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40 terms

Chapt 40 Foundations Part 2

STUDY
PLAY
Inspect/palpate to evaluate:
- bone integrity
- posture
- joint funtion
- muscle strength
- gait
Medical history includes:
- any past medical/surgical disorders
- any sx related to onset/duration/location/pain
- does activity make it better or worse
- family medical history
Assessment of bony skeleton includes:
motation of deformities
body alignment
abnormal growths
shortened extremities
amputations
abnormal angulation
crepitus (grating/crackling sound/sensation)
3 Common spinal curvatures:
1. scoliosis
2. kyphosis
3. lordosis
Scoliosis is a:
lateral curving deviation
Kyphosis ia a:
- humb back
- an increased roundness of the throacic
spinal curve
Lordosis:
- sway back
- exaggeration of the lumbar spine curvature
(ex:pregnancy)
Assessment of articular system includes:
- ROM
- stability of joints
- deformities
- any nodular formation
- pulses in extremities
ROM:
- passive
- active
- limited
When assessing ROM:
- keep the motion steady
- avoid causing pain
ROM includes pts ability to:
- change positions
- muscle strength
- coordination
- size of indiviual muscles
Assess muscle groups for:
- strength and equality
- compare R & L muscles in strength and size
Normal muscle strength is:
equal bilaterally
Joints are examined for:
excessive fluid
The most common site for fluid accumulation is:
the knee
Edema dn elevated temp may be signs of:
active inflammation in the joint
Normal joint movement is:
stable and smooth
If a joint makes a crack or snap sound when passively moved, may indicate:
a ligament slipping over a bony prominence
Deformities are cause by:
- contrctures
- dislocations
- subluxation
(partial separation of articular surface)
Subluxation is the:
partial separation of an articular [joint] surface
Nodular formations are produced by muscoskeletal diseases such as:
- gout
- rheumotoid arthritis
- osteoarthritis
Pulse points in the extremeites are palpated to asses for:
weak and absent pulses
Strain:
an injury to a muscle/tendon caused by overuse/overstretcing
Acute strain:
caused when performing unaccustomed exercises vigorously
Chronic strain:
repeated overuse of certain muscles
Acute strains are:
- acute onset of severe pain
- rest and possible immobilization
- immed aft injury -cold 20-30min, remove 1hr
during first 24 hrs (reduce edema)
- then apply heat
Chronig strains are:
- gradual onset w/affected muscles feeling
stiff or sore
- require no specific tx
Sprain is an:
injury to ligaments surrounding a joint
Sprains are caused by:
a suddent twist, wrench or fall
Symptoms of a sprain include:
- pain
- edema
- loss of motion
- ecchymosis
Xrys can reveal soft tissue edema but:
no evidence of bone or joint injury
Tx of a sprain:
RICE:
- rest
- ice
- compression
- elevation
Dislocation:
when articular surgaces of a joint are not longer in contact (out of joint)
Displaced bone may:
- hinder blood supply
- damage nerves
- tear ligaments
- rupture muscle attachements
Traumatic dislocations are considered:
orthopedic ERs
Congenital dislocations are:
present at birth
Spontaneous or pathologic dislocations are caused by:
disease affecting joints
Symptoms of a dislocation include:
- localized joint pain
- loss of funtion of the joint
- change in length of extremity/contour of joint
Dx of a dislocation is based on:
- symptoms
- physical exam
- x-rays
X-rays for dislocations reveal:
complete or partial sepration of articulating surfaces