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AP US History Ch.21
An Emerging World Power 1877-1914
Terms in this set (48)
Aggressive nationalism. Rebels were portrayed to the American audience as chivalric defenders of Cuban woemen against the "lustful bondages" of the Spaniards.
De Lome Letter
William Randolph Hearst published a letter in his journal, sent from Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish minister to the United States, to President William McKinley. The letter criticised Mckinley as weak and that Spain would not take American demands seriously.
In 1898, a US battle cruiser "Maine" blew up and sank in the Havana harbor, with the loss of 260 seamen. Journalists blamed Spain for the act and popular passions against Spain became a major factor in the march toward war.
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war. This was an amendment within the resolutions authorisizing intervention.
The Phillipine Theater
Commodore George Dewey was given instructions to set sail immediately against the Spanish fleet in the Phillipines in the event of war. On May 1, 1898, American ships cornered the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay and destroyed it.
The Paris Treaty of 1898
Spain agreed to liberate Cuba and cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. The Phillipines were ceded to the United States for a payment of $20 million.
War in the Phillipines
On February 4, 1899, two days before the Senate ratified the Treaty of Paris, fighting broke out between Filipino and American patrols. The rebel leader Aguinaldo asserted his nation's independence and turned his guns on the occupying US forces.
The Jones Act
Committed the United States to Phillipine independence but set no date. The Phillipines would formally achieve independence in 1946.
List the four causes of the Spanish-American War. Explain each cause and how it contributed to the development of the war.
Jingoism: Intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy invoked by expansionist sentiments. Expansionists demanded the US take its place with the imperialist nations of Europe as a world power.
Spanish Misrule in Cuba: Cuban nationalists fought for independence from Spain for 10 years. Cubans sought to involve the US in their revolution. Spain responds with an autocratic ruler, Valeriano Weyler, and troops. Spanish activities enraged Americans.
Yellow press: Stories of Spanish atrocities spread throughout the United States and spread knowledge of Valeriano Weyler's reconcentration policy. Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst printed exaggerated and false accounts of Spanish atrocities in Cuba. Americans urged the US government to intervene.
Sinking of the Maine: Newspapers blamed the sinking of the Maine on Spain. Following this event, President McKinley asked for war upon Spain on behalf of the Cuban rebels.
What event sparked the US interest in expanding markets into Latin America and Asia in the 1890s?
By 1876 the United States had become a net exporting nation. The brief reversal after 1888 aroused fears that the United States was losing its foreign markets and helped fuel the expansionist drive of the 1890s.
The American Anti-Imperialist League
Founded in 1899. Led by Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, and William Jennings Bryan. Campaigned against the annexation of Philippines and other acts of imperialism. The anti-imperialist never became a popular movement because supporters of the cause lacked a common touch.
The Cuban Crisis
The Cubans were fighting for freedom from the Spanish. Yellow journalism, fostered by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, exaggerated stories of Spanish atrocities and spread a national sentiment to aid Cuba.
France and Mexico
Napolean III took advantage of the American preocupation with the Civil War and dispatched a French Army to occupy Mexico City in 1863. He sent his Archduke Maximillian to be emperor of Mexico thus violating the Monroe Doctrine, because he believed the Union would be too weak to enforce it. When the Civil War ended Secretary of War Seward prepared to march South. Napoleon abandoned Mexico City in 1867 because he realized it was doomed.
Chester A. Arthur's Naval Program
Th navy had been gradually depleted after the Civil War. He began a modest upgrading of the navy, commissioning new ships, raising the standard for the officer corps, and founding the Naval War College.
Ferdinand de Lesseps
French diplomat who supervised the construction of the Suez Canal (1805-1894). Attempted to lead the construction for the Panama Canal, even though the United States had exclusive rights to the land. The project went bankrupt and he failed.
James G. Blaine
Diplomatic activity quickened when he became secretary of state in 1881. He got involved in a border dispute between Mexico and Guatemala, and tried to settle a war Chile was waging against Peru and Bolivia, and called the first Pan-American conference; however, it was canceled after he left office.
An 1875 treaty gave Hawaiian sugar duty free entry into the American market and declared the islands off limits to other powers. A second treaty in 1887 granted the United States naval rights at Pearl Harbor.
McKinley Tariff of 1890 and Hawaii
Hawaii's favored access to the American market was abruptly canceled by the tariff. In 1890, sugar planters began to plot an American takeover of the islands so that Hawaiian sugar would be treated as a domestic product. They organized a revolt in 1893 and negotiated a treaty of annexation with the Benjamin Harrison administration. Before Senate could approve it, Grover Cleveland returned to the presidency and withdrew the treaty as a violation of tradition.
What factor especially demanded expansion?
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures.
"The Influence of Seapower Upon History" (1890)
Alfred T. Mahan. He realized that great nations had derived their power from control of the seas. He supported a powerful navy to protect American commerce and overseas base.
