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The Crusades

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What were the military campaigns called that the European Christians started to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims?
Crusades
How many Crusades were there?
8
What does the Latin word "crux" mean?
cross
What were the names of people who fought in the Crusades? Why were they called that?
Crusaders-They vowed to take up the cross and they wore big red crosses.
Who were the Seljuk Turks?
a Muslim group of people, took over Jerusalem...The Holy Lands
Where did the Seljuk Turks threaten to invade?
Constantinople
Who did the Byzantine Emperor ask for military aid to protect Constantinople and Christian pilgrims?
Pope Urban III
Which group of people did Christians persecute on the way?
Jews
Who led the Crusaders first to Constantinople then Jerusalem?
French nobles
When did the Crusaders finally defeat the Seljuk Turks and win the city of Jerusalem?
1099 AD
What did the Crusaders do to the people that were living in Jerusalem during the First Crusade?
They massacred most of the Muslims and Jews living there.
Which Crusade was a success?
First
How long was it after the First Crusade that the Second Crusade began?
50 years
Who called for the Second Crusade? Why did he do this?
Pope Eugene III-to regain land
Who led the Second Crusade? How did they get along?
King Louis VII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III-They argued all the time.
Who united the Muslim forces and took over Jerusalem during the Third Crusade?
Islamic Egyptian leader Saladin
How did the Europeans react to Saladin?
They were stunned and shocked.
Who were the Crusader leaders during the Third Crusade?
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
King Phillip Augustus of France
King Richard I "The Lionhearted" of England
What was the Third Crusade known as?
The Crusade of Kings
When did the Third Crusade take place?
1189 to 1192 AD
What happened to Frederick of Germany?
He died while taking a bath.
What happened to Phillip Augustus of France?
He left before entering Jerusalem.
Who was the only one that continued to fight against the Muslim Leader Saladin?
King Richard I of England
Did King Richard I of England defeat Saladin?
He won many battles, but he could not defeat Saladin's well trained Muslim soldiers.
What was signed ending the Third Crusade?
A Peace Treaty-after three years
What happened to the city of Jerusalem?
Saladin kept the city, but he allowed entry to the city by Christian pilgrims.
Who was Monk Bernard?
He was the one that convinced King Louis VII and Conrad to start the 2nd Crusades
Who was Enrico Dandolo?
80 year old businessman-Count Thibaut and other counts make contract with him to give 84,000 pieces of silver in exchange for ships and supplies for the 4th crusade
Who was Count Thibaut?
He signed the contract with Enrico Dandolo then died. He left the other three counts behind to pay the debt. He was the mastermind behind the 4th crusade.
Who was Pope Innocent III?
He excommunicated the 10,000 volunteers that showed up for the Crusades but ended up taking over Zara Yugoslavia.
What happened to Emperor Alexius?
He was killed due to riots.
What Emperor was known as "Big Eyebrows"?
Mourtzouphlos
What does the Crusades symbol look like?
Red Cross
When did the Fourth Crusade take place?
1202-1204
What was the purpose of the Fourth crusade?
to take over Muslim controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt
What happened during the Fourth Crusade?
The Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and sacked the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire
What started the persecution of Jews during the Crusades?
The crusades had three separate armies of crusader knights and volunteers that killed Jews on the way to Jerusalem.
What was Pope Urban II possible "hidden motive" for launching the First Crusade?
he wanted to take over all of the Byzantine Empire, so all Christians would recognize him as Pope.
Why was the Second Crusade an epic failure?
*Louis and Conrad argued all the time.
*They couldn't regain Palestine.
What really was the peace treaty agreed upon between Richard I and Saladin?
*Saladin kept Jerusalem
*Christian pilgrims allowed entry (had to pay tax)
Who eventually takes over the weakened Byzantine Empire?
The Fourth Crusade weakened the Byzantine Empire so much that the Ottoman Turks were able to take over and rule for over 250 years. They allowed Jews and Christians to still practice their religions, but they needed to pay taxes to the sultan (Muslim ruler)
How was the Fourth Crusade thought up?
Four counts got together and came up with the idea.
They needed ships and supplies, so they said they would give 84,000 pieces of silver to Danoldo in exchange. Count Thibaut was the one that signed the agreement, but he died soon after.
What does Pope Innocent III do for the Fourth Crusade?
*Excommunicated the 10,000 volunteers that took over Zara, Yugoslavia