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is the study of water- the movement, distribution, and quality of water
are continuous, directed movements of water in a body of water caused by temp, and salinity differences, winds and tides, among other factors
differences in temp and in salinity that change the density of seawater and so drive deep ocean circulation
the sinking of very dense, cold, and saline water
the process of water from the deep ocean rising to the surface as wind on the surface of the water blows away water in surface currents
are the daily rise and fall of sea level at any given place
are water bulges of the opposite sides of the moon, water bulges on opposite sides of the earth aligned with the moon
the places directly in between the high tides are low tides
is the difference between the ocean at high tide and the ocean at low tide
more extreme tide, wit a greater tidal range
are tides that have the smallest tidal range and they occur when the earth, the moon and the sun form a 90 degree angle
the movement of water around the earth;s surface
the process in which a solid changes directly into a gas without first becoming a liquid
water held in cracks and crevices of rock or in soil
the process by which water at the surface seeps into the ground through the soil
the process by which plants take up water from the soil and release large amounts of water vapor into the air through their leaves
areas with many sinkholes and cave systems below the land surface
a river or stream that flows into a larger river or stream
corners in the channels of streams
flat, level area surrounding the stream channel
the top of the saturated rock layer above
a body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater
small spaces between grains
connections between pores
is where groundwater meets the surface in a stream
water that can be recycled and resued
drinking water or potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm
is farming to raise fish,shellfish, algae, or aquatic plants
is the sinking of the ground above the aquifer when aquifers lose too much water
the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, sometimes due to aquifers depletion, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources
What are 3 reasons why oceans are important?
oceans moderate climate, water cycle, biologically rich
What 3 things are surface currents caused by?
global wind patterns, the rotation of the earth, the shape of the ocean basins
What 2 thing happen as a result of down-welling?
the dense water pushes deeper water out of its way and that water moves along the bottom of the ocean, deep water moves with less dense water, surface currents move water in the space vacated at the surface where the dense water sank
Why is up-welling important for the ecosystem and where or the planet does it mostly occur?
brings nutrients to the surface, the nutrients support the growth of plankton and from the base of a rich ecosystem
What are the primary and secondary causes of the tides?
pull o the moon's gravity on earth (primary), pull of the sun's gravity of earth (secondary)
How often do high tide occur and why does it take this long?
about every 12 hours and 25 mins. the moon takes 24 hours and 50 mins. to rotate around the earth
Why do some coastal areas not have a pattern of 2 high tides a day?
because of local condition, cause by the shape of the coastal area
What 2 things do the oceans do with heat?
stores solar radiation, and distributes around the world
How does the gulf stream moderate climate around the world?
water that enters the gulf stream is heated as it travels along the equator. the warm then flows up to the east coast of north american and across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe
By how much does the gulf stream raise the temperature over land in the northern sea?
between 3 to 6 degrees C (5 to 11 degrees F)
What does it mean that water has a high specific heat capacity?
it absorbs a lot of heat before it begins to get hot
How does the specific heat capacity of water help enters that are near oceans?
cities near the oceans will tend to have less change and less extreme temperatures than in land cities
How does the sun influence the water cycle?
the sun provides the energy that drives the water cycle supplying the energy needed for evaporation
How long may snow or ice in a glacier remain their?
hundreds or thousands of years
How do most caves form?
ground water with dissolved CO2 gas produces carbonic acid (H2CO3) the acid may dissolve rocks like limestone and dolomite
What is the name for the area where 2 streams meet?
What is recharge and what is it influenced by?
the amount of water that is available to enter ground water in a region, influenced by the local climate, the slope of the land, the type of rock found at the surface, the vegetation cover, land use in the area and water retention- amount of water that remains in ground
What are the 6 general ways water is used by society?
drinking water, hygiene, agriculture, producing goods, recreation, trasportation
What are 3 most wasteful transitional water uses in agriculture and what % of water is wasted?
overhead sprinklers, trench irrigation, flood irrigation, between 15% and 36%
What are some problems with aquaculture?
natural landscape may be lost to fish farms such as mangroves, because the organisms live so close together parasites are common and may also escapes to the wild
What % of water usage is for industrial purposes and how is water used in industrial settings?
15% used to cool their equipment, for chemical processes, manufacturing is also water intensive
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