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All end of chapter Q's
Terms in this set (150)
The philosophical idea that all mental processes in the mind are reducible to physical processes in the brain is known as?
Introspection is one of the primary methods of:
Which of these people most influenced functionalism?
Psychoanalysis is meant to help people:
attain insight into their unconscious minds
John Watson thought behaviorism:
would make psychology an objective science
B.F. Skinner's principle of reinforcement explains:
how behavior is shaped by its consequences
The American psychologists who resisted behaviorism in the early 1900s were:
the cognitive revolution was made possible by:
the advent of the digital computer
John Garcia's experiments showing that rats learn to associate nausea with the taste of food:
helped bring about evolutionary psychology
Two new areas of psychology that have emerged in the 21st century are:
behavioral neuroscience and cultural psychology
the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation is the definition of:
Which of the following is the best definition of a hypothesis?
a falsifiable prediction
if a detector is used to measure the same property twice but produces different measurements, then it lacks:
Aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone wants or expects them to are called:
which of the following describes the average value of all the measurements in a particular distribution?
What does the sign of r (the correlation coeffecient) show?
the direction of correlation
When two variables are correlated, what keeps us from concluding that one is the cause and the other is the effect?
the third variable problem
a researcher administers a questionnaire concerning attitudes toward tax increases to people of all genders and ages who live all across the United States. The dependent variable in the study is the __________ of all participants
An experiment that defines variables as they are defined in the real world is:
when people find evidence that confirms their beliefs, they often:
Signals are transmitted from one neuron to another:
across a synapse
Which type of neuron receives information from the external world and conveys this information to the brain via the spinal cord?
an electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neurons axon to the synapse is called:
the chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites are called:
the _________ nervous system automatically controls the organs of the body
autonomic nervous system
Which part of the hindbrain coordinates fine motor skills?
what part of the brain is involved in movement and arousal?
the ________ regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
what explains the apparent beneficial effects of cardiovascular exercise on aspects of brain function and cognitive performance?
Genes set the ________ in populations within a given environment
range of variation
sensation involves ________, whereas perception involves ___________.
what process converts physical signals from the environment into neural signals carried by sensory neurons into the central nervous system?
the smallest intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus is called:
the absolute threshold
signal detection theory is helpful because it allows researches to distinguish between:
perceptual sensitivity and decision criterion
Light striking the retina, causing a specific pattern of response in the three-cone types, leads to our ability to see:
Which part of the brain is location of the primary visual cortex, where encoded information is systematically mapped into a representation of the visual scene?
our ability to combine visual details so that we perceive unified objects is explained by:
what kind of cues are relative size and linear perspective?
the placement of our ears on opposite sides of the head is crucial to our ability to:
localize sound sources
what best explains why smells can have immediate and powerful effects?
the involvement in smell of brain centers for emotions and memories
Currently, unconscious processes are understood as:
unexperienced mental processes that give rise to thoughts and behavior
The ________ unconscious is at work when subliminal and unconscious processes influence thought and behavior
the cycle of sleep and waking is one of the major patterns of human life called:
the circadian rhythm
Sleep needs _______ over the life span
During dreaming, the dreamer _______ changes in emotion, thought, and sensation
Which explanation of dreams proposes that they are produced when the mind attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs in the brain during sleep?
The activation-synthesis model
Psychoactive drugs influence consciousness by altering the effects of:
tolerance for drugs involves:
larger doses being required over time to achieve the same effect
Alcohol expectancy refers to:
peoples beliefs about how alcohol will influence them in certain situations
Hypnosis has been proven to have an:
Encoding is the process:
by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
what is the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already in memory?
what kind of memory storage holds information for a second of two?
the process by which memories become stable in the brain is called:
Long-term potentiation occurs through:
the strengthening of synaptic connections
the increased likelihood of recalling a sad memory when you are in a sad mood is an illustration of:
neuroimaging studies suggest that trying to remember activates the:
left frontal lobe
the act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences is:
remembering a family reunion that you attended as a child illustrates:
eyewitness misidentification or false recognition is most likely a result of:
In classical conditioning, a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to produce:
a conditioned response
What occurs when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus:
what did watson and rayner seek to demonstrate about behaviorism through the little albert experiments?
Even sophisticated behaviors such as emotion are subject to classical conditioning
which part of the brain is involved in the classical conditioning of fear?
after having a bad experience with a particular type of food, people can develop a lifelong aversion to that food. This suggests that conditioning has a(n) _______ aspect
which of the following mechanisms have no role in Skinner's approach to behavior
All of the above- cognitive, neutral, evolutionary
Latent learning provides evidence for a cognitive element in operant conditioning because it:
occurs without any obvious reinforcment
Neural research inditicates that observational learning is closely tied to brain areas that are involved in:
what kind of learning takes place largely independent of awareness of both the processes and the products of information acquisition
which study strategy has been shown to be the most effective?
taking practice tests
Feelings can be described by their location on the two dimensions of:
valence and arousal
which theory suggests that emotions are peoples interpretations of their own general physiological arousal?
the two-factor theory
which brain structure is most directly involved in the rapid appraisal of whether a stimulus is good or bad?
