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Bio 121 exam 1

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Biology
Study of life
Basic functions shared by all living things
respond to changes in the immediate environment, Organisms show adaptability, Over time, organism grow and reproduce, many organisms are capable of some degree of movement.
Anatomy
The study of form
Physiology
The study of function
Gross anatomy
involves the examinaton of relatively large stuctures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
Microscopic anatomy
deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.
The link between anatomy and physiology
All specific functions are performed by specific structures.
Structure and function are interrelated
Anatomical details are significant only because each has an effect on function, and physiological mechanisms can be fully understood only in terms of the underlying structural relationships.
Function of the elbow joint to a door hinge.
The elbow functions as a hinge that permits movement only in one plane.The end of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm, has a roughly cylindrical articulating surface. With this interlocking arrangement, which is stabilized by ligaments and surrounding muscles, only hinge-like movement is permitted.
Respiration
Usually refers to the absorption and utilzation of oxygen, and the generaton and release of carbon dioxide.
Growth and reproduction
Indicates that the organism is successful
Adaptability
Changes the organism's behavior, capabilities, or structures
Circulation
Movement of fluid within the organism; may involve a pump and a network of special vessels.
Excretion
The elimination of chemical waste products generated by the organism
Digestion
The chemical breakdown of complex materials for absorption and use by the organism
Movement
Distributes materials throughout large organisms; changes orientation or position of a plant or immobile animal; moves mobil animals around the environment.
Responsiveness
Indicates that the organism recognizes changes in its internal or external environment.
Examples of Anatomy
Right atium, Left ventricle, Myocardium, Endocardium, Superior vena cava
Examples of Physiology
Valve to arota opens, valve between left atrium and left ventricle closes,Electrocardiogram, Pressure in left atrium.
Basic principles of the cell theory
Cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals, Cells are produced by the divisions of pre-existing cells, Cells are the smallest structural units
Mircometer
The demensions of cells are usually given
Histology
Study of tissue
Four primary tissue types
Epithealial, Connective, Muscle, Neural
Epithealial Tissue
a layer of cells that forms a barrier with specific properties.
Connective Tissue
All forms contain cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of protien fibers and a liquid known as the ground substance.
Muscle Tissue
Ability ot contract forcefully. Major functions include skelatal movement, soft tissue support, and maintance of blood flow.
Organ systems
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cariovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
Atom
The smallest stale units of matter
Levels of Organization
Chemical, Cellular, Organ, Organ system
Cells
Smallest living units in the body
Tissue
group of cells working togetherto perform one or more specific function
Organ
consists of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions
Smooth muscle cells
found in many organs, are long and slender.
Blood Cells
Either flattened dics or roughly spherical. Most abundant cells in the body. Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
Bone Cells
Reside within small cavities inside the mass of the bone. Responsible for maintenance of the bone and for recycling the calcium and phoshate stored there.
Fat cells
Roughly spherical storage containers. Whenever we take in more energy than we expend, the excess energy obtained from the food gets stored.
Reproductive cells
Involved in sexual reproducation are celled sex cells.
Nerve cells
are the equivalent of computer chips. They process information.
Homeostasis
The presence of a stable internal environment
Homeostatic regulation
The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostastsis in environments that are often inconsistent, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous.
Hemeostatic mechanisms
Consists of a receptor, A control center, Effecot
Receptor
This is sensitive to a particular environmental chnage or stimulus.
Control center
Which recieves and processes the information supplied by the receptor, and which sends out commands.
Effector
Which responds to these commands by opposing the stimulus.
Feedback
Occurs when receptor stimulation triggers a response that changes the environment at the receptor.
Negative feedback
The primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation, and it provides long term control over the body's internal conditions and systems.
Positive feedback
An initial stimulus produced a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it.