Animal Behavior Exam 3

Some of Darwin's major contributions to the study of animal behavior were proving that there is a genetic basis for behaviors
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Developmental Homeostasiswhen an animal can develop normally even though their environment is lacking some thingsSexual selectionsuccess of certain individuals over others of the same sex in matingParental Investmentthe extent to which parental care reduced the parents following reproductive potentialInfanticidekilling offspring of same speciesInclusive fitnesspersonal and indirect fitnessAlliancelong term stable coalitionSelf domesticationthe natural (not directed by humans) taming of animalsCognitionknowing and reasoningAttentionthe ability for an animal to focus on a situation at hand and to look for something or look for information to try to solve a problemTool usean object that is used as a functional extension of the body to act on another object or surface to attain an immediate goalProblem solvingreasoning about space, time, objects, actions (evident in decision making)Some of Darwin's major contributions to the study of animal behavior were proposing that behaviors were heritable traits that could be evolved by natural selectionTrueMorgan's Canon states that we may not interpret a behavior as the outcome of the exercise of a higher cognitive ability, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of an ability lower on the cognitive-psychological scale of abilities.TrueMorgan's Canon excludes the interpretation of a particular behavior in terms of higher cognitive processes.FalseMorgan's Canon proposes that because behaviors are complex, we should not interpret an action as the result of simple abilities, but rather the result of interactions of abilities across multiple cognitive-psychological scales of ability.FalseFixed Action Pattern: A sequence of innate actions that is inhibited by an innate releasing mecahnismTrueFixed Action Pattern: A sequence of unlearned actions that varies from time to time, but is always carried to completionFalseFixed Action Pattern: A sequence of innate behaviors that- once initiated- are independent of environmental control and always carried to completionTrueFixed Action Pattern: A sequence of innate behaviors that- once initiated- are independent of environmental controlTrueproximate causes of behavior: Sea lions with higher fat stores nurse their pups for longer periods of timeTrueproximate causes of behavior: Increased per gene mRNA promotes the development of the mushroom body, resulting in honeybees shifting to foraging at 21 days of ageTrueproximate causes of behavior: Chimpanzees that play more when young engage in more social grooming as adultsTrueproximate causes of behavior: Chickadees that have a larger hippocampus are more likely to cache food in food poor environmentsTrueUltimate Causes of Behavior: Male guppies that inspect predators secure a greater number of matesTrueUltimate Causes of Behavior: Male baboons that form alliances sire more offspringTrueUltimate Causes of Behavior: Female lions that play more as juveniles are more likely to cooperatively hunt as adultsFalseUltimate Causes of Behavior: Hyenas with lower corticosterone levels are less likely to flee from humansFalseMicroevolution is a change in gene or trait frequencies over timeTrueThe three required elements for evolution by natural selection are trait variation, trait heritability, and change in trait frequency over timeFalseHeritability means that genes for a trait are passed from parent to offspringFalseIn order for a behavioral trait to be heritable, it must have a genetic basis.FalseFigure 1 shows a change in mean diet breadth over time, which implies a change in trait frequencies over timeTrueFigure 2 shows the trait variation required for evolution by natural selection and that offspring diet breadth is strongly, positively correlated with their parent's diet breadth, which implies that diet breadth is highly heritableTrueFigure 3 shows the trait variation required for evolution by natural selection and that variation in the number of offspring fledged is correlated with diet breadthTrueThe speed with which interneurons transmit signals increases with decreasing nerve diameterFalseStimuli are received by interneurons and transmitted by receptors to gangliaFalseGanglia organize behaviors by stimulating peripheral, subordinate gangliaFalseThe frequency with which a neuron fires can provide information about the strength of the stimuliTrueAncestor A probably bred in bromeliadsFalseMale calls of ancestor A were probably a barkTrueRed coloration is a synapomorphy of clade ETrueYellow coloration probably evolved at least twice among these frogsFalseMale parental care probably evolved twice in these frogsFalseRed coloration and breeding in bromeliads are likely convergent traits within clade ATrueThe likely polarity of reproductive behaviors within clade B is breeding in pools, then breeding in bromeliads, and then biparental careFalseThe likely polarity of traits within clade A is breeding in pools with male parental care, then biparental care, then breeding in bromeliads, and then red male colorationFalseThis clade of frogs likely has external fertilizationTrueEvolutionary theories and research on animal learning assume there is no cost to learningFalseEvolutionary theories and research on animal learning predict that learning is favored when animals inhabit highly stable environmentsFalseEvolutionary theories and research on animal learning predict learning is favored in environments where conditions are more predictable within an animal's lifetime than between generationsTrueAssociative learning is widespread only among vertebrates and invertebrates with relatively large brains and complex cognitive abilitiesFalseAssociative learning includes stimulus-stimulus learning where an animal associates a novel, conditioned stimulus with an outcome by pairing the conditioned stimulus with an innate unconditioned responseTrueAssociative learning can result in overshadowing where one novel, conditioned stimulus reduces likelihood of concurrent conditioning to a second novel, conditioned stimulusTrueAnimal Play appears purposeful at the time it is executed because it has an immediate benefitFalseAnimal Play includes social play which can be important in cognitive development including how to manipulate aspects of one's environmentFalseAnimal Play may include play markers to reduce the risk of injury while engaging in playTrueAnimal Play can be part of social learning and teaching within animal culturesTrueAnimal Play is common among vertebrates, suggesting it has few costsFalseSensory biases in animals likely evolve because the sensory modality has a low information to noise ratio.FalseSensory biases in animals may evolve because animals have mechanisms to filter out certain forms of noiseTrueSensory biases in animals can result in evolutionary traps when humans modify anticipated outcomes associated with environmental cues.TrueSensory biases in animals can form receiver biases that are important in determining the evolutionary pathway of communication within a species.TrueThe ideal free distribution predicts that animals should choose habitats such that individuals occur among habitats in proportion to resource availabilityTrueThe ideal free distribution assumes that individuals do not move freely between patches because of territorial individualsFalseThe ideal free distribution predicts that animals should be distributed among patches such that any animal that moves to a new patch would have reduced fitnessTrueThe ideal free distribution leads to the prediction of Allee effects in patches with more resourcesFalseThe ultimate causes of long-distance migration behavior include higher success at raising offspring compared to non-migratory individuals by exploiting the seasonal boom of food in temperate zonesTrueThe ultimate causes of long-distance migration behavior include the build-up of serotonin that causes increased feeding and energy stores for migrationFalseThe ultimate causes of long-distance migration behavior include the need to move locally among complimentary habitats to breed and surviveFalseThe ultimate causes of long-distance migration behavior include higher survival of migratory individuals because they escape the accumulation of parasites on breeding groundsTrueThe ultimate causes of long-distance migration behavior include being descended from species that migrated locally and regionallyTrueTerritorial Behavior is favored when a resource is uniformly distributed throughout the environmentFalseTerritorial Behavior requires advertisement of "ownership" of the defended space.TrueTerritorial Behavior is an area around an individual that is defended against non-relativesFalseTerritorial Behavior is favored when a resource is extremely limitedFalseTerritorial Behavior is costly in terms of time and energy allocated away from other activitiesTrue