Who did the US purchase Alaska from? Why was the purchase of Alaska labeled "Seward's Folley"?
In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from Imperial Russia for 7.2 million dollars. Russia had given up Alaska because it was indefensible and draining their treasury. The purchase was ridiculed as "Seward's Folley" because the land was seen as a wasteland and people assumed it to be useless.
The Venezuela Crisis (1895)
For years there was a border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana. The United States demanded that the British accept arbitration. The British realized the threat and backed off.
"The Winning of the West" (1896)
Written by Theodore Roosevelt, which connected the origin of a new "race" of Americans (i.e. what he considered the present population of the United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors endured throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries. Linked Manifest Destiny of the past and present.
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History" (1893)
Frederick Jason Turner. Suggested a link between the closing of the frontier and overseas expansion.
Describes how the frontier is of prime importance when defining both an American and their America.
Hay-Pauncefore Agreement (1901)
Britain gave up its treaty rights to participate in any Central American canal project, clearing the way for a canal under exclusive US control.
Theodore Roosevelt's method for achieving American goals in the Caribbean; it featured the threat and use of military force to promote America's commercial supremacy, to limit European intervention in the region, and to protect the Panama Canal.
The Panama Canal - Colombia
The Colombian legislature voted down the proposed treaty to construct a canal in Panama. With an independence movement brewing in Panama, the United States lent covert assistance that ensured success of a bloodless revolution against Colombia. On November 6, 1903, the United States recognized Panama and two weeks later got a perpetually renewable lease on a canal zone.
A 10-mile strip of land across Panama for $10 million and an annual rent of $250,000. As one of the great engineering feats of the time, it reduced shipping costs by cutting more than 7,000 miles and helped extend U.S. naval power by allowing the fleets to move between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
How did the United States secure the rights to build a canal in the Panamanian section of Colombia?
With an independence movement brewing in Panama, the United States lent covert assistance that ensured success of a bloodless revolution against Colombia. On November 6, 1903, the United States recognized Panama and two weeks later got a perpetually renewable lease on a canal zone.
1. Gave the United States the right to intervene if Cuban independence was threatened.
2. The United States was granted a lease on Guantanamo where the US built a navy base.
3. Cuba could not go into debt.
A unilateral declaration sanctioned only by American power and interest. Gave the United States the unrestricted right to regulate Caribbean affairs.
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States, issued by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899, that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Boxer Rebellion (1900)
Nationalism and xenophobia (fear of foreigners) was on rise in China. Society of Harmonious Fists (Boxers) began to attack foreign settlements and murdered dozens of Christian missionaries. USA troops joined international forces and marched into Peking and crushed the rebellion.
What land territory did the United States acquire as a result of the war with Spain in 1898?
Under the Paris Treaty of 1898, Spain ceded Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States. The Phillipines were ceded to the United States for the payment of $20 million.
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Anxious to restore a balance of power, Roosevelt mediated a settlement at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1905. Japan emerged as the dominant power in East Asia.
The Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907
In 1906 San Francisco's school board placed all Asian students in a segregated school, infuriating Japan. In the agreement, Japan agreed to restrict immigration to the United States and smoothed matters over. (Theodore Roosevelt)
The Root-Takahira Agreement
Signed between the United States and Japan. This agreement maintained the statue quo in China, upheld the Open Door Policy, and supported the integrity and independence of China. Also confirmed the status quo in the Pacific. (President Theodore Roosevelt)
President William Howard Taft's policy. Taft hoped that American capital would counterbalance Japanese power and pave the way for increased commericial opportunities.
Chinese Revolution of 1911
Taft supported the victorious Chinese nationalists, who wanted to modernize their country and liberate it from Japanese domination. Thus the United States entered a long-term rivalry with Japan that would end thirty years later.
Woodrow Wilson and Imperialism
Wilson promised that the United States would "never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest."
Woodrow Wilson and Mexico
Francisco Madero, a man supported by Woodrow Wilson, was murdered by General Victoriano Huerta in 1913. The United States did not recognize Huerta's provisional government and Wilso abhorred Huerta and pledged to force him out, with the intent of acting in the interest of Mexico. Venustiano Carranza emerged as the leader of an armed opposition in northern Mexico but he refused US aid. All he wanted was recognition as a belligerent status so they could purchase arms in the United States. Carranza got his way in 1914 and triumphed in August of 1914.
A Mexican peasant rebel leader who sought to overthrow the Mexican government and stop Venustiano Carranza from taking it over first, gathering an army in Northern Mexico and, in anger at President Wilson's support of Carranza, eventually terrorized Americans in Mexico.President Wilson sent 11,000 troops under General John J. Pershing but eventually withdrew in 1917.
The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany, which arose as Germany attempted to prevent France from establishing a protectorate over Morocco. Roosevelt arranged an international conference and the crisis was defused.
Woodrow Wilson/Moral Diplomacy
Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.
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