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Study of life

Basic functions shared by all living things

respond to changes in the immediate environment, Organisms show adaptability, Over time, organism grow and reproduce, many organisms are capable of some degree of movement.


The study of form


The study of function

Gross anatomy

involves the examinaton of relatively large stuctures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.

Microscopic anatomy

deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification.

The link between anatomy and physiology

All specific functions are performed by specific structures.

Structure and function are interrelated

Anatomical details are significant only because each has an effect on function, and physiological mechanisms can be fully understood only in terms of the underlying structural relationships.

Function of the elbow joint to a door hinge.

The elbow functions as a hinge that permits movement only in one plane.The end of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm, has a roughly cylindrical articulating surface. With this interlocking arrangement, which is stabilized by ligaments and surrounding muscles, only hinge-like movement is permitted.


Usually refers to the absorption and utilzation of oxygen, and the generaton and release of carbon dioxide.

Growth and reproduction

Indicates that the organism is successful


Changes the organism's behavior, capabilities, or structures


Movement of fluid within the organism; may involve a pump and a network of special vessels.


The elimination of chemical waste products generated by the organism


The chemical breakdown of complex materials for absorption and use by the organism


Distributes materials throughout large organisms; changes orientation or position of a plant or immobile animal; moves mobil animals around the environment.


Indicates that the organism recognizes changes in its internal or external environment.

Examples of Anatomy

Right atium, Left ventricle, Myocardium, Endocardium, Superior vena cava

Examples of Physiology

Valve to arota opens, valve between left atrium and left ventricle closes,Electrocardiogram, Pressure in left atrium.

Basic principles of the cell theory

Cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals, Cells are produced by the divisions of pre-existing cells, Cells are the smallest structural units


The demensions of cells are usually given


Study of tissue

Four primary tissue types

Epithealial, Connective, Muscle, Neural

Epithealial Tissue

a layer of cells that forms a barrier with specific properties.

Connective Tissue

All forms contain cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of protien fibers and a liquid known as the ground substance.

Muscle Tissue

Ability ot contract forcefully. Major functions include skelatal movement, soft tissue support, and maintance of blood flow.

Organ systems

Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cariovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive


The smallest stale units of matter

Levels of Organization

Chemical, Cellular, Organ, Organ system


Smallest living units in the body


group of cells working togetherto perform one or more specific function


consists of two or more tissues working in combination to perform several functions

Smooth muscle cells

found in many organs, are long and slender.

Blood Cells

Either flattened dics or roughly spherical. Most abundant cells in the body. Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.

Bone Cells

Reside within small cavities inside the mass of the bone. Responsible for maintenance of the bone and for recycling the calcium and phoshate stored there.

Fat cells

Roughly spherical storage containers. Whenever we take in more energy than we expend, the excess energy obtained from the food gets stored.

Reproductive cells

Involved in sexual reproducation are celled sex cells.

Nerve cells

are the equivalent of computer chips. They process information.


The presence of a stable internal environment

Homeostatic regulation

The adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostastsis in environments that are often inconsistent, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous.

Hemeostatic mechanisms

Consists of a receptor, A control center, Effecot


This is sensitive to a particular environmental chnage or stimulus.

Control center

Which recieves and processes the information supplied by the receptor, and which sends out commands.


Which responds to these commands by opposing the stimulus.


Occurs when receptor stimulation triggers a response that changes the environment at the receptor.

Negative feedback

The primary mechanism of homeostatic regulation, and it provides long term control over the body's internal conditions and systems.

Positive feedback

An initial stimulus produced a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it.

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