always include all of the paint layers .trueTrue or False: Most soils have indistinguishable colors and textures.false (distinguishable)Naturally occurring crystals commonly founding found in soils are ______.mineralsTrue or False: The ultimate value of soil as evidence depends on its variation at the crime scene.trueTo develop an idea of the soil variation within the crime scene area standard/reference soil should be collected at various intervals within a(n) ______ foot radius of the crime scene.100True or False: Each object collected at the crime scene that contains soil evidence must be individually wrapped in plastic, with the soil intact, and transmitted in the lab.false (paper not plastic)Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be classified by its [blank].typeT/F: No two individuals, except for identical twins, can be expected to have the same combination of blood types or antigens.True[Blank] is the fluid portion of unclotted blood.PlasmaThe liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed is called the [blank].serum[Blank] transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs.Red blood cellsOn the surface of red blood cells are chemical substances called [blank], which impart blood type characteristics to the cell.antigens (Antigens are located on the red blood cells and are responsible for blood-type characteristics)Type A individuals have [blank] antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.AType O individuals have (both A and B, neither A nor B) antigens on their red blood cells.neither A nor BThe presence or absence of the [blank] and [blank] antigens on the red blood cells determines a person's blood type in the A-B-O system.A and BThe D antigen is also known as the [blank] antigen.RhSerum contains proteins known as [blank], which destroy or inactivate antigens.antibodiesAn antibody reacts with (any, only a specific) antigen.only a specificT/F: Agglutination describes the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.TrueType B blood contains [blank] antigens and anti-[blank] antibodies.B / AType AB has (both anti-A and anti-B, neither anti-A nor anti-B) antigens.neither anti-A nor anti-BA drug-protein complex can be injected into an animal to form specific [blank] for that drug.antibodyThe term [blank] describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions.serologyType AB red blood (is, is not) agglutinated by both anti-A and anti-B serum.isType B red blood cells agglutinate when added to type (A,B) blood.AType A red blood cells agglutinate when added to type (AB,O) blood.OThe distribution of type A blood in the US is approximately (42, 15) percent.42 (43% - type O, 42% - type A, 12% - type B, 3% - type AB.)The distribution of type AB blood in the US is approximately (12, 3) percent.3 (43% - type O, 42% - type A, 12% - type B, 3% - type AB.)(All, Most) blood hemoglobin has peroxidase-like activity.AllFor many years, the most commonly used color test for identifying blood was the [blank] color test.Benzidine[Blank] reagent reacts with blood, causing it to luminesce.LuminolBlood can be characterized as being of human origin by the [blank] test.precipitin (Once the stain has been characterized as blood, the precipitin test will determine whether the stain is of human or animal origin.)Antigens and antibodies (can, cannot) be induced to move toward each other under the influence of an electrical field.canThe basic unit of heredity is the [blank].geneGenes are positioned on threadlike bodied called [blank].chromosomes (A chromosome is a threadlike structure in the cell nucleus along which the genes are located.)All nucleated cells in the human body, except the reproductive cells, have [blank] pairs of chromosomes23The sex of an offspring is always determined by the (mother, father).fatherGenes that influence given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair are known as [blank].alleles (An allele is any of several alternative forms of genes at a particular locus and that are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair.)The [blank] color test is used to locate and characterize seminal stains.acid phosphatase (The best way to locate and at the same time characterize a seminal stain is to perform the acid phosphatase (an enzyme secreted into seminal fluid) color test.)Semen is unequivocally identified by the microscopic appearance of [blank].spermatozoa (Semen can be specifically identified by the presence of spermatozoa, or tentatively identified by p30, a protein present in seminal plasma.)Males with a low sperm count have a condition known as (oligospermia, aspermia).oligospermiaThe protein [blank] is useful for the characterization of semen.P30/PSA (Semen can be specifically identified by the