COMM Final Study Guide

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1. How do we assess cost in evaluating different multimedia channel options?
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Terms in this set (50)
-Identify the channels that intended audience use most often/exposed to most often

- Conduct "typical day" channel opportunities analysis- identify opportunities of message exposure of the target audience through media exposure

You want more than just one channel of opportunity

Select at least 3-4 channel options as potential targets
Accuracy- ensuring messaging is scientifically accurate

Clarity- ensuring message is presented in clear manner intended for audience to act on

Consistency- messages should be standardized across different channels

Credibility- credible sources / most credible sources are those that match the intended audience / changes dependent on the situation

Relevance- ensuring the info presented to target audience is of personal relevance to them / vested interested in behavior if intervention is relevant to them

Correct tone and appeal- making sure info is packaged correctly - images, colors, language / good at promoting social mobilization
11. Who is the most credible source for an intended audience?most credible sources are those that match the intended audience/ change based on situation in crisis and emergency situations credibility comes from national leaders or health professionals for interventions for minorities or special populations the most credible sources are community members credibility is determined by expertise and trustworthiness12. Who is perceived as the most credible source in emergency situations?national leaders or health professionals13. Know the 5 additional criteria for evaluating messages.Intended response - message must produce an intended effect on target audience Memorability - message must be memorable the more memorable the better chance for audience to act upon it Appropriateness - the message must use appropriate language and culturally appropriate images "subjective" Believability - message must be presented in a manner that is trustworthy and not exaggerated Ethics - message needs to be ethical in the way it is presented / wrong to manipulate evidence to scare intended audience14. Know the key benefit & key drawback of pretesting messages.Key benefit - Relatively easy and inexpensive - Gather information/ make corrections quickly Key drawback - Audience may give socially desirable response to please the researcher - Particularly likely if given a strong incentive15. Know the definitions for the 5 categories of questions asked during pretesting.-Comprehension - gauge audience understanding of campaign materials and messaging "what is the key argument" "what is the point of the ad" -Attractiveness - gauge audience reaction to attractiveness of message -Acceptance - gauges audience willingness to accept message -Involvement - gauges the audience level of vested interest -Inducement to action - gauges audience motivation to engage in message / are they more likely to perform targeted behavior16. What is the main outcome measured via a usability assessment?-Usability assessment- audience perception on how satisfied they are on using product / tangible product in order to practice healthy lifestyles (ex) fitness app17. What is the difference between think-aloud interviews & verbal probing?Think-aloud interview - participants are asked to provide a response and explain how they got that response out loud Verbal probing is asking people follow up questions18. What does Galvanic Skin Response & eye tracking each provide?Galvanic skin response - measures electrical current that passes across the skin or level of emotional arousal Eye-tracking - track visually what people are looking at in regards to messaging19. Know examples of the 3 types of capital that serve as resources.Economic - money, financial resources Human- paid staff Social- volunteers20. What is the definition of reach?Reach - measures whether activities are delivered and received as planned - distinct from the overall message exposure i.e. process - evaluation = how successfully or unsuccessfully you REACHED target audience21. What are the differences between immediate, intermediate, and long-term outcomes?-Immediate outcomes - attention and recall of message by target audience is quick intermediate outcomes - changes in attitudes and beliefs among target audience (ex) intervene with middle age students to practice healthier eating you can measure attitudes towards consuming healthy foods and how has it changed over time long-term - long term outcomes that come from intervention i.e. rates of disease, social level impacts Impact - society as a whole "population-level"22. Know examples of measures of impact.population-level health (rates of disease) & socioeconomic improvements (social level)23. Know what SWOTE stands for and what each factor affects in the input-output model.Strengths Weaknesses -refers to factors that are within our control Opportunities Threats -refers to factors that are outside our control Ethical Considerations - ethical dilemmas24. What are the 2 key areas to evaluate in terms of strengths & weaknesses?Evaluate strengths - As the attributes within the organization - As the attributes of the intervention/communication campaign Evaluate weaknesses - Gaps within the organization - Weakness of the actual intervention25. What are the 3 general principles of bioethics?