________ is an emotion-regulation strategy that involves thinking about events in new ways
_______ is the idea that emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences
the facial feedback hypothesis
pretending to experience one emotion when you really are experiencing a completely different one is an example of:
the hedonic principle states that
people are primarily motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
an unlearned motivation has been called
according to maslow, our most basic needs are:
shared with other animals
which statement is true?
men and women engage in sex for many of the same reasons
the combining of words to form phrases and sentences is governed by:
language development as an innate, biological capacity is explained by
damage to the brain region called Broca's area results in
difficulty in producing grammatical speech
the linguistic relativity hypothesis maintains that
language shapes the nature of thought
the "most typical" member of a category is a
which theory of how we form concepts is based on our judgement of features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member?
family resemblance theory
the inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category, even when the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed, is called
category specific deficit
people give different answers to the same problem, depending on how the problem was phrased, because of
miranda decides on a goal, analyzes her current situation, lists the differences between her current situation and her goal, and then settles on strategies to reduce those differences. Miranda is engaging in:
what kind of reasoning is aimed at deciding on a course of action?
intelligence tests were originally developed
to help place children in the most appropriate classroom
intelligence tests have shown to be predictors of
all of the above- academic performance, mental health, physical health
people who score well on one test of mental ability usually score well on others, suggesting that:
there is a general ability called intelligence
most scientists now believe that intelligence is best described:
by a three-level hierarchy
standard intelligence tests typically measure
intelligence is influenced by
genes and environment
the heritability coefficient is a statistic that describes how much of the difference between different peoples intelligence scores can be explained by
differences in their genes
over the life span and across generations
a persons socioeconomic status has a(n) ________ effect on their intelligence
About which of these statements is there a broad agreement among scientists?
differences in the intelligence test scores of different ethnic groups are caused in part by factors such as low birth weight and poor diet, which are more prevalent in some groups than others.
in the womb
the proximodistal rule states that
motor skills emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery
according to piaget, a childs theories about the way the world works is known as
once children understand that human behavior is guided by mental representations, they are said to have acquired
a theory of mind
when infants in a new situation examine their mothers face for cues about what to di, they are demonstrating an ability known as
the capacity for attachment may be innate, but the quality of attachment is influenced by:
all of the above-the childs temperament, the primary caregiver's ability to read the child's emotional state, and the interaction between the child and the primary caregiver
according to Kohlberg, each stage in the development of moral reasoning is characterized by a specific focus. What is the correct sequence of these stages
focus on consequences, focus on social rules, focus on ethical principles
Scientific evidence suggests that ______ play(s) a key role in determining a persons sexual orientation
biology and genetics
adolescents place the greatest emphasis on relationships
data suggest that, for most people, the last decades of life are:
From a psychological perspective, personality refers to:
a persons characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling
projective techniques to assess personality involve
responses to ambiguous stimuli
a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way is a
compelling evidence for the importance of biological factors in personality is best seen in studies of
identical twins reared apart
after performing poorly on an exam, you drop a class, saying that you and the professor are just a poor match- according to freud, what defense mechanism are you employing?
humanists see personality as directed toward the goal of
according to the existential perspective, the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility for making free choices provoke a type of anxiety called
according to social-cognitive theorists, ______ are the dimensions people use in making sense of their perspectives
loci of control
What we think about ourselves is referred to as our ______ and how we feel about ourselves is referred to as our ______.
when people take credit for their success but downplay responsibility for their failures, they are exhibiting
the self-serving bias
What best predicts whether a person will engage in reactive aggression?
the persons gender
when women aggress, they usually
cause social harm rather than physical harm
the prisoner's dilemma game illustrates
the benefits and costs of cooperation
the apparently altruistic behavior of non-human animals can often be explained by
which of the following is a situational that influences attraction?
the fact that people in relationships want their cost-benefit ratio to be about the same as their partner's is known as
the fact that people prefer to experience pleasure rather than pain is known as
the hedonic motive
The tendency to do what authorities tell us to do is known as
what is the process by which people come to understand others?
The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation is referred to as
the conception of psychological disorders as diseases that have symptoms and possible cures is referred to as
the medical model
the DSM-5 is best described as a
comorbidity of disorders refers to
the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
irrational worries and fears that undermine one's ability to function are normally an indication of
an anxiety disorder
A(n) _______ disorder involved anxiety tied to a specific object or situation
kelly's fear of germs leads her to wash her hands repeatedly throughout the day, often for a half hour or more, under extremely hot water. From which disorder does kelly suffer?
extreme moods swings between ______ characterize bipolar disorder
depression and mania
Schizophrenia is characterized by which of the following
all of the above- hallucinations, disorganized thoughts and behavior, emotional and social withdrawal
autism spectrum disorder is characterized most often by which of the following
communication defecits and restricted, repetitive behavior
in the United States, those at highest risk for suicide are
those with a mental disorder
which statement is NOT a reason that people fail to get treatment for mental illness
levels of impairment for people with mental illness are comparable to or higher than those of people with chronic medical illnesses
draws on techniques from different forms of therapy
The different psychodynamic therapies all share an emphasis on
developing an insight into the unconscious sources of psychological disorders
Which type of therapy would likely work best for someone with an irrational fear of heights?
Mindfulness meditation is part of which kind of therapy?
which type of therapy emphasizes action on the part of the client, as well as complete transparency from the therapist as to the specifics of the treatment?
cognitive behavioral therapy
Examining the failure to reach one's potential reflects the ______ approach, whereas examining one's failure to find meaning in life reflects the _____ approach.
antipsychotic drugs were developed to treat
atypical antipsychotic drugs
act on both the dopamine and serotonin systems
antidepressant medications have the strongest effects for people with ___________ depression
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