presence of spermatozoa, or tentatively identified by p30, a protein present in seminal plasma.)T/F: DNA may be transferred to an object through the medium of perspiration.TrueT/F: Seminal constituents may remain in the vagina for up to six days after intercourse.TrueT/F: The reaction of luminol with blood results in the production of light rather than color.True (Produces light (luminescence) in a darkened area.)Which of the following are not contained in plasma? A. Leukocytes B. Erythrocytes C. Phagocytes D. PlateletsC. Phagocytes (Red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets are the solid materials suspended in plasma.)A gene pair made up of two similar alleles - for example, AA and BB - is said to be: A. Monoclonal B. Heterozygous C. Homozygous D. ComplementaryC. Homozygous (A heterozygous gene pair is made up of two different alleles; a homozygous gene pair is made up of two similar alleles.)The clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody is known as:AgglutinationThe sensitivity of the Takayama and Teichmann crystal tests for the identification of bloodstains is _______ sensitivity of the Kastle-Meyer color test for bloodstain identification.Less thanTo determine whether a bloodstain is of human or animal origin, the serologist will perform:a precipitin test (Once the stain has been characterized as blood, the precipitin test will determine whether the stain is of human or animal origin.)Luminol can be used at crime scenes to: A. Detect traces of blood without compromising potential DNA typing. B. Light up the crime scene with a high degree of illumination. C. Make hair evidence fluoresce. D. Locate latent prints that otherwise would be overlooked.A. Detect traces of blood without compromising potential DNA typing.T/F: Chromosomes are the fundamental units of heredity.False (Genes are the fundamental units of heredity. A chromosome is a threadlike structure in the cell nucleus along which the genes are located.)Acid-phosphatase is a major constituent of:semenA stain can tentatively be identified as blood by: A. The benzidine test B. The phenolphthalein test C. The luminol test D. All of the aboveD. All of the above (A positive result from the Kastle-Meyer color test, in which the chemical phenolphthalein is used, is highly indicative of blood.)Which of the following is not classified as a heavy metal? A. Thallium B. Arsenic C. Mercury D. LeadD. LeadIn the United States, the rarest blood type is:AB (3% type AB)A (phenotype, genotype) is an observable characteristic of an individual.phenotypeThe combination of genes present in the cells of an individual is called the __________.genotypeA gene (will, will not) appear in a child when it is present in one of the parents.willPlasma is composed principally of _________ and accounts for ________ percent of blood content.water, 55________ _______ _______ (erythrocytes), ________ ________ _______ (leukocytes), and ___________ are the solid materials in plasma; makes up the other _______ percent of blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, 45Molecules that carry genetic info:DNAPlasma accounts for ___% of blood content55Erythrocytes are:red blood cellsLeukocytes are:white blood cellsAntigens are responsible for:blood type characteristicsType A blood has only anti-_______ and no anti-_______.B, A (In other words, Type A blood has only antibodies-B and no antibodies-A.)Type B blood has only anti-_______ and no anti-_______.A, BType AB blood has (neither/both) anti-A nor/or anti-B.neitherType O blood has (neither/both) anti-A nor/or anti-B.bothEMIT is used by toxicologists because of its _________ and _________ ___________ for detecting drugs in urine.speed, high sensitivityWhat does EMIT stand for?enzyme-multiplied immunoassay techniqueOnce the stain has been characterized as blood, what is the next step?determining whether the stain is human or animalWhat are two blood origin tests?precipitin test, gel diffusion testThe position a gene occupies on a chromosome is called a:locusWhen performing the acid phosphatase on a seminal stain, what color indicates acid phosphatase enzyme?purple_____ and ____ can cause a false positive for a Kastle-Meyer color test.horseradish, potatoes(Luminol/Bluestar) is more sensitive but it needs a completely dark room to work.Luminol(Luminol/Bluestar) does not need a dark room to work however it isn't as sensitive.BluestarFill in this chart The Composition Makeup of Semen: (Percentage; What is in it ; Where it comes from) ___-___% ; _______________ ; _________ ___-___% ; _______________ ; _________ ___-___% ; _______________ ; _________ ___-___% ; _______________ ; _________60-70% ; fructose-rich fluid ; seminal vesicles 25-30% ; enzymes, citric acid, lipids, acid phosphates ; prostate glands 2-5% ; sperm ; testes 1% ; clear seminal fluid ; bulbourethral glandsGENETHE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF HEREDITY IS THE_______________DNAEACH GENE IS ACTUALLY COMPOSED OF________,SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED TO CARRY OUT A SINGLE BODY FUNCTIONPOLYMERA(N)_________IS A VERY LARGE MOLECULE MADE BY LINKING A SERIES OF REPEATING UNITSNUCLEOTIDEA(N)____________IS COMPOSED OF A SUGAR MOLECULE, A PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING GROUP, AND A NITROGEN-CONTAINING MOLECULE CALLED A BASEBASESDNA IS ACTUALLY A VERY LARGE MOLECULE MADE BY LINKING A SERIES OF___________TO FORM A NATURAL POLYMERFOURDIFFERENT BASES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MAKEUP OF DNADOUBLE HELIXWATSON AND CRICK DEMONSTRATED THAT DNA IS COMPOSED OF TWO STRANDS COILED INTO THE SHAPE OF A(N)______________.T AND CTHE STRUCTURE OF DNA REQUIRES THE PAIRING OF BASE A TO________AND BASE G TO_______.C A G TTHE BASE SEQUENCE T-G-C-A CAN BE PAIRED WITH THE BASE SEQUENCE_________IN A DOUBLE HELIX STRUCTUREPROTEINSTHE INHERITABLE TRAITS THAT ARE CONTROLLED BY DNA ARISE OUT OF DNA'S ABILITY TO DIRECT THE PRODUCTION OF_____________.PROTEINS______________ARE DERIVED FROM A COMBINATION OF A UP TO 20 KNOWN AMINO ACIDSPROTEINTHE PRODUCTION OF AN AMINO ACID IS CONTROLLED BY A SEQUENCE___________BASES ON THE DNA MOLECULETRUET OR F: ENZYMES KNOWN AS DNA POLYMERASE ASSEMBLE NEW DNA STRANDS INTO A PROPER BASE SEQUENCE DURING REPLICATIONFALSET OR F: DNA CAN BE COPIED OUTSIDE A LIVING CELL._________TRUETRUE OR FALSE: ALL OF THE LETTER SEQUENCES IN DNA CODE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PROTEINSTWOIN STR DNA TYPING, A TYPICAL DNA PATTERN SHOWS (TWO, THREE) BANDS.TRUETRUE OR FALSE: SPECIMENS AMENABLE TO DNA TYPING ARE BLOOD,SEMEN,BODY TISSUES, AND HAIR________.SHORT TANDEM REPEATSHORT DNA SEGMENTS CONTAINING REPEATING SEQUENCES OF THREE TO SEVEN BASES ARE CALLED___________FALSETRUE OR FALSE: THE LONGER THE DNA STRAND, THE LESS SUSCEPTIBLE IT IS TO DEGRADATIONPCRTHE SHORT LENGTH OF STR'S ALLOW THEM TO BE REPLICATED BY____________.STR'SUSED AS MARKERS FOR IDENTIFICATION PURPOSES,___________ARE LOCATIONS ON THE CHROMOSOME THAT CONTAIN SHORT SEQUENCES THAT REPEAT THEMSELVES WITHIN THE DNA MOLECULE AND IN GREAT ABUNDANCE THROUGHOUT THE HUMAN GENOMECODIS(CODIS,AFIS) MAINTAINS LOCAL, STATE, AND NATIONAL DATABASES OF DNA PROFILES FROM CONVICTED OFFENDERS, UNSOLVED CRIME-SCENE EVIDENCE, AND PROFILES OF MISSING PEOPLE18AMAZINGLY, THE SENSITIVITY OF STR PROFILING REQUIRES___________DNA-BEARING CELLS TO OBTAIN AN STR PROFILEINFECTIOUSDURING EVIDENCE COLLECTION, ALL BODY FLUIDS MUST BE ASSUMED TO BE________AND HANDLED WITH LATEX GLOVED HANDSMULTIPLEXINGTHE CONCEPT OF (CODIS, MULTIPLEXING) INVOLVES SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MORE THAN ONE DNA MARKER.MALE,FEMALETHE AMELOGENIN GENE SHOWS TWO BANDS FOR A (MALE,FEMALE) AND ONE BAND FOR A (MALE,FEMALE)MALEY-STR TYPING IS USEFUL WHEN ONE IS CONFRONTED WITH A DNA MIXTURE CONTAINING MORE THAN ONE (MALE,FEMALE) CONTRIBUTORMOTHERMITOCHONDRIAL DNA IS INHERITED FROM THE (MOTHER,FATHER).TRUETRUE OR FALSE: MITOCHONDRIAL DNA IS MORE PLENTIFUL IN THE HUMAN CELL THAN IS NUCLEAR DNA13THE NATIONAL DNA DATABASE IN THE UNITED STATES HAS STANDARDIZED ON____________STR'S FOR ENTRY INTO THE DATABASEFALSET OR F: Y-STR DATA IS NORMALLY ENTERED INTO THE CODIS DATABASE COLLECTIONDRYSMALL AMOUNTS OF BLOOD ARE BEST SUBMITTED TO A CRIME LABORATORY IN A (WET,DRY) CONDTIONFALSET OR F: AIRTIGHT PACKAGES MAKE THE BEST CONTAINERS FOR BLOOD CONTAINING EVIDENCEEDTAWHOLE FOOD COLLECTED FOR DNA-TYPING PURPOSES MUST BE PLACED IN A VACUUM CONTAINING THE PRESERVATIVE2FROM A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL SHOWS A (ONE, TWO, THREE)-BAND PATTERNFalseThe absence of chemical residues always rules out the possibility of arson.OxidationThe combination of oxygen with other substances to produce new chemical products is called ________.FalseAll oxidation reactions produce noticeable quantities of heat and light.Energy__________ is the capacity for doing work.Chemical; mechanicalBurning methane for the purpose of heating water to produce steam in order to drive a turbine is an example of converting ________ energy to ________ energy.Breaking; formationThe quantity of heat evolved from a chemical reaction arises out of the ________ and ________ of chemical bonds.Absorb; liberateMolecules must _________ energy to break their bonds and _______ energy when their bonds are reformed.LiberateAll oxidation reactions _______ heat.ExothermicReactions that liberate heat are said to be __________.Heat of combustionExcess heat energy liberated by an oxidation reaction is called the ________.EndothermicA chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed from the surroundings is said to be ________.FalseAll reactions require an energy input to start them.IgnitionThe minimum temperature at which a fuel burns is known as the _______ temperature.GaseousA fuel achieves a sufficient reaction rate with oxygen to produce a flame only in the ________ state.Flash pointThe lowest temperature at which a liquid fuel produces enough vapor to burn is the ________.Pyrolysis________ is the chemical breakdown of a solid material to gaseous products .Glowing combustion_______ is a phenomenon in which fuel burns without presence of a flame.IncreasesThe rate of a chemical reaction ________ as the temperature rises.Spontaneous combustion______ describes a fire caused by a natural heat-producing process.TrueAn immediate search of a fire scene can commence without obtaining a search warrant.OriginA search of a fire scene must focus on finding the fire's __________.TrueThe probable origin of a fire is most likely closest to the lower point that shows the most intense characteristic of burning.PorousThe collection of debris at the origin of a fire should include all ________ materials.Airtight_______ containers must be used to package all materials suspected of containing hydrocarbon residues.Gas chromatographThe most sensitive and reliable instrument for detecting and characterizing flammable residues is the _____________.PatternThe identity of a volatile petroleum residue is determined by the _______ of its gas chromatogram.TrueThe major advantage of using the vapor concentration technique in combination with gas chromatography is its extreme sensitivity for detecting volatile residues from fire-scene evidence.TrueA forensic analyst typically compares gas chromatographic pattern generated from a fire-scene sample to a library of patterns in order to identify the accelerant.CannotThe criminalist _______ identify gasoline residues by brand names.ExplosionRapid combustion accompanied by the creation of large volumes of gases describes an ________.TrueChemicals that supply oxygen are known as oxidizing agents.LowExplosives that decompose at relatively slow rates are classified as _______ explosives.DeflagrationThe speed at which low explosives decompose is called the speed of _______.Potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfurThe three ingredients of black powder are ________, ______, and _________.High________ explosives detonate almost instantaneously to produce a smashing or shattering effect.Black powder; smokeless powderThe most widely used low explosives are ________ and ________.ConfinedA low explosive becomes explosive and lethal only when it is _______.FalseAir and gaseous fuel burn when mixed in any proportions.Primary; secondaryHigh explosives can be classified as either ________ or _________ explosives.RDXThe most widely used explosive in the military is _________.PETNThe explosive core in detonating cord is ________.PrimaryA high explosive is normally detonated by a _________ explosive contained within a blasting cap.CraterAn obvious characteristic of a high explosive is the presence of a ________ at the origin of the blast.TrueDebris and articles at an explosion scene that are collected from different areas are to be packaged in separate airtight containers.HeatA fire moves away from the original point of ignition because the ________ created by the combustion process tends to move from a high-temperature region to one at a lower temperature.ConductionElectrons and atoms within a solid object exposed to heat collide with one another, causing movement of heat through the object in a process called _________.RadiationIn a process known as _________, a heated surface emits electromagnetic radiation of various wavelengths that movies in a straight line from one surface to another, helping the fire to spread throughout a structure.Mass spectrometerComplex chromatographic patterns can be simplified by passing the components emerging from the gas chromatographic column through a ___________.Ion mobility spectrometerTo screen objects for the presence of explosive residues in the field or the laboratory, the investigator may use a handheld _________.MicroscopicUnconsumed explosive residues may be detected in the laboratory through careful _________ examination of the debris.AcetoneDebris covered from the site of an explosion is routinely rinsed with _________ in an attempt to recover high-explosive residues.Color spot tests; TLC; gas chromatography/ mass spectrometryOnce collected, the acetone extract is initially analyzed by _________, ____________, and ___________.Infrared spectroscopyThe technique of _________ produces a unique absorption spectrum from an organic explosive.