-3 general principles of bioethics 1. first avoid doing harm through actions trying to help target audience 2. Do the upmost to better the health of target audience 3. Respect for freedom of every person within the community individuals choice and freewill26. What are the 4 criteria to consider in terms of production & dissemination of intervention?Presentability -Extent to which intervention has the right aesthetic appeal to target audience (appropriate and non-offending) (packaging) Expandability -Extent to which intervention materials can expand to effect long segments of target audience beyond just a local target (can be replicated in multiple situations/settings) Sustainability -Extent to which intervention can be maintained over time until long term impacts are recognized Cost-effectiveness -Extent to which intervention is produced and disseminated at the lowest cost possible while maintaining high standards (low inputs à high outputs)27. What are the differences between direct costs, indirect costs, and in-kind contributions?Direct costs - part of budget that contributes directly to program or intervention activities (buying equipment, printing flyers, air-time for ads) Indirect costs - what it costs agencies to exist (office space, physical location) In-kind contributions - things provided free of charge from sponsors or donation favors that are done for intervention28. What 2 components should make up the design of a health program intervention?are we enacting the intervention program in the right manner? Is it carried out in a way that is evidence-based, elements that have demonstrated success , societal approval?29. How do we evaluate whether an intervention has met its program objectives?Fidelity Monitoring*30. What is fidelity monitoring?Fidelity monitoring - we are focused on trying to determine if our campaign activities coincide with the logic model31. What is the relationship between evaluation sample size & expected program effect size?*32. What does media impressions capture in terms of program exposure?number of opportunities a target audience has to view the intervention33. Know the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework & ways to enhance each factor.REACH - in order to maximize, 1. use multiple channels and 2. reduce barriers to access to intervention materials and resources EFFECTIVENESS - maximize, 1. tailoring messages to address specific needs of the target audience as well as to 2. engage in repetition in multiple channels ADOPTION - 1. to provide individuals with multiple alternatives and 2. perform user vs non-user analysis - comparing people that are preforming to those that are not to identify differences IMPLEMENTATION - 1. provide people with specific details and step by step details on how to carry out the behaviors 2. provide adequate training MAINTENANCE - 1. adding incentives i.e. financial/non-financial incentives to get people to continue 2. reduce number of resources and barriers needed to maintain behaviors34. Know the 3 PRECEDE-PROCEED evaluations & their link to level of influence & effects.Process evaluation - focuses on reach and frequency of exposure / look at factors that influence behavior change / to what extent is there a shift to people certain factors (predictors of behavior change) Impact evaluation - assessment of effects of message exposure at the societal level (social environment and behavior and lifestyle of society as a whole) Outcome evaluation - long term process (health indicator changes and quality of life changes) long-term effects of message exposure to wide health indicators35. What are the 4 challenges with using experimental designs for program evaluation?Experiments (RCTs) - considered "gold standard" , Randomized control trials (one community to the intervention group and one to control group) Correlational - measuring the relationship between level of intervention exposure and intervention outcomes (cannot make causo claims like in randomized control trials) Interrupted Time Series - comparison of outcomes before and after an interruption (assessment of community in terms of their outcomes before launch and after intervention launch) Direct Observation - directly observe and record behavior changes ex. Increase handwashing within OU it would be sending ppl out across campus watching and monitoring handwashing behaviors36. Know the 5 goals typically focused on in provider-patient communication.•Diagnosis/information •Behavior modification •Adherence to treatment •Understanding Support37. What are the 5 barriers found to inhibit effective provider-patient communication?•Psychological - include disinterest, fear, anxiety, depression, and reality distortion •Pharmacological - intervention such as overmedication may reduce alertness and interaction •Ethical/moral - overriding ethical and moral standards may reduce the ability of clinicians to take certain actions or for patients to respond in ways that may be considered healthy •Sociocultural - accompany sociocultural diversity and include issues with language, gender, income, health literacy, education, intellect, and ethnicity •Environmental - relevant, excessive noise, inadequate time, and inappropriate settings or dress may interfere with communication •Third party - who else is in room38. Distinguish between the 3 modes of provider-patient communication.•Spoken (what is said) - what is focused on the most •Unspoken (what is left unsaid) - focusing on what is not spoken to help fears •Subconscious (what is below awareness) body language39. What are the principles practiced in a patient-centered medical home?pg 32140. What is the difference between risk and hazard?Risk is typically discussed in terms of probabilities, that is in terms of level of personal vulnerability to being exposed to the hazardous event. Hazardous events can be biological (e.g., outbreaks of communicable virus/bacteria), environmental (e.g., lead in water, radon gas, contaminated water after natural disaster), or technologically-related (cell phone and cancer, living near power lines). -Hazardous events are typically discussed in terms of level of severity (not at all serious, moderately serious, very serious).41. Know the definitions for the different parts of a risk assessment report.1. Hazard identification: Identifies agents of concern (e.g., virus, pollutant, chemicals). Hazards range in levels of severity based on hazard type & duration of exposure. 2. Exposure assessment: Identify the target audiences most likely to be exposed to hazards of concern. 3. Dose-response assessment: Magnitude of exposure (dose) and its relation to adverse health effects (response) experienced those affected. 4. Risk characterization: Quantitative estimates of risk (absolute vs. relative terms) 5. Conclusions: Summary of the scientific findings about the hazard (i.e., scientific consensus) 6. Uncertainty analysis: An assessment of level of confidence regarding risk estimates 7. Risk management: Potential actions that could be taken to mitigate risks identified in the report42. What is the optimistic bias & how does it affect our perception of risk?optimistic bias towards interpreting risk information - tendency of people to believe that they are not at risk for hazards compared to other people. "Bad things happen to other people, but not to me." Particularly problematic among adolescents & young adults.43. Know the 2 message factors that impact our level of concern & how they work.- Absolute risk estimates tell you what your overall chances are of being exposed to the hazardous event in your lifetime. - Comparative risk estimates tell you what your chances are of being exposed to the hazardous event compared to some reference group (others your age, others in your school) -Research tells us comparative risk estimates are more effective at increasing public concern. -Message frame can also affect risk perceptions. Risk information presented in negative terms (e.g., 70% chance that the hazard will occur) vs. in positive terms (e.g., 30% chance that the hazard will not occur) Risk expressed in negative terms more effective at increasing public concern.44. Know the 5 hazard factors that impact our level of concern & how they work.1. More certain the benefits of engaging in a risky behavior, the less concern we have about potential hazards (e.g., getting an x-ray, getting a tan) 2. Hazards that we attribute to human actions (e.g., bioterrorism, industrial accidents) are perceived as more concerning than hazards that are natural (e.g., earthquakes, tornadoes) 3. Hazards that have a high potential to cause a major catastrophe (e.g., plane crash) are perceived as more concerning than those w/ a low catastrophe potential (e.g., car accident) 4. Hazards that have a direct negative impact on children and future generations are likely to elicit high levels of public concern about the hazard (e.g., smoking vs. eating junk food) 5. People are more concerned about a hazard if the risk is not distributed equally among the population (i.e., some people are placed at higher risk than others).45. Know the 6 audience factors that impact our level of concern & how they work.1. Info processing abilities - those with low health literacy and numeracy may overestimate or underestimate concern for a hazard. 2. Experience of dread - hazards that cause people to feel more dread also increases perceptions of concern for the hazard. 3. Perceived controllability of hazard- The more people feel they have personal control over a hazard, the less concerned they are about it (e.g., passenger in a car vs. being the driver) 4. Familiarity with hazard- Those who are familiar with the risks for a hazard typically have lower levels of concern about the hazard (e.g., eating genetically-modified foods vs. swimming in chlorinated pool) 5. Knowledge about the hazard- The greater the media exposure to hazard estimates, the greater the level of concern about the hazard (e.g., risk for Zika and Ebola vs. risk for heart disease and diabetes) 6. Media exposure to hazard estimates46. What are the 3 factors that impact our level of concern based on multidimensional scaling?1. Knowledge about the hazard (audience factor) 2. Perceived level of dread (audience factor) 3. Catastrophic potential of hazard (hazard factor)47. Know the 5 psychological reactions people manifest during a crisis situation.1. Vicarious rehearsal - those unaffected by the crisis may engage in preventive measures in anticipation of the hazard affecting them. 2. Denial -those affected by the hazard may perceive there is no real threat, or they are not vulnerable to the threat. 3. Stigmatization - those directly affected by a hazard may be stigmatized by those indirectly affected by the hazard. Examples include quarantines and travel bans. 4. Fear and avoidance - those at risk for a hazard may engage in extreme, or irrational behaviors to avoid being impacted by the hazard. An example may be traveling to another state or avoiding all air travel. 5. Withdrawal, hopelessness, and helplessness - those directed affected by a hazard may engage in withdrawal from the community and/or develop a fatalistic attitude, giving up.48. What are the 6 components of a first-response message?1. Expression of empathy: You are aware of the emergency & care about the people who were harmed 2. Clarifying facts/call to action: Here is what we know, how we know it, and what you should do about it 3. What we don't know: Here is what we do not know & why we don't know it 4. Process to get answers: Here is what we are doing to find out the rest 5. Statement of commitment: We are committed to keeping you updated about this crisis 6. Referrals: Here is who to contact for more information about the crisis49. What are the 4 things that happen regarding decision-making during a crisis?1. People simplify in processing of messages - reliance on heuristics and simple decision-making cues 2. People cling stronger to their current beliefs - if people have an optimistic bias about risk for a hazard, that bias will be amplified during a crisis involving that hazard 3. First messages they see/hear have the most impact - known as the primacy effect 4. People have limited intake of information - usually only 3-7 bits of data processed50. What are the common pitfalls of emergency risk communication & how can we avoid them?COMMON PITFALLS 1. Mixed messages from multiple sources - inconsistency in recommendations among risk experts can cause confusion among audiences. 2. Information released late - risk information often changes quickly and difficult to keep up with new data. 3. Paternalistic attitudes toward audience - risk information presented in condescending way are often not accepted. Experts need to be careful about touting their expertise. 4. Failure to dispel rumors and myths - risk information presented by health experts are often directly challenged by misinformation. Correction of these misinformation is critical. 5. Struggle for control of crisis situation - in many crisis situations, multiple crisis or risk managers may struggle to take the lead. HOW TO AVOID THEM 1. Be careful with risk comparisons - make sure that the comparisons are valid in terms of matching level of hazard and level of outrage. Mismatching the two may cause people to overestimate or underestimate level of concern. 2. Do not over-reassure - especially for situations involving high outrage (perceived risks), over reassurance will actually backfire because people will perceive that you are either not telling them the truth or you are not taking the concern seriously. Over-reassurance can also fuel optimistic bias. 3. Use sensitive syntax - carefully choose your language to not incite panic. 4. Acknowledge uncertainty - letting people know that there is uncertainty allow people to feel like that it is ok not to be 100% certain about different risks. 5. Give people things to do - taking action helps people reduce their anxieties because it creates a sense of empowerment. 6. Stop trying to allay panic - crisis communicators should avoid withholding bad news to prevent panic. Actually if public perceives the source as not being forthright panic occurs 7. Acknowledge people's fears - provides validation of people's feelings and acknowledges their importance.