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Exam 1 Study Guide Intro. to Public Health
Terms in this set (55)
In the mid-19th century, what was the single largest cause of death?
The discovery of which of the following allowed medicine to gain the power to work miracles of healing, leading to a period of rapidly growing influence?
What type of prevention seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an injury-causing event once the event has occurred?
The mission of ___________ health is the fulfillment of society's interest in ensuring the conditions in which people can be healthy.
As part of the ___________________ function, public health seeks to understand the medical care system in an area of study generally referred to as health policy and management or health administration, which also includes the administration and functioning of the public health system.
Concern about runaway costs, lack of access, and questionable quality of care has led to an increasing interest in studying the medical care system and its effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, leading to a science called health ________________ research.
__________ collects data that serves as diagnostic tools to inform experts on how healthy or sick a society is and where its weaknesses are.
According to Beauchamp, market ____________________ emphasizes individual responsibility, minimal obligation to the common good, and the fundamental freedom to all individuals to be left alone.
The UCS report put pressure on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to promote abstinence-only programs for preventing ____________ pregnancy.
An example of __________ is children and young people can be restricted in their behavior on the basis that they are not yet mature enough to make considered judgments as to their own best interests.
The _____________ omitted an entire climate change section from a major report rather than compromise its credibility by misrepresenting the scientific consensus.
Public health often arouses controversy on moral grounds, most often when it confronts what type of issues?
Sexual and reproductive issues
In 2003, what publication reported that the National Cancer Institute's website contained information suggesting that having an abortion increased a woman's risk of breast cancer?
New York Times
The Bush administration especially sought to suppress information and to discredit scientific evidence regarding which of the following issues?
The Constitution, in the _____________________, includes among the fundamental purposes of government, "to promote the general welfare."
Congress removed the financial penalty for lack of motorcycle helmet laws in _________.
As recently as the late 19th century, milk was commonly watered down, then doctored with __________________ to make it look normal.
chalk or plaster of Paris
____________ discusses new infectious diseases that occur naturally as well as potential bio-terrorist threats.
The journal of Emerging Infectious Diseases
Which of the following is the nation's leading spokesperson on matters of public health?
Surgeon General of the United States
The first published report that heralded the onset of the AIDS epidemic appeared in what publication on June 4, 1981?
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
What agency has often been attacked by Congress and often had its policies watered down by the George W. Bush administration?
Environmental Protection Agency
Epidemiology is used to perform what function of public health?
Cryptosporidiosis was added to the national list of notifiable diseases in 1995 after a widespread outbreak in which American city?
The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome outbreak resembled an illness with similar symptoms that affected some 20,000 people in Spain as a result of what household item being contaminated?
The study on the cholera outbreak that struck London in 1848 was conducted by British physician _____________________, who is known as the father of modern epidemiology.
A county may normally record only a few cases of hepatitis each year; this represents the ______________, or the background level, in a population.
The cholera outbreak occurred in _________ and lasted from 1853 and 1854.
The first major epidemiologic study of a chronic disease was the _____________.
Framingham Heart Study
In defining a disease to be studied, epidemiologists use the term disease broadly, but ________________ is a more accurate but cumbersome description of what is to be studied.
A group that is exposed to the intervention is called the _________ group.
__________ studies are the most convincing type of clinical trials.
Information on the distribution of disease gives clues about the ____________________ of disease.
When calculating the rate of a disease, which of the following is generally the denominator of the calculation?
Population at risk
Which of the following is calculated by dividing the ratio of exposed subjects to nonexposed subjects in the case group by the ratio of exposed subjects to nonexposed subjects in the control group?
___________ is a systematic error that may be introduced into a study in a number of ways.
The Women's Health Initiative was a _________________________, the gold standard for epidemiologic studies, and thus was much less likely to be subject to bias.
Most epidemiologic studies are ______________________ and have little potential for harm.
The U.S. Public Health Service and scientists from the Tuskegee Institute began similar studies regarding syphilis in the year ___________.
Case-control studies that attempt to determine which of the following are especially subject to recall bias?
Causes of birth defects
Which of the following was used as a treatment for almost any illness by 18th-century physicians?
What surgical procedure was performed on more than half of all children in the 1930s through the 1950s in the belief that the operation prevented rheumatic fever?
The numbers that describe the health of populations and the science that helps to interpret those numbers is referred to as _____________________.
For most public health screening programs, ___________________ tests are desirable in order to avoid missing any individual with a serious disease who could be helped by some intervention.
_____________ identifies events and exposures that may be harmful to humans and estimates the probabilities of their occurrence as well as the extent of harm they may cause.
In _________ the states of Illinois and Louisiana mandated premarital screening for HIV.
Which of the following expresses the probability that the observed result could have occurred by chance alone?
If an experiment was repeated 100 times and got the same answer 95 times but got a different answer 5 times, what is the p-value of this experiment?
An unusual concentration of some kind of cancer, such as childhood leukemia, that alarms everyone in the community is referred to as which of the following?
_______________________ are a vital part of the public health's assessment function and are used to identify special risk groups, to detect new health threats, to plan public health programs and evaluate their successes, and to prepare government budgets.
In the past decades, many states have added a question regarding the mother's use of _______________ to the birth certificate.
The ________ is part of the Department of Commerce and collects data regarding the American population.
US Census Bureau
The ____________ carries out surveillance for health hazards in the environment, including air pollutants and releases of toxic chemicals.
Which of the following is an important public health issue, causing the NCHS to set up a special computer system that links vital records of infants born during a given year who died before their first birthday?
The Census Bureau decided against which of the following categories but allowed individuals to check more than one racial category for themselves?
In an attempt to make the collection of detailed information more efficient and more timely, the Census Bureau in 2005 launched which ongoing survey that collects the same information previously collected on the long form?
American Community Survey
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