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39 terms

Study guide 3

Arteries and Veins
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What is the job of the heart?
serves a pump
What is the job of arteries and vein?
delivery system
What is the job of capillaries?
exchange of substances
Which allow blood to leave the heart?
arteries or veins
arteries
Which allow blood to return to the heart?
arteries or veins
veins
Which have higher BP?
arteries or veins
arteries
1. Which store/carry more of the body's total blood volume?
(arteries or veins)
2. About how much more?
1. veins
2. 5x
which have valves? arteries or veins
veins (one way valves)
which tend to have bigger lumens?
arteries or veins
veins
which has more muscle in its wall?
arteries or veins
arteries
Name the layers of a blood vessel?
1. Tunica- cell layer of cells
2. Tunica Media- a layer of muscle
3. Tunica externa- a fibrous covering
large blood vessels have their own blood vessels to supply their thick tunica media. what are they called?
vaso vasorum
vasospasm
blood vessels spasm which leads to vasoconstriction
describe the pathogenesis(series of events) which occurs in a heart attack.
1. physical presence of soft plaque which get larger + larger
2. presence rough scratchy plaque that may cause a blood clot to form which blocks a coronary artery
3. irritating substance in the plaque may result in vasoconstriction
ischemia
lack of oxygen
infarction
tissue death
what is a stroke?
cerebrovascular accident(CVA)-sudden death of brain tissue caused by ischemia
what two types of pathology my produce a stroke?
1. thrombus/embolus
2. aneurism
what is an aneurism?
a weak area in the blood vessel which can ballon and rupture
how does the configuration of the Circle of Willis help protect against Stokes?
because of collateral circulation-take a detour
if a stroke can be caused by the occlusion of a vessel or aneurism, in which of these situations would you treat the patient with anticoagulants and clot dissolving drugs
1. occlusion of a vessel- clot dissolving drugs
2. aneurism-anticoagulants
1.In which situation would it be a life threatening mistake to give anticoagulants? occlusion of a vessel or aneurism. 2. Why?
1. occlusion of a artery
2. the vessel is calcified and probably formed a clot, so to give a patient an aticoagulant which help to clot your blood will be deadly
name the structures in the circulatory system body which are responsible for virtually all exchange.
capillaries
when blood sits, blood
clots
name the tiny arteries that supply the capillaries
arterioles
what structures control blood flow into capillaries
pre-capillary sphincters
at rest, approximately what percentage of capillaries are being used?
10 %
terms for spaces in the body
1. intervascular
2. intracellular
3. interstital
intravascular
the space inside a vessel. anything lying within a blood vessel...ex: water inside an artery, vein or capillary
intracellular
anything which dwells inside the cell....ex: Hgb inside a red blood cell, water inside a cell
interstital
anything lying between a cell and a blood vessel..ex: when fluid leaves a capilllary and flows into surrounding tisue it is said to flow from an intravascular space into the interstital space or tissue
what is blood pressure
pressure exerted by the flowing of blood
if a blood pressure is 140/65, what is the systolic pressure?
140
what is hypertension
high BP resting systolic above 140
what is hypotension
low BP systolicpressure below 60
blood pressure is influence by
1. force of the heart- strength of your hear...ex: obesity
2. volume of blood-how much blood in your heart..ex: low BP decrease blood flow to the heart
define shock
extremely low BP/life threatening
cardiogenic shock
heart failure, heart too weak to maintain pressure
What is hypovolemic shock
blood loss and severe dehydration, no enough blood